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  • 1.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sexual harassment of girls in elementary school - a concealed phenomenon within a heterosexual romantic discourse2012In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1762-1779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to enhance the understanding of young girls' experiences of peer sexual harassment in elementary school and of normalizing processes of school-related sexualized violence. Six focus group interviews with girls in Grade 1 through 6 were carried out in an elementary school in the northern part of Sweden. A content analyses showed that young girls experienced verbal, nonverbal, and sexual assault behaviors at school. Sexual harassment as a concealed phenomenon and manifest within a romantic discourse were themes found in the analysis. A conclusion is that schools have to acknowledge behaviors related to sexual harassment as a potential problem even in young ages and develop methods to approach the subject also for this age group.

  • 2.
    Jansson, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    The reliability and factorial validity of the Swedish version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 34, no 18, p. 3850-3863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the factor structure of the victimization form of the revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (CBS-R). Data from 1,218 women and men were analyzed in the study. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) failed to find support for the proposed five-factor structure of the scale, as the items on the scale were better represented by one common factor. In addition, when examining if controlling behaviors are distinct from psychological aggression, the CFA indicated that the items on the CBS-R are clearly distinguishable from the items on the psychological aggression (as measured with the subscales of the revised Conflict Tactic Scales [CTS2]), and that this holds for both males and females. Implications for the general use of the CBS-R and for use in conjunction with psychological aggression and physical aggression in intimate partner violence were discussed.

  • 3.
    Jarnkvist, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Brännström, Lotta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stories of Victimization: Self-Positioning and Construction of Gender in Narratives of Abused Women2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 34, no 21-22, p. 4687-4712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to analyze how women who have been victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) position themselves in relation to the image of the “ideal victim” and how gender is constructed in that positioning. There is a need for a gender analysis framework to understand how various forms of femininity are constructed and how narratives linked to this can either maintain a woman in an abusive relationship or encourage her to leave. Christie’s theory of the “ideal victim” and Connell’s gender theory are applied in this study, in which the narratives of 14 female IPV victims in Sweden are analyzed using a narrative method. Three strings of narratives, representing different forms of femininity, are revealed in the material. The master narrative of the ideal victim reveals a form of femininity that describes women as inferior in relation to men. In the alternative narrative, the narrator positions herself as inferior in relation to the offender but discusses resistance. She describes herself as a caring mother who risks a great deal to protect her children. In the counter-narrative, the narrator positions herself as strong and independent in relation to the offender and as a strong and caring mother. The positioning of different narrators may shift depending on the duration of the relationship and the type of violence. The narrator may also take different positions during different phases of the story. However, the dominant narrative among the narrators is the story of the caring mother, which may have several functions and can partially be understood as a sign of the strong discourse of motherhood in society. The study contributes to a more profound understanding of the complexity related to women’s own positioning and reveals that awareness is required when attempting to understand the narratives and behavior of abused women.

  • 4.
    Palm, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala; Sundsvall Hosp, Sundsvall.
    Hogberg, Ulf
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Umeå Univ, Umeå.
    No Differences in Health Outcomes After Routine Inquiry About Violence Victimization in Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Study in Swedish Youth Health Centers2020In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 35, no 1-2, p. 77-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth is a period in life when the risk of violence victimization is high and association between victimization and ill health is well established. Youth rarely reveal violence victimization to health professionals if not directly asked but favor health professionals asking about victimization. The study's primary aim was to examine health outcomes in young women being routinely asked about violence victimization and offered subsequent support, compared with controls, at 12-month follow-up. Secondary aims were to examine to what extent routine inquiry altered the consultation and re-victimization rates during the study period. A randomized controlled intervention study was conducted at Swedish youth health centers. Participants assigned to the intervention group were asked structured questions about violence. Victimized participants received empowering strategies and were offered further counseling. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires about victimization after the visit. Both groups answered questions about sociodemographics and health, constructed from validated instruments. A questionnaire was administered to all participants 12 months after baseline. Of 1,445 eligible young women, 1,051 (73%) participated, with 54% of the participants completing the 12-month follow-up. Lifetime violence victimization was reported by 53% in the intervention group and 60% in the control group, ns. There were no significant differences in health outcomes, between baseline and 12-month follow-up, within either group or between groups. Re-victimization rates were 16% in the intervention group and 12% in the control group, ns. Of victimized young women in the intervention group, 14% wanted and received further counseling. Routine inquiry about violence victimization and empowering strategies were feasible within ordinary consultations at youth health centers but did not demonstrate improved health outcomes at 12-month follow-up compared with controls. Questions about violence led to a high degree of disclosure, and 14% of victimized young women in the intervention group received further counseling as a result.

  • 5.
    Petersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro Univ, Örebro; Swinburne Univ Technol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Selenius, Heidi
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison of Antisocial and Family-Only Perpetrators2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 219-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on their generality of violence could facilitate the difficult task of matching perpetrator subtype with efficient risk management strategies. As such, the aim of the present study was to compare antisocial and family-only male perpetrators of interpersonal violence in terms of (a) demographic and legal characteristics, (b) risk factors for violence, and (c) assessed risk and the importance of specific risk factors for violence. A quantitative design was used in this retrospective register study on data obtained from the Swedish police. Risk assessments performed with the Swedish version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and police registers were used. A sample of 657 male alleged IPV perpetrators were classified as antisocial (n = 341) or family-only (n = 316) based on their generality of violence. The results showed that the antisocial perpetrators were significantly younger, as well as more psychologically abusive. Antisocial perpetrators also had significantly more present risk factors for IPV, and were assessed with a significantly higher risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV, compared with the family-only perpetrators. The subtypes also evidenced unique risk factors with a significant impact on elevated risk for acute and severe or deadly such violence. Key findings in the present study concerned the subtypes evidencing unique risk factors increasing the risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV. Major implications of this study include the findings of such unique "red flag" risk factors for each subtype. To prevent future IPV, it is vital for the risk assessor to be aware of these red flags when making decisions about risk, as well as risk management strategies.

  • 6.
    Shaffer, Catherine S.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Adjei, Jonas
    Red Deer College, AB, Canada.
    Viljoen, Jodi L.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Saewyc, Elisabeth M.
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; McCreary Centre Society, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Ten-Year Trends in Physical Dating Violence Victimization Among Adolescent Boys and Girls in British Columbia, Canada2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical dating violence (PDV) victimization among adolescents is a serious global problem. Although knowledge of trends in PDV victimization can help guide programming and health policies, little research has examined whether the prevalence of PDV victimization has increased, decreased, or remained stable over time among non-U.S.-based samples of youth. In addition, few studies have directly tested whether disparities in PDV victimization between boys and girls have narrowed, widened, or remained unchanged in recent years. To address these gaps, we used school-based data from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS) of 2003, 2008, and 2013 (n boys = 18,441 and n girls = 17,459) to examine 10-year trends in PDV victimization. We also tested whether trends differed across self-reported sex. Data from the 2003 to 2013 BC AHS revealed that recent PDV victimization rates had significantly decreased among youth overall (5.9%-5.0%) and boys (8.0%-5.8%), but not girls (5.3%-4.2%). Although boys had steeper declines than girls in PDV victimization rates, year-by-sex interactions indicate that the sex gap in PDV victimization had not significantly narrowed. Moreover, rates of PDV victimization over the 10-year period indicated significantly higher rates of PDV victimization among boys compared with girls. Despite positive declines in recent rates of PDV victimization among youth, important differences in rates of PDV victimization between boys and girls remain. These findings underscore the need for greater attention to sex differences in research and programming and health policies to reduce PDV victimization and the sex disparities therein. 

  • 7.
    Shaffer, Catherine S.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Fuller, Erin K.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Blanchard, Adam J. E.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Viljoen, Jodi L.
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Do Community Structural Characteristics Moderate the Association Between Mental Health and the Frequency and Severity of Violent-Behavioral Outcomes in Community Respondents?2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this prospective study, we examined the association between three types of mental health symptom clusters (i.e., psychotic, internalizing, and externalizing) and the frequency and severity of violent-behavioral outcomes, and whether community disadvantage, residential instability, and criminogenic facility density moderated these associations. Study data were derived from 258 community-dwelling adults nested in 60 postal forward sortation areas (FSAs) in a large metropolitan area in Western Canada who were assessed twice over a 6-month period. In addition, census and administrative data were obtained on the same areas. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, ethnicity, relationship status, and employment status), lifetime history of violent-behavioral outcomes, and community structural characteristics, internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms were significantly positively associated with the frequency and severity of subsequent violence perpetration and with the severity of subsequent violent victimization. Several significant interactions were observed: internalizing symptoms increased the risk of frequent and severe violence perpetration in FSAs with high but not low disadvantage, and externalizing symptoms increased the risk of frequent violent victimization in FSAs with a high but not low criminogenic facility density. Only the interactive association of internalizing symptoms and community disadvantage with the severity of violence perpetration, however, remained significant after Bonferroni correction was applied. These findings provide tentative support that associations between mental health and violent-behavioral outcomes can vary with community context. The implication of these findings for assessing and managing violent-behavioral outcomes in the community is discussed. 

  • 8.
    Skott, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Disaggregating Violence: Understanding the Decline2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trends of violent crime have been examined for over a century, no previous study has examined the change of subtypes of violence over time. This study therefore aims to identify subtypes of violence in Scotland, where violence levels have decreased from one of the highest in Europe to one of the lowest, based on variables relating to the victim, offender, and incident, and to examine how these subtypes have changed over time. Four main types of violence were identified using multilevel latent class analysis on Scottish Crime and Justice Survey data: public no weapon, public weapon, work-related, and domestic. The findings show that although all types of violence have demonstrated an absolute decrease over time, Domestic and work-related violence have demonstrated relative increases over time. The findings are discussed in relation to the inequality of this decrease and propose guidelines for future prevention policies.

  • 9.
    Skott, Sara
    et al.
    The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada.
    Darjee, Raj
    Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.
    Sexual and Nonsexual Homicide in Scotland: Is There a Difference?2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a number of previous studies have compared sexual homicides to nonlethal sexual offenses, there have been few studies comparing sexual and nonsexual homicides. This study examines whether sexual homicide offenders differ from nonsexual homicide offenders in Scotland regarding characteristics of the offender, the victim, and the homicide incident. Unlike previous studies, only homicides committed by males against females were examined. Data from a national police database were used to compare 89 male sexual homicide offenders who killed adult females with 306 male nonsexual homicide offenders who had also killed adult females using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses. The findings revealed not only some similarities between the two groups, particularly regarding some victim variables, but also significant bivariate and multivariate differences. Sexual homicides appeared to be associated with indicators of instrumentality and sexual deviance. We conclude that sexual homicide offenders might be considered a distinct group of homicide offenders, more similar to sexual offenders than to other homicide offenders.

  • 10.
    Tiwari, Agnes
    et al.
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Fong, Daniel Yee Tak
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Chan, Ko Ling
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Yan, Elsie Chau Wai
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Lam, Gloria Ling Lee
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong .
    Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming
    Po Leung Kuk, Hong Kong.
    Graham-Kevan, Nicola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 314-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships.

  • 11.
    Wilson, Catherine M.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Mental Hlth Law & Policy Inst, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lyon, David R.
    Kwantlen Univ, Dept Criminol, Surrey, BC, Canada .
    Violence Against Teachers: Prevalence and Consequences2011In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 2353-2371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence-broadly defined-at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical violence) was less common, but still common enough to be of concern (n = 202, 27.6%). Violence predicted physical and emotional effects, as well as teaching-related functioning. In addition, a model with fear as a potential mediator revealed that both fear and violence were independently predictive of these negative outcomes. Finally, analyses showed that, in general, women reported higher levels of physical symptoms compared to men. We discuss the implications of violence against teachers in terms of personal consequences and the implications for mental health professionals working in an educational setting.

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