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  • 1.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland; Uppsala University.
    Mortillaro, Marcello
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Introducing the Geneva Multimodal Expression corpus for experimental research on emotion perception. 2012In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1161-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the perception of emotional expressions in faces and voices is exploding in psychology, the neurosciences, and affective computing. This article provides an overview of some of the major emotion expression (EE) corpora currently available for empirical research and introduces a new, dynamic, multimodal corpus of emotion expressions, the Geneva Multimodal Emotion Portrayals Core Set (GEMEP-CS). The design features of the corpus are outlined and justified, and detailed validation data for the core set selection are presented and discussed. Finally, an associated database with microcoded facial, vocal, and body action elements, as well as observer ratings, is introduced.

  • 2.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Visual search with biological threat stimuli: Accuracy, reaction times, and heart rate changes.2005In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-four participants were given a visual search task of deciding whether all the pictures in 3x3 search arrays contained a target picture from a deviant category, and heart rate was measured. The categories were: snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms. Shorter reaction times (RT) were observed for fear-relevant (snake and spider) targets than for fear-irrelevant/neutral (flower and mushroom) targets. This difference was most pronounced for the participants presented with a grey-scale version of the search arrays. The first interbeat interval (IBI), after the search array onset, showed an effect of the target, while the second IBI also showed an effect of the distractors. The results suggest that controlled processing of the task operates together with automatic processing.

  • 3. Juth, Pernilla
    et al.
    Lundquist, Daniel
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Arne
    Looking for foes and friends: Perceptual and Emotional factors when Finding a Face in the Crowd2005In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mehu, Marc
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Mortillaro, Marcello
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Reliable facial muscles activation enhances recognizability and credibility of emotional expression.2012In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 701-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested Ekman's (2003) suggestion that movements of a small number of reliable facial muscles are particularly trustworthy cues to experienced emotion because they tend to be difficult to produce voluntarily. On the basis of theoretical predictions, we identified two subsets of facial action units (AUs): reliable AUs and versatile AUs. A survey on the controllability of facial AUs confirmed that reliable AUs indeed seem more difficult to control than versatile AUs, although the distinction between the two sets of AUs should be understood as a difference in degree of controllability rather than a discrete categorization. Professional actors enacted a series of emotional states using method acting techniques, and their facial expressions were rated by independent judges. The effect of the two subsets of AUs (reliable AUs and versatile AUs) on identification of the emotion conveyed, its perceived authenticity, and perceived intensity was investigated. Activation of the reliable AUs had a stronger effect than that of versatile AUs on the identification, perceived authenticity, and perceived intensity of the emotion expressed. We found little evidence, however, for specific links between individual AUs and particular emotion categories. We conclude that reliable AUs may indeed convey trustworthy information about emotional processes but that most of these AUs are likely to be shared by several emotions rather than providing information about specific emotions. This study also suggests that the issue of reliable facial muscles may generalize beyond the Duchenne smile.

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