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  • 1.
    Dylman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    When your heart is in your mouth: the effect of second language use on negative emotions2019In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1284-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on bilingualism and emotions has shown stronger emotional responses in the native language (L1) compared to a foreign language. We investigated the potential of purposeful second language (L2) use as a means of decreasing the experience of psychological distress. Native Swedish speakers read and answered questions about negative and neutral texts in their L1 (Swedish) and their L2 (English) and were asked to rate their level of distress before or after the questions. The texts and associated questions were either written in the same (within-language), or different languages (cross-language). We found that within-language trials when the text was written in participants’ native language (Swedish–Swedish) resulted in an increase of distress, whilst cross-language trials (Swedish–English) resulted in a decrease of distress. This implies that purposeful second language use can diminish levels of distress experienced following a negative event encoded in one's first language.

  • 2.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Öhman, Arne
    Uppsala University.
    Automatically elicited fear: Conditioned skin conductance responses to masked facial expressions1994In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 393-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined automatic elicitation of conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs), when a backward masking procedure prevented the subject's conscious awareness of the conditioned stimuli (CSs). The CSs were pictures of emotional facial expressions. A differential conditioning procedure was used. One facial expression (e.g. an angry face) was aversively conditioned by a shock unconditioned stimulus, whereas another facial expression (e.g. a happy face) was never presented with the shock. After conditioning, the CSs were presented backwardly masked by a neutral face. This procedure prevented conscious perception of the CS. Nevertheless, reliable differential SCRs were obtained when the CS had been an angry face. This effect, however, was dependent on the subject's direction of attention. When attention was focused on the mask, no differential responding was observed. Thus it was concluded that, when fear-relevant stimuli (angry faces) served as the CS, elicitation of SCRs was automatic in the sense that it was possible even when the subjects were not aware of the stimuli presented. However, it was only partially automatic because the effect was modified by attention.

  • 3.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The time course of resource allocation in spider fearful participants during fear reactions2008In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1381-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference in dynamics of resource allocation to pictures of spiders and pictures of other animals in spider fearful participants was investigated. The tasks of the participants were to respond rapidly and accurately to various probe stimuli superimposed on pictures of different animals. These were supposedly fear-relevant (spiders, snakes, and wolfs) and fear-irrelevant (beetles, turtles, and rabbits). The probes were exposed at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) from picture onset to address the dynamics of resource allocation. The results showed a larger allocation of resources to spider pictures than to pictures of other animals and the resource allocation showed differences depending on task and dependent measure.

  • 4.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Caldara, Roberto
    Tracking fear in snake and spider fearful participants during visual search: A multi-response domain study2006In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1075-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual search tasks snake or spider fearful participants showed shorter reaction times (RTs) to respond to their feared animal (e.g., snake) than to the nonfeared animal (i.e., spider) (Öhman, Flykt, & Esteves, 2001). Here we used this paradigm with heart rate (HR), RTs, and event-related potential (ERP) measures, to investigate the nature of the responses to the feared animal, a nonfeared (but fear-relevant) animal, and fear-irrelevant target stimuli with snake fearful, spider fearful and non-fearful participants. Fearful participants showed shorter RTs and evoked larger amplitudes on a late positive potential (LPP; 500-700 ms) for their feared compared to the nonfeared and the fear-irrelevant targets. No relevant significant differences were found on early ERP components and HR measures. These findings do not support an involvement of early information processing in the detection of the feared animal in fearful participants, they favor instead a more elaborated analysis of these complex stimuli to achieve the detection.

  • 5.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The face of wrath: Critical features for conveying facial threat1999In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 691-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the role of different facial features (shape of eyebrows, eyes, mouth, nose, and the direction of gaze) in conveying the emotional impact of a threatening face. In two experiments, a total of 100 high school students rated their impression of two sets of schematic faces in terms of semantic differential scales (Activity, Negative Evaluation, and Potency). It was found that the different facial features could be ordered hierarchically, with eyebrows as the most important feature, followed by mouth and eyes. Eyebrows thus fundamentally categorised faces as threatening or nonthreatening. The different shapes of mouth and eyes provided subsequent categorisations of faces within these primary categories.

  • 6.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The face of wrath: The role of features and configurations in conveying social threat2004In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 18, p. 161-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the role of single features and feature configurations in the effect of schematic faces on rated threat. A total of 101 medical students rated their emotional impression of schematic facial stimuli using semantic differential scales (Activity, Negative Valence, and Potency). In different parts of the experiment, the ratings concerned single features, eyebrow‐mouth configurations, or complete faces. Although eyebrows emerged as the overall most important feature, the effect of features was modulated by configuration. Simple configurations of eyebrows and mouth appeared to convey threat and nonthreat in a way highly similar to that of complete faces. In most cases, the configurations of eyebrows and mouth could significantly predict the effect of the complete faces.

  • 7. Scherer, Klaus
    et al.
    Dan, Elise
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    What Determines a Feeling's Position in Affective Space?: A case for appraisal2006In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 92-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is suggested that the location of verbally reported feelings in a three-dimensional affective space is determined by the results of appraisal processes that elicit the respective states. One group of participants rated their evaluation of the content of 59 systematically selected pictures from the International Affect Picture System on a profile of nine appraisal criteria. Another group of participants rated their affective reactions or feelings produced by the same picture set on the classic dimensions of affective meaning (valence, arousal, and potency). The ratings on the affect dimensions correlate differentially with specific appraisal ratings. These results can be plausibly interpreted as showing that the reactions to the IAPS pictures are predictably produced through appraisal of picture content. The relevance of the findings for emotion induction paradigms and for emotion theory in general is discussed.

  • 8.
    Strack, Juliane
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, ISCTE-IUL – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lopes, Paulo
    Católica-Lisbon School of Business and Economics, Catholic University of Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, ISCTE-IUL – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Will you thrive under pressure or burn out? Linking anxiety motivation and emotional exhaustion2015In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 578-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can individual differences in the tendency to use anxiety as a source of motivation explain emotional exhaustion? We examined the effects of using anxiety as a source of energy or as a source of information (viewed here as two forms of anxiety motivation) on emotional exhaustion. In Study 1, the use of anxiety as a source of energy predicted decreased emotional exhaustion one year later. Moreover, both forms of anxiety motivation buffered people from the detrimental effects of trait anxiety on later emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, an experiment, participants who were instructed to use anxiety as a source of energy reported lower emotional exhaustion following a stressful task, compared to those instructed to focus on the task or to simply do their best. These findings suggest that using anxiety as a source of motivation may protect people against emotional exhaustion.

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