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  • 1.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Karolinska Institutet; ISCTE, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Skin Conductance Responses to Masked Conditioned stimuli: Phylogenetic/Ontogenetic Factors versus direction of threat?2007In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionarily old threat stimuli are likely to require less conscious information processing than threat stimuli of a more recent date. To test this proposal two differential conditioning experiments, with biological threat stimuli (e.g. snakes) in half the groups and cultural threat stimuli (e.g. guns) in the other half, were conducted. The conditioned (CS+) and the control (CS−) stimuli were backward masked during the extinction phase to prevent conscious recognition. The differential skin conductance responding for both biological and cultural threat stimuli survived the masking procedure when the conditioned stimuli were directed towards the participants (Experiment 1), but for neither type of CS when stimuli were not directed towards the participants (Experiment 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the previous finding by Öhman and co-workers and in relation to imminence of threat.

  • 2.
    Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Bangor University, Gwynedd, UK.
    Edwards, Jason
    Bangor University, Gwynedd, UK.
    Roberts, Ross
    Bangor University, Gwynedd, UK.
    Walsh, Neil
    Bangor University, Gwynedd, UK.
    High heart rate reactors display greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration following a novel acute stressor2018In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 133, p. 85-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tear secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA) is a putative biomarker of common-cold risk with potential utility in non-invasive diagnostics. As SIgA secretion at the ocular surface is under strong autonomic control, we investigated the relationship between HR reactivity and tear SIgA responses to novel experiential stress. Thirty-two healthy participants undertook a 60-second zip-line ride to evoke acute stress and a seated-rest control trial in a randomised-crossover design. We recorded heart rate (HR) continuously and collected unstimulated tear samples 5-min-pre-, 2-min-post- and 20-min-post-stress/control. Stress increased HR and state anxiety whereas tear SIgA concentration decreased 44% post-stress vs. control. Higher peak HR values during stress uniquely explained 21% of the variance in tear SIgA reactivity to stress (p < .01); high HR reactors displayed greater decreases in tear SIgA concentration. We conclude that physiological arousal increases immune reactivity to acute stress and highlight tear SIgA as a minimally-invasive, physiologically relevant biomarker of immune reactivity.

  • 3.
    Sjörs, A.
    et al.
    The Institute of Stress Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jonsdottir, I. H.
    The Institute of Stress Medicine, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women2014In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 193-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N= 180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15. min later, 30. min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire.Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure.This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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