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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Exploring the financing gap between native born women- and immigrant women-owned firms at the start-up stage: Empirical evidence from Swedish data2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, Vol. 5, no 2, 157-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence which identifies the impact of ethnicity and other relevant variables on external capital acquisition among Swedish women-owned businesses at start-up. Design/methodology/approach: Several methods have been employed to analyze the sample including a binary logistic regression model. The sample consists of 836 women-owned businesses in southeast Sweden; 97 immigrant-owned, 739 native born-owned. Findings: The results indicate that there are partly significant differences between native women-owned firms and immigrant woman-owned businesses at start-up. Unlike the native-owned firms, the immigrant woman-owned businesses rely more on loans from family members and less on bank loans. Practical implications: The results reveal that age has a positive impact on loans from family members, while the additional job outside one's own business, the amount of the owner's personal start-up capital and firm size positively influenced access to capital from banks. The owners' level of education, previous business experience, the legal form taken by the firm and the industry affiliation conversely played no significant role in explaining the women owners' attitudes toward loans from either friends or the bank. Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation addressing this issue in the Swedish context. 

  • 2.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Valter, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kulturevenemang – sociala effekter i skuggan av de ekonomiska: En fallstudie av Östersund2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Emilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sexual Harassment in the Hospitality Industry – Employees’ Coping Strategies and Employers’ Prevention Strategies: A Case Study of Two Chain Hotels2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Borglund, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kulturfokus och medborgardeltagande i glesbygden.: En fallstudie av Ragunda kommun.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Broström, Hedda-Martina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Filmturism i Jämtland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Positioning environmental science versus natural, social and human sciences – sustainably2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Chekalina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Davidov, Denis
    Immanuel Kant State University of Russia, Kaliningrad.
    Kaliningrad: positive and negative aspects of the exclave location (Калининград: плюсы и минусы эксклавности)2008In: Cosmopolis, ISSN 1727-4079, Vol. 2, no 21, 141-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denis Davidov and Tatyana Chekalina discuss the trans-boundary cooperation as the factor and an effective tool for overcoming negative aspects of the exclave location of the Kaliningrad region. Authors consider the exclave as the particular case of the border region. Therefore there is an idea that the provisions of the border regions theory, which is better elaborated than the exclave one, could be applied for this case as well.

     

  • 8.
    Darolf, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Ekberg, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Stora återkommande sportevenemangs sociala effekter på mindre orter: En fallstudie av Vasaloppet och Mora2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Anna-Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Var, när och varför påverkas besökarens upplevelser under ett evenemang? En fallstudie om upplevelserna under Skidskytte VM 2008 i Östersund.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Esbjörnsson, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vilka faktorer är betydelsefulla för städers attraktivitet?: En fallstudie av Piteå kommun2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cities and regions all over the world are constantly competing in the will for the same goal; an increased accretion. To reach the goal the places have to attract resources from the outside and mobilise the internal resources they already have. Places that are associated with accretion, attractive living environments, or exclusive tourist experiences have a head-start to the places that are associated with out-migration, discontinuation, and social problems. Piteå is a smaller municipality in Norrbotten; a region that struggles with emigration and negative population developments. The purpose with the following thesis is to find out what the municipality and the commercial and industrial life in Piteå does to increase their attractiveness. Which will lead to an increased tourist business, an increased in-migration and establishments of new business corporations? A further examination is about what factors that affect the attractiveness for a city. Another purpose is to see how interactivity between the municipality in Piteå and the commercial and industrial life works. To fulfil the purpose qualitative methods in the shape of interviews with some significant enterprisers and the municipality in Piteå has been used. The result of the study has shown that the interaction between the municipality and the commercial and industrial life in Piteå is in working order, but the accessibility to and from the city with goods traffic is limited at the same time as passenger traffic is nonexistent. Piteå is a strong in arranging events and in the present situation big investments in the energy field is made, which opens up for big opportunities in the future.

  • 11.
    Fornas, Emily
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sjöstad, Ellinor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Könsmakten i det turistifierade rummet: Relationen mellan manliga turister och kvinnliga servitriser i restaurangbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Forslin, Rebecka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Könsordning på Sällskapsresan: En studie om manligt och kvinnligt i turistisk populärkultur2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Exploring the Supply of Nature-Based Tourism in Sweden2013In: Innovation and value creation in experience‐based tourism: Book of proceedings / [ed] Frank Lindberg, 2013, 113- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gelbman, Alon
    et al.
    Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, M.P. Emek, Hayarden, Israel .
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Re-envisioning community-based heritage tourism in the old city of Nazareth2016In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 11, 105-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study specifically examines the potential for heritage tourism development topromote cross-cultural dialog in the historic old city of Nazareth (Israel). The paperfocuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeksto influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratorycase study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participantobservation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group andselected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship betweencommunity-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city thathas experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents analternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences anddissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this studysuggest that heritage in the form of tourism can help create shared interests betweendifferent communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

  • 15.
    Gielen, Nadinka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Destination Ljungandalen: Turism och destinationsutveckling i Ånge kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Gunnarsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Norbeck, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Nyanländas väg in på arbetsmarknaden: Vilken roll kan besöksnäringen spela?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Det goda värdskapet: en fall studie på Västerås2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Västerås är en stad som tidigare har förknippats med gurkor och industrier då ASEA, nuvarande ABB etablerades i Västerås 1883. Staden är idag relativt okänd för externa gäster, det är något som Västerås marknadsföringsorgan Västerås & Co vill ändra på. Arbetets syfte är att undersöka vad en värdskapssatsning kan ge för effekter på turismen och näringslivet i Västerås samt undersöka möjligheten att värdskapscertifiera de olika verksamheterna i Västerås. Litteraturstudier, intervjuer samt deltagande observationer har använts som metod. Teoriavsnittet tar upp värdskapsbegreppet samt samarbeten inom organisationen för att sedan kunna jämföras med resultatet från intervjuerna och de deltagande observationerna. Av empirin framkommer det att en gemensam syn på innebörden av värdskap är viktigt för att värdskapsarbetet ska bli framgångsrikt. De anser även att värdskapet är en inställningsfråga så det är upp till var och en att bjuda på ett gott värdskap. Samtliga är positiva till en värdskapscertifiering, dock är inte alla överens om hur det ska gå till och vilka som ska delta. I Diskussionsavsnittet diskuteras vad en eventuell värdskapscertifiering rent praktiskt skulle kunna innehålla.

  • 18.
    Hall, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Larsson Salo, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Grön mobilitet i glesbebyggda områden: Bilförsäljares och nybilköpares inställning till elbilar i Jämtland/Härjedalen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Hedin, Tobias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lander, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gastronomins betydelse för regional utveckling: En studie av tio mikrobryggerier i Jämtlands län2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Hedkvist Sundsten, Lizette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Höglund, Sophie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Evenemang som imageskapare: Hur varumärken kan påverka en destinations image genom evenemang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Hirvelä, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Förutsättningar för gränsregionala samarbeten inom turism: en fallstudie av SÖT-regionen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regions are becoming more important as areas of power, something that the EU encourages by eliminating border barriers and by financing regional projects through the Structural Funds. However, there have been few studies of cross-border cooperation regarding tourism. This study wants to shed light on the factors that influence the success of such cooperation by studying Sundsvall, Östersund and Trondheim, which together form the so-called SÖT-region. The purpose of the study is to find out whether Sundsvall, Östersund and Trondheim have the prerequisites to form a touristic cooperation. The obstacles and opportunities for cross-border cooperation in the SÖT-region are studied, as well as whether a partnership could be justified, and if so, what kind. Finally, the prerequisites for the SÖT-region to create a functional region for tourism are investigated.

    To answer the questions personal interviews have been conducted with professionals working in the tourism industry within the region. The informants are all involved in developing the tourism industry on either a municipal or a regional level. The theoretical framework of this study concerns the regional and destination concept, tourism as a phenomenon and growth creator, the regions’ new role, transport and communications, competitiveness and site promotion, the relationship between tourism and international borders, and tourism partnerships across international boundaries.

    To summarize the obstacles regarding cross-border cooperation in tourism that occurs in the theoretical framework, a model has been created. The model is then adapted to fit the conditions in the SÖT-region. The conclusion then shows that the barriers for a touristic cooperation between Sundsvall, Östersund and Trondheim are more than the possibilities. The obstacles, however, are based largely on the difficulties regarding cooperation between local tourism businesses in the region, as well as difficulties regarding joint marketing. However, there are no major obstacles to cooperation between public actors. The conclusion is that public cooperation regarding exchanging experiences and sales of common packaged tourism products is justified. Furthermore, it appears that the ability to create a functional region for tourism is limited.

  • 22.
    Hägglund, Markus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Destinationens identitetsutveckling med titeln Europas kulturhuvudstad: Europas kulturhuvudstad Umeå2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Häggström, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Magnusson, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Den maktfulla stereotypen: En studie om mötet mellan backpackers och lokalbefolkning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Towards a new framework for modeling the regional impact of experiences2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Petridou Daughtrey, Evangelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Competition in the travel distribution system: the US travel sector.2006In: Corporate Rivalry and Market Power / [ed] A. Papatheodorou, London: I.B. Tauris, 2006, 124-142 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Archipelagic Tourism: Synthesis and Reflections2015In: Archipelago Tourism: Policies and Practices / [ed] Godfrey Baldacchino, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2015, 241-248 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Timothy, Dallen
    Arizona State University.
    Tourism in the USA: A spatial  and social synthesis2010Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The United States continues to provide opportunities for travel and tourism to domestic and international travellers. This is the first book to offer students a comprehensive overview of both tourism and travel in this region, paying specific attention to the disciplines of Geography, Tourism Studies and, more generally, Social Science.

     

    Tourism in the USA explains the evolution of tourism paying attention to the forces that shaped the product that exists today. The focus of the book includes the manner in which tourism has played out in various contexts; the role of federal, state, and local policy is also examined in terms of the effects it has had on the US travel industry and on destinations. The various elements of tourism demand and supply are discussed and the influence that transportation (especially Americans’ high personal mobility rates and love affair with the auto) has had on the sector highlighted. The economics of tourism are fleshed out before focusing more narrowly on both the urban and rural settings where tourism occurs. A look into the manner in which the spatial structure of cities is transformed through tourism is also offered. Additionally, a brief examination of future issues in American tourism is presented along with explanations concerning the ascendancy of tourism as an economic development tool in various areas.

     

    The book combines theory and practice as well as integrating a range of useful student orientated resources to aid understanding and spur further debate, which can be used for independent study or in class exercises. These include:

     

     

    ‘Closer Look’ case studies with reflective questions to help show theory in practice and encourage critical thinking about tourism developments in this region

     

    ‘Discussion questions’ at the end of each chapter encourage stimulating debates

     

    ‘Further Reading’ sections direct the readers to related book and web resources so that they can learn more about the topics covered in each chapter.

    Table of Contents

    1. Introduction 2. American Tourism: A Study through Time 3. The Institutional Setting for Tourism in the United States 4. Demand for Tourism in the United States 5. Tourist Attractions, Tourism Types, Accommodations, and Intermediaries 6. The Transportation System 7. Tourism’s Economic Significance 8. Urban Tourism in the US 9. On the Road to Small Town USA: Rural Tourism and its Significance 10. Conclusions

  • 28.
    Kallenbach, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kämpe, Zara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Besöksnäringen i Östersund: En studie av nätverk, rollfördelning och samverkan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heritage development and community resilience: Insights for the era of climate change2015In: The Future of Heritage as Climates Change: Loss, Adaptation and Creativity / [ed] David C Harvey and Jim Perry, New York, NY: Routledge, 2015, 1st, 167-179 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Laven, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Mitchell, Nora J
    University of Vermont.
    Jewiss, Jennifer
    University of Vermont.
    Barrett, Brenda
    Living Landscape Observer, USA.
    Lessons Learned from U.S. Experience with Regional Landscape Governance: Implications for Conservation and Protected Areas2015In: Nature Policies and Landscape Policies: Towards an Alliance / [ed] R Gambino and A Peano, Springer, 2015, 323-330 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally acknowledged that protected areas do not encompass the scale necessary for effective conservation of socio-ecological systems. Consequently, there have been repeated calls for a "new paradigm" for conservation that transitions from "islands" to "networks." By extending conservation to reflect wider landscape perspectives, this approach integrates community development and economic and quality of life interests, thereby forging productive relationships between protected areas and their regional context. This broadened agenda involves many more landowners, organizations, and levels of government and requires coordination, partnerships, and new forms of governance. Drawing from nearly a decade of research, this contribution examines US experience with this new paradigm for conservation and models of network governance. The findings from this research program indicate that three key dimensions are fundamental to governance: engaging a diversity of stakeholders and building consensus, creating and sustaining ongoing networks of partners, and developing a central hub for the network. This central coordinating and facilitating function appears to be an essential governance element as it is the activity of these networks of private and public partners that deliver accomplishments. This contribution suggests that despite their challenges, networked-based models can strengthen social capital at regional levels, thereby increasing capacity for innovation, adaptation, and resiliency.

  • 31.
    Lidmar-Bergström, Karna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olvmo, Mats
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bonow, Johan M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Geovisiona AB, Järfälla.
    The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient shield2017In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between different denudation surfaces/peneplains formed across crystalline basement rocks give valuable information to the tectonic development of ancient shields. The denudation surfaces can be identified by the aid of their landforms, tilt and remnant weathering mantles in relation to cover rocks. Three types of denudation surfaces are identified across south Sweden (1) a tilted flat plain, (2) a tilted hilly surface with relative relief below 150 m and (3) stepped horizontal plains with residual hills. All three types of denudation surfaces are peneplains, denudation surfaces graded to specific base levels. The re-exposed parts of the inclined flat sub-Cambrian peneplain (SCP) extend as a landscape feature from below cover rocks in the north and east and reaches up on the highest summits of the South Swedish Uplands. The SCP (the exact unconformity) is encountered again below Cambrian covers outside the west coast. Thus south Sweden is a geological dome, the South Swedish Dome (SSD), in relation to the Cambrian cover. The southern and western low flanks of the exposed part of the dome are instead characterized by a hilly peneplain, the inclined sub-Cretaceous denudation surface, with remnants of thick, kaolinitic, clayey saprolites. This sub-Cretaceous peneplain is cut off at a distinct level in the south and west by the almost horizontal South Småland Peneplain, a never covered, epigene, peneplain. The uplift history of the SSD aids to the understanding on the development of late Tertiary drainage systems of the Baltic Basin by the Eridano River.

  • 32.
    Lindahl, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Turism och samarbeten i gränsregionala områden: En studie om hinder och möjligheter i SITE-regionen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Löfqvist, Dennis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Världsarvet Höga Kusten: En studie på världsarvets som en turistisk drivkraft2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A Review of “Tourism and the Anthropocene”2016In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 18, no 4, 458-459 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercialization of nature through tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation contributes to developing knowledge on the commercialization of natural resources through tourism. This is achieved by means of understanding the main avenues through which natural resources are commercialized, and analyzing the operational setting of tourism firms. The focal area is nature-based tourism– a type of tourism, taking place incomparatively unmodified natural areas, which has emerged as a powerful gravitational force, integrating an increasing variety of natural resources into the commercial domain. The point of departure is the assumption that fornature-based tourism firms, nature is simultaneously the main object of commercialization and the operational setting, where this commercialization happens. The attention here is, therefore, on the supply side, i.e. on the smalland micro firms, acting as the agents of commercialization. The empirical data come primarily from a nation-wide survey among the nature-based tourism firms in Sweden, generating the most comprehensive information about this sector to date. Additional data come from in-depth interviews and observations among the nature-based tourism firms in Sweden, as well assecondary sources (official statistics on natural resources and a survey in Norway).

    This is a compilation thesis, i.e. it consists of a cover essay and five individual papers. The cover essay offers a bird’s eye view on all the papers, frames them theoretically and synthesizes all the findings into a coherent contribution. Papers I and II create the foundation, necessary for understanding the processes of nature commercialization and the operational setting of naturebased tourism firms, while Papers III, IV and V provide supplementary insights into these areas of inquiry. Paper I starts by building on existing knowledge in outdoor recreation to approach nature-based tourism. Paper II focuses on the operational setting, conceptualizes and explores its dimensions. Building on this, Paper III looks at how the presence of various amenities in the operational setting can explain the localization patterns of the firms on various geographical levels. Paper IV focuses on the operational setting dimensions omitted in the previous papers, i.e. the continuous efforts of the firms to negotiate the inherent uncertainty within the setting. Finally, Paper V looks at various characteristics of nature-based tourism firms to understand the specifics of sustainability strategies.

    The main findings in these five papers demonstrate that the nature-basedtourism is an active integrator of a wide variety of natural resources into the commercial domain, and approaching them from the supply perspective provides an additional understanding of the sector. This approach suggests that the nature-based tourism supply could be understood not only from the perspectives of tourist activities offered, but also from the perspective of operational setting preferences (e.g., the axes of high-low specialization, and high-low dependence on specific setting features), providing a new insight into the ways of nature commercialization through tourism. The operational setting itself becomes an important resource, being simultaneously part of the supply and the environment of a tourism system, bringing together a multitude of dimensions and actors. The resources nature-based tourism depends on defy ‘commercialization-friendly’ criteria, creating a context of uncertainty and demanding higher levels of creativity and agency on behalf of the firms. Commercialized nature experiences become important not only for specialized, skill- and equipment-intensive activities, but also for rather simple and relaxed ones, on both international and domestic markets. This suggests the growing importance of commercial nature-based tourism, linked to growing sustainability challenges. The sustainable resource use within the Scandinavian nature-based tourism context, however, is deeply entrenched inunique local specifics, and the entrepreneurial characteristics are not always compatible with market-based sustainability policies, suggesting the need for more fine-tuned approaches.

  • 36.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Nature as a commercial setting: the case of nature-based tourism providers in Sweden2016In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses variations in the operational setting in the context of nature-based tourism (NBT) and draws much needed attention to the supply side of this sector by segmenting the NBT service providers based on their setting preferences. This paper focuses on the setting of NBT as an important alternative avenue for understanding the operational context of NBT supply. This approach is subsequently empirically explored through a national survey among the NBT service providers in Sweden. The data analysis demonstrates that the companies can be rather clearly clustered based on the variations in the perceived importance and impact of NBT setting components. This study therefore helps in understanding the role of a commercial setting in explaining NBT supply, which has a potential to not only contribute to developing the research of this sector further but also help in avoiding possible conflicts with other natural resource users and improve its overall management.

  • 37.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Bridging outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in a commercial context: Insights from the Swedish service providers2017In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, no March 2017, 84-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how outdoor recreation demand is reflected in the commercial tourism supply. We bring together the demand and the supply perspectives as well as the domestic and international dimensions, i.e. linking outdoor recreation with nature-based tourism. The data is collected through a nation-wide survey among nature-based tourism providers, catering to both domestic and international markets in Sweden. Four major data-driven avenues of commercializing outdoor recreation are discussed (Winter/Nordic, Summer/Active, Summer/Relaxing and Extractive) and further profiled against external variables, such as types of business operations, international markets or seasonality. The findings offer a new insight into the patters of the commercial supply of nature-based tourism in Sweden, while also building on the previous research and history of outdoor recreation. Evident commercial importance and domestic popularity of such ordinary outdoor activities as cycling on roads, swimming, jogging, picnicking or hiking outside mountain areas are linked to changes in leisure and lifestyles noticed previously. Commercialization of outdoor recreation, a snapshot of which is presented in this study, is discussed as an ever-expanding and diversifying process, observed both in Sweden and globally.

  • 38.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Natural amenities and the regional distribution of nature-based tourism supply in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, no 2, 145-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based tourism is often perceived as one of the easiest and readily-available tools for regional development and diversification of rural economies, and Sweden is not an exception. Successful tourism development, however, depends on various amenities, which vary with region. This article, based on a national survey among nature-based tourism service providers in Sweden, discusses general characteristic of Swedish nature-based tourism supply, reveals the most important natural amenities from the supply perspective and discusses the patterns of their regional variation. It is further investigated how distributions of various amenities is related to the density of nature-based tourism operations across regions. The scope of the analysis includes three levels: country, land and county. Results show that nature-based tourism in Sweden is a highly diversified sector, which demonstrates significant north-south variations, visible on the level of the three lands. On the level of counties, natural and human-made amenities are comparable in their power to predict distribution of NBT operations, suggesting that the border between NBT and other forms of tourism is not as distinct as is often imagined.

  • 39.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The Supply of Nature-based Tourism in Sweden: A National Inventory of Service Providers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Stensland, Stian
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Sustainable by nature? The case of (non)adoption of eco-certification among the nature-based tourism companies in Scandinavia2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, 559-567 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors associated with the (non)adoption of eco-certification among the nature-based tourism companies in the Scandinavian region. Previous research suggested that the popularity of tourism eco-certification schemes remained limited in the region due to socio-cultural, historical and other specifics. We revisit this query a decade later with the support of nation-wide data from two Scandinavian countries – Norway and Sweden. The quantitative results suggest that such factors as motivations for operating a nature-based tourism business, beliefs about eco-certification effects, economic and demographic characteristics, are associated with the eco-certification adoption. Qualitative insights shed more light on the existing barriers for this sustainability approach in the region. The results suggest that companies with strong beliefs in the positive context (i.e. beliefs that eco-certification is capable to generate higher income, more customers and provide marketing advantage), lifestyle and sustainability-oriented business goals together with favorable organizational context (larger size, higher income and having a female leader) are more likely to invest in an eco-certification scheme.

  • 41.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercializing the unpredictable: Perspectives from wildlife watching tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While wildlife watching has primarily been associated with the ‘charismatic megafauna’ of the Global South, the attention to Europe’s own biodiversity and its tourist potential has been on the rise. Tourism companies, offering wildlife watching experiences and attracting tourists with glossy animal images, share a unique property: they build their business on a promise they have no guarantee of fulfilling. The factor of luck becomes important, as evident in the advertisement texts of wildlife watching tours, which are replete with ‘luck’, ‘hopefully’, ‘chance’, ‘occasionally’, ‘no guarantee’ and similar verbiage emphasizing uncertainty and unpredictability. Understanding commercialization of relatively uncontrollable natural phenomena (wild animals) in a similarly uncertain natural setting (wilderness) is the aim of our paper. In our study we look at the case of wildlife watching companies in Sweden. The species used in these wildlife watching arrangements include inter alia free ranging bear, Eurasian elk, wolf, roe-deer, beaver and seal. Through a series of interviews and participant observations we distill and elaborate on the following major themes, shedding more light into the specifics of this type of nature commercialization through tourism: lack of control as an inherent property of wildlife watching tourism; agency and continuous negotiation of the uncertainties within the operational setting (both naturogenic and anthropogenic); importance of guide performances and ‘secondary’ experiences; presentation of unpredictability as authenticity (authentic wilderness).

  • 42.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercializing the Unpredictable: Perspectives From Wildlife Watching Tourism Entrepreneurs in Sweden2017In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 22, no 5, 406-421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism companies that offer wildlife watching experiences share a unique property—they build their business on a promise they have no guarantee of fulfilling (showing wild animals). The factor of luck becomes important, as evident in the advertisement texts of wildlife watching tours. Understanding commercialization of uncontrollable natural phenomena (wild animals) in a similarly uncertain natural setting (wilderness) is the aim of our article. In this illustrative case study, we examine wildlife watching companies in Sweden, focusing on free ranging bear, moose, wolf, roe-deer, beaver, and seal. Through interviews and participant observations with eight wildlife watching entrepreneurs, we elaborate on the following major themes that help understand specific challenges associated with these businesses: lack of control as an inherent property of wildlife watching tourism, agency and continuous negotiation of uncertainties within the operational setting, importance of guide performances and “secondary” experiences, and using uncertainty as a way of enhancing authenticity.

  • 43.
    Miettinen, Jenna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Att skapa en attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig region-spelar evenemang någon roll?: En studie kring Björneborg Jazzmusikfestival, i regionen Satakunta, Finland2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att analysera om det finns en medvetenhet om regional identitet och image inom regionen Satakunta, samt om åsikterna om utformningen av den regionala identiteten och imagen är konkretiserade, eller inte. Utifrån en studie av Jazzmusikfestivalen i Björneborg undersöks detta. I och med det diskuterar författaren huruvida evenemang har en roll i skapandet av en attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig region. Syftet är också att undersöka om det finns samarbeten i regionen för att göra den attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig. För att få svar på syftet har författaren använt sig av primärdata i form av intervjuer med representanter från Björneborgs stad, Björneborg turistbyrå, Landskapsförbundet, Satakunta Tourist och Björneborg Jazzmusikfestival. Två av intervjuerna har genomförts via telefon och fyra intervjuer har genomförts via e-post.

    Resultaten visar att det i Satakunta finns en medvetenhet om regionens identitet och image, men att det inte finns en gemensam åsikt om vad dessa är. Det finns även olika åsikter om förmågan att skapa regional identitet och image i regionen. Undersökningen visar att Jazzmusikfestivalen bidrar till regional identitet och image i regionen Satakunta, men att den i huvudsak bidrar till detta i staden Björneborg. Festivalen bidrar även till en attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig region, trots att det inte finns en gemensam tanke i regionen om vad som är regionens identitet och image och skapandet av dessa. Resultaten visar även att det finns samarbeten för att göra regionen attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig.

  • 44.
    Moberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Pettersson, Fanny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Externa etableringars påverkan på stadskärnan: En fallstudie av Östersunds stadskärna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Nilsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Svärd, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Konsten att bedriva turismverksamhet i ett skyddat landskap: En fallstudie av Fulufjällets nationalpark 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Nordin, Sara
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University.
    Relational Destination Development: Case Studies on the Significance of Tourism Networks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Destination development has turned into a key issue in local and regional development. Not least many governments recognize the in-dustry’s potential for fostering economic growth and development. The tourist destination is often conceptualized as a complex network with several levels of interaction – both networks of actors within the destination, but also networks linking it to its surrounding environment with potential and actual customers, other destinations, government bodies and so on. It is hence the assumption here that we cannot fully understand destination development in a particular community unless we have a good understanding of how the key stakeholders interact.

     

    By applying different network approaches that are united by and based upon a relational economic geography perspective to the study of destination development, we can widen our understanding of why some destinations struggle to survive and often decline, others maintain a threshold of success as tourist visiting areas, whereas there are still others, which exhibit a high level of competitiveness with local entrepreneurial milieus characterized by growth and long-term development.

     

    More generally, this thesis deals with a traditional core issue in economic geography, i.e., to explain what it is that makes a place or region characterized by growth and devlopment. This thesis explores this issue, and expands our knowledge on the links between various kinds of network structures and growth in a destination context. This is conducted by case studies, foremost based on the Swedish mountain resort of Åre, but one also focusing on Icehotel in northern Sweden - to explore relational destination development and the significance of tourism networks.

  • 47.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wallstam, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Utvärdera festivalbesökare och deras upplevelser2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Seeking resilience through tourism in Greenland: A cautious outlook in the risky era of climate change2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the malaise associated with climate change, in Polar Regions (e.g., Greenland and Northern Canada) many have cautiously argued that the general upswing in ocean temperatures can be deemed positive because it presents the opportunity for introducing new economic activities. In the case of Greenland, Motzfeldt (quoted in Nutall 2008: 46) has argued that though hunting activities may be negatively affected because of ice melting in coastal region, conditions are favourable for activities such as fishing or tourism. Greenland itself constitutes an interesting case study of the effects of global climate change on polar regions given its increasing autonomy from Denmark (Home Rule), however, the issue that emerges is whether the present growth-oriented development path with its emphasis on extractive activities (e.g., aluminium and goal mining) in the island’s interior and tourism especially in coastal areas constitutes a knee-jerk reaction. Furthermore, is this part of a bouncing forward process (Davoudi, 2012) increasing community resilience, and if so, whose resilience is actually increased? In this paper we focus on the tourism sector though we recognize that parallel investigations should also be conducted relating to the mining and other related activities. Using an evolutionary economic geography (EEG) lens we argue that the tourism sector is being introduced as a substitute to traditional activities (e.g., fishing and hunting). However, in order to fully comprehend the dynamics of this strategy, it is important to pursue a relational approach recognizing, for instance, historic forces as well as the political/institutional context (Carson and Carson 2016). Effectively, the current growth rhetoric focuses overwhelmingly on exogenously-controlled interests (e.g., multinational tour operators and cruise companies) at the expense of indigenous businesses. Our argument is that though effectively what is happening in Greenland could be summarized as an adaptation to vulnerability imposed by climate change the overall resilience of a locally spun tourism sector is severely compromised by the current rhetoric.

  • 49.
    Olsson, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Regional utveckling i glesbygden genom turism och samverkan: En fallstudie av Ragunda kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Persson, Ann-Cathrine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Natur och kultur som bas för turismutveckling: Fallstudie Ekopark Böda2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nature and culture create the base in tourism and tourism development. Around the country there are a large number of nature and culture areas contributing to development and at the same time natural and cultural values are protected. Ecopark is the name of a coherent forest landscape with high natural values founded by Sveaskog. The ecopark is a relatively new addition to the nature and culture protection in Sweden. Some of the ecoparks are suitable for tourism and tourism development and among them Böda Ecopark. Böda Ecopark which opened in 2006 is located on the northern of Öland. The ecopark is situated in a tourism intense region with a large number of actors in tourism and tourism related services.

    The study examines the tourist resources, the cooperation between different actors and the tourism development in Böda Ecopark. The study is disposed as a case study with a deductive approach. As a basis for the study a theoretical background is used from which the interview questions are built.Interviews are made with Sveaskog, the county administrative board in Kalmar and some of the ecopark´s encompassing actors.

    The research has shown that Böda Ecopark has rich natural and cultural resources and through the ecopark´s encompassing actors the tourist is also offered a wide range of different services as accommodation. Cooperation can be improved in various ways and the interviews have shown that several of the encompassing actors have suggestions for cooperation around tourism development. The tourism development is in an initial phase but by the rich natural and cultural values and an improved cooperation there are good conditions for further development.

    Key words: Nature, culture, tourism, tourism development, ecopark, cooperation

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