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  • 1.
    Nydahl, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Det stora klippet?: Några aspekter på skogsmarknadens utveckling i Härnösandsdistriktet under sent 1800-tal2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Nydahl, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Nybyggen till reapris?: Bolagsköp av jordbruksfastigheter i ångermanländska Edsele socken, cirka 1870-19062014In: Makt, myter och historiebruk: Historiska problem i belysning / [ed] Stefan Dalin, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2014, p. 95-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests for Sale? A Study of Exploitation of Forest Estates in a Parish in Northern Swe-den, ca 1870–1906

    The modernization of Swedish society during the late 1800s and early 1900s was closely connected to the exploitation of the country´s natural resources. An im-portant factor was the sawmill industry in the northern part of the country where increased production led to a great demand for the acquisition of agricultural and forest land. The majority of these estates were owned by freeholders. Towards the end of the 1800s many of them sold their land to various sawmill companies. This process laid the basis for an ideological social debate timed around 1900, in which the freeholders were seen to be threatened and abused by exploitative forces. This culminated in 1906 in a law that forbade companies from buying agricultural properties.

    This article examines the development of the forestry market in a parish in northern Sweden during the period 1870 to 1906. The proportion of commercially-owned land during this period increased from 3 to 58 percent, especially after 1880. The study also shows that the competition for land acquisition was great. Many companies were potential buyers and this situation gradually inflated prices and made it difficult for sellers to assess the actual market value. In some cases the value of an estate rose by thousands of percent in a few decades.

    In this article the image of the freeholders as passive victims of modernization is compared to examples of individual farmers who themselves acted strategically to make a profit in the forestry market. In particular a certain form of estate that the government intended for settlers, became a commodity through which speculating farmers and companies made substantial profits - while the government´s inten-tions about lasting cultivation were lost. All in all, it appears that this whole pro-cess was much more complex than the social debate indicated.

  • 3.
    Ogilvie, Astrid E.J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    An Ancient Enemy Observed: Images of Sea Ice in Selected Narratives of Iceland from the Settlement to the Late Nineteenth Century2015In: Långa linjer och många fält: Festskrift till Johan Söderberg / [ed] Martin Gustavsson and Dag Retsö, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmensis , 2015, p. 137-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When thinking of Iceland, two specific types of ice come to mind: the ice that is formed on the many glaciers in the country, and the sea ice that is brought to the coasts by winds and ocean currents. Because of space constraints in this volume, the discussion here will focus entirely on the phenomenon of sea ice. This paper is not concerned with ice as a scientific phenomenon, but with the image of sea ice as presented in a variety of different narrative genres concerning Iceland. However, a few words of elucidation will set the stage for the discussion. Ice on the sea is formed in two main ways. Either by being broken off in the form of ice bergs from calving glaciers, or else it may form directly on the surface of the sea as frozen seawater. Most of the ice reaching Iceland is of the latter kind, and arrives by way of the East Greenland current. It is the northern, northwestern, and eastern coasts of Iceland which are most frequently affected, and, in the past, it occurred most often in the winter and spring seasons. It is an infrequent visitor in the present climate.

  • 4.
    Ogilvie, Astrid E.J.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Sigurðardóttir, R.
    Júlíusson, Á.D.
    Hreinsson, V.
    Hicks, M.
    Climate, Grass Growth, and Hay Yield in Northeastern Iceland A.D. 1700 to 19502015In: Program and Abstracts: 45th International Arctic Workshop, Bergen, Norway, 10-13 May 2015, 2015, p. 80-81Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will focus on climate impacts of hay and grass harvesting in the Mývatn area in the northeastern highlands of Iceland. Mývatn means “Midge Lake” and refers to the flies or midges, of vital importance for the local ecosystem, providing food for fish and waterbirds. Until the early part of the twentieth century, the inhabitants of the area lived almost entirely on the proceeds of the land by farming, fishing for trout, and collecting the eggs of wild birds. With its North Atlantic location, marginal for agriculture, grass was the only viable crop in Iceland, and the economy focused primarily on animal husbandry until comparatively recent times. Thus, the success or failure of the all-important grass crop, coupled with winter rangeland grazing, was the one aspect of the economy on which all else rested. The successful harvesting of hay was thus the farmers’ most important annual task. If there was not enough hay in the winter to feed the livestock they could die, and this could lead to famine and death among the human population. This unfortunate train of events occurred many times in Iceland’s history, and not least in the Mývatn district.

  • 5.
    Sörlin, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Dorotea Jonsdotter: en landslöperska i stormaktstidens Sverige1988In: Historia nu / [ed] Anders Brändström ..., Umeå: Historiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet , 1988, p. 263-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    ֖hman, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wallerstedt, Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Audit regulation and the development of the auditing profession: The case of Sweden2012In: Accounting History, ISSN 1032-3732, E-ISSN 1749-3374, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 241-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the Companies Act of 1895, which stipulated that limited companies should appoint an auditor, an auditing field gradually emerged in Sweden. Our historical review from the end of the nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century reveals a reciprocal relationship between audit regulation and the development of the auditing profession. Laws and additional rules both codified auditing practice and paved the way for a strengthening of the profession’s position. The findings also show that critical events have triggered these developments. In 1932, a corporate financial scandal forced the profession to improve auditing methods and formulate ethical rules, and the law that followed was considered a significant indication of the importance of auditors in Sweden. The profession’s position was further strengthened in the 1970s when auditors’ associations became rule-making bodies, and the state decided upon additional assignments for auditors. To meet the 1983 prescription in the Companies Act that at least one auditor in a limited company should be authorized or approved, the number of authorized public accountants increased significantly. © The Author(s) 2012.

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