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  • 1.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 2.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Persistence of Subjective Poverty in Urban Ethiopia2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data spanning 15 years, this paper  investigates the persistence and correlates of subjective and consumption  poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite the decline in consumption poverty in  recent years, which has been linked to rapid economic growth, subjective  poverty has remained largely unchanged. Dynamic probit regression results  show that households with a history of past poverty continue to perceive  themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. Our results  also suggest that the relative economic position of households is a strong  determinant of subjective poverty, and having at least some type of  employment reduces the likelihood that households will perceive themselves  as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. Receiving remittances  from abroad, on the other hand, does not reduce perceived poverty, even if  it raises material consumption. We argue that any analysis to measure the  impact of growth on welfare should encompass subjective measures as  well.

  • 3.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or nonexistent) selection: a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, 4203-4211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders‟ access to credit and making long-term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small-scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilise labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 5. Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Stage, Jesper
    Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households2011In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, Vol. 94, no 1, 119-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the impacts of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on rural households' holdings of livestock and forest assets/trees. We found no indication that participation in PSNP induces households to disinvest in livestock or trees. In fact, households that participated in the program increased the number of trees planted, but there was no increase in their livestock holdings. We found no strong evidence that the PSNP protects livestock in times of shock. Shocks appear to lead households to disinvest in livestock, but not in trees. Our results suggest that there is increased forestry activity as a result of PSNP, and that improved credit access encourages households to increase their livestock holdings.

  • 6.
    Arnesson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Coach Succession and Team Performance: The Impact of Ability and Timing -- Swedish Ice Hockey Data2009In: Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, ISSN 1559-0410, Vol. 5, no 1, Article 2- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the team performance for professional ice hockey teams in Sweden. In order to understand how team performance relates to key variables such as coaching ability and coaching experience and succession, the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) and the more robust quantile regression techniques are used to estimate team performance for the ice hockey teams. Quarterly data for the period 1975-2006 is used for this purpose. The results have shown that coaching ability has a rather significant positive effect on team performance, and that managerial succession during the season is found to have a rather significant negative effect on team performance. The results also indicate a strong correlation between coaching ability and team performance. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect performance and provided more interesting results than the OLS normally does.

  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: An example from Swedish waste management2012In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, no 5, 519-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 8.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Effects of migration on tax policy in the EU countries: An empirical analysis2011In: China-USA Business Review, ISSN 1537-1514, Vol. 10, no 7, 508-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether migration affects taxes on labor and capital income. The analysis is based on panel data for 14 European countries. The results indicate that migration does affect subsequent tax rates; taxes on labor income increase with increased migration, especially in countries with large public sectors. However, this effect is reduced for countries with large foreign trade and/or large shares of elderly in the population.

  • 9.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Optimal tax and expenditure policy in the presence of migration – are credit restrictions important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, 98-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have found an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, we present a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon based on credit restrictions. We also characterize how the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad. Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise. Thus, our more realistic picture of emigration leads to results that differ from the previous literature.

  • 10. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    BERTINS, ANDRIS
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    KRONGORNS, ERLANDS
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Latvia in European Monetary Union gains and losses2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Univ Portsmouth, Dept Econ, Portsmouth PO1 3DE, Hants, UK.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    Int Inst Environm & Dev, Sustainable Markets Grp, Econ Climate Change Team, London WC1H 0DD, UK.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 6, 1289-1302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy, using a country-wide computable general equilibrium model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modeled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until approximately 2030 and become worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the time scales involved and the low starting point of the economy leave ample space for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as policies that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important for reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for climate adaptation.

  • 13.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation vis-a-vis socially optimal levels2012In: 2nd International Conference on Environment and Natural Resources Management in Developing and Transition Economies: Abstracts, 2012, 16-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer in a developing country has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the form of different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too little biodiversity on their farms. However, this does not fit well with the empirical data; because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farms tend to maintain a wide range of different crop varieties in practice in order to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainty. In this paper we develop a theoretical model to account for this, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain too much biodiversity on the individual farm, compared to the social optimum. This will be illustrated with empirical estimations from Ethiopian agriculture.

  • 14.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nordström, Jonas
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Svedin, Dick
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages: the case of Sweden2016In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 5, no 1, 1-17 p., 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages in Sweden.

  • 15.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    CERDI-CNRS Université d'Auvergne Clermont 1, 65 boulevard François MitterrandClermont-Ferrand, France.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, 48-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 16.
    Conti, Marco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    “Public Finance and Sustainability of Italian Public Debt”2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Dalin, Rolf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hållbarhetsaspekterna som restriktioner2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Dalin, Rolf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    RTP: Analys av projektdatabasens användbarhetanvändbarhet för att följa upp fördelningen av projekt och projektmedel över tillväxtprogram¬mets insatser, åtgärder och mål, över kommuner och för hållbarhets-bedömningar.2006Book (Other scientific)
  • 19.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    et al.
    GS - The Swedish Union of Forestry, Wood and Graphical Workers, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The effects of capital income taxation on wage formation2011In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, Vol. 113, no 2, 186-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of capital income taxation on wage formation are studied using OECD data. The results indicate that a rise in the tax rate on capital income will reduce real wages and increase employment.

  • 20.
    Dammann, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Betalningsviljan för lokalproduceradmat i Jämtland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Dove, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    How independent are European Union Central Banks?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Dumoulin, Etienne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The current financial crisis and its effects on the French economy2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractIn this paper, we will be interested by the current financial crisis and how it did affect on the French economy. After setting the global French point of view and an overview of other crises, the discussion will be focused on the subprime crisis and how it turned into a worldwide financial crisis to reach the state of France. The data of the French statistic institute (INSEE) will be used as an analytic tool to show how France has been hit.To discuss this topic, we start from a chronology of the last crises to an overview of the French point of view in economy to correlate the current financial crisis to the French economy shrink. To set the subprime principles permit to explain the spread of the toxic mortgages in the worldwide finance and the collapse of economies. In more details, that explains the French economy collapse. The shrinking French economy started with the GDP and as a snowball effect, foreign trade, and companies followed. In the same time, the rise of unemployment and the change of the consumer behaviour can be notice. All of those are correlated with the current financial crisis.Going through this paper, we learnt that the subprime crisis is the cause of the current financial crisis. Indeed, the spread of the toxic loan into the whole financial market provided its collapse and finally reached to a fall of the world wide economy. In this study, we were focused on the effects of the current financial crisis on the French economy. This paper showed in the conclusion that the economy are recovering after a period of depression.

  • 23.
    Duplain, Laurianne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    France within the European Union and the Eurozone : a survey study2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are going to study the relations between France, the European Unionand the Eurozone. The involvements of France in the European Union and the Eurozone aswell as the effects of the European evolutions in France. As France has played many roles indifferent areas for the European Union, the relations are social, political, juridical andobviously economic. We cannot analyse these relations without interest in the historicalpart, which shows the chronological involvements of France in the EU, from the firstagreement in 1951 to the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. Beside this, our analyse needsalso to focus on the European Union as several institutions; as well as the Eurozone and itseconomic consequences in Europe and in France. To do so, we are going to raise monetaryand institutional questions and develop the most important European stakes as theenlargements, the European budget, the common policies and the European institutions.France can be considered as a founding father of the European Union, and in spite ofsome difficulties; both France and the European Union have had positive influences on eachother and the European Union could not have grown in this way without France.

  • 24.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B, ISSN 2162-5263, Vol. 1, no 3, 426-432 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998 the Chinese government implemented the Natural Forest Protection Program, NFPP, which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this policy is currently being discussed. In this paper, we use contingent valuation to estimate the WTP for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Our results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion Yuan per year. This can be compared to the current cost of the program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion Yuan per year.

  • 25.
    Efraimsson, Eric
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Finns Prekariatet på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?: -En analys av svensk statistik mellan 1995 och 20102015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Ekedahl, Josefine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Persson, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    SAMHÄLLS- OCH PRIVATEKONOMISKA EFFEKTER AV AMORTERINGSKRAVPÅ BOSTADSKREDITER2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Madelene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Negativ reporänta i Sverige: Hur påverkas bankerna via transmissionsmekanismen?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Esebamen, Omeime
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Practicability For a Diverse Revenue Source in Sports Marketing: The English Premier League Big Four and Their Foreign Fans2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The English Premiership, EPL has become much more than just a league to those that follow the game of football. It has become a way of life for these followers that it is arguably one of cult status because of its strong enduring appeal and elevation to worship by those who follow the game. With the ‘big four' teams of the EPL carrying massive debt profile capable of fully industrializing some developing nations, with local fans groaning under the ever increasing cost of attending matches and buying replicas, and the growing demand to remain highly competitive, there is need for these clubs to look at a diverse source of revenue generation. The EPL, tagged "The Greatest Show on Earth" has an estimated half a billion followers from over 200 nations and with a fanbase of such magnitude, researching the feasibility of their foreign fans as the future and key to bigger money is highly welcomed. The analysis should give to those concerned (and even to sports marketing professionals, and anyone who love the game of football), a better perspective of the issues in questions, a future outlook and how plans can be affected to address them.

  • 29.
    Finke, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Foreign exchange market efficiency between Europe and Switzerland and Europe and Sweden from 2008 until 20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30. Forsund, F. R.
    et al.
    Sarafoglou, Nikias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    On the origins of data envelopment analysis2002In: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 17, no 1-2, 23-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept "Data Envelopment Analysis" (DEA) was introduced in the journal literature by the highly influential 1978 paper of Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes. In the subsequent literature the development of research leading up to this paper tended to be forgotten. However, studying this diffusion of ideas may give valuable insights into research issues still unexplored and insight in the research process itself. A natural starting point is Farrell's seminal 1957 paper on concepts of efficiency and their computation. The richness of ideas presented in Farrell is demonstrated by the fact that the developments in the following two decades were based on aspects and ideas there. The origins of the main developments are identified, and the connections to Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes are explored.

  • 31.
    Fransén, Einar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Does PPP hold in the long run between Sweden and Norway?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Determinants of Visitor Expenditures in Mountain Tourism2008In: Tourism economics, ISSN 1354-8166, Vol. 14, no 2, 297-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, determinants of expenditures are estimated for downhill skiers, backpackers, snowmobilers and general visitors to the Swedish mountain region. The study is based on a national sample of mountain visitors. It is shown that duration of stay, household income, choice of activity, occupation, participation in an organized trip and choice of accommodation have an effect on expenditures at the destination, while gender, mode of travel, distance and 'significance of activity' are additional determinants of expenditures outside the destination. The study will contribute to our understanding of the economic values associated with the future development of mountain tourism, including values beyond primary expenditures.

  • 33.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus, P.O. Box 451, Mekelle, Tigrai, Ethiopia.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 2, 205-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia's agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia's future development.

  • 34. Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Climate Change and the Ethiopian Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change on Ethiopia’s agriculture using a countrywide computable general equilibrium model. The impacts on agriculture are based on results from a Ricardian model where current (and future) agricultural production is analyzed as a function of temperature and precipitation. We project that the effect of overall climate change will be relatively benign until approximately 2030 and then worsen considerably. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to 30 percent less average income, compared with the possible outcome in the absence of climate change. Autonomous adaptations that the farmers make and government policies in response will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 35.
    Gerbier, Loïc
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bachelor thesis (BA level): understanding of the Swedish housing market2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is an attempt to create a deeper understanding of the Swedish housing market. Many econometrics studies have shown that a certain amount of variables have a real impact on the housing prices but very few of them have considered every variable separately to see their impact on real estate prices.The first part of this thesis is a short presentation of previous econometric researches on this field. This part is purposely short because it does not bring any element to answer my question. However, the selection of the different variables is based on the results of these searches.The second part is the presentation and analysis of the selected variables. The aim is to try to explain the real estate prices evolution regarding each variable. To do so, I’m going to do some percentage analysis couple with graphical analysis and try to find correlation between the variables and the housing prices.

  • 36.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 55, no 5, 554-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted to between 0.4 and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 37.
    GUYOT, JIMMY
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Reformation of the International Financial System after the financial crisis2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Haugskott, Petra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Amorteringskrav?: En studie om amorteringskrav och dess påverkan på hushållen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Holm Sten, Elina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Mikroekonomiska förluster av ettnedtrappat ränteavdrag: En studie om ränteavdragets påverkan i jämförandeperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella valutafonden, EU-kommissionen, OECD och ekonomer i Sverige varnar för attvi i dagsläget kan befinna oss i en bostadsbubbla som snart kan spricka. De menar därför attdet är dags för de svenska politikerna att agera (Lucas, 2015). I Sverige kan man idag göraavdrag på 30 % av ränteutgifterna på sina skulder. Detta medför att staten förlorar drygt 30miljoner kronor i skatteintäkter årligen. Samtidigt ökar skuldsättningen kraftigt i Sverige ochdet nämnda ränteavdraget ses som ett incitament att ta höga lån. År 2015 beräknadeshushållens samlade låneskulder som andel av disponibel inkomst uppgå till 177 %. Den högaskuldsättningen skapar stora risker för svensk samhällsekonomi samtidigt som det också är enstor risk för de enskilda hushållen. Ränteavdraget är en faktor som diskuteras i debatten omhur skuldsättningen ska kunna dämpas. I många andra EU-länder som använder sig utavränteavdrag har detta redan verkställts antingen genom ett slopande av ränteavdragen ellergenom en succesiv nedtrappning (Reberg, 2014). Ett flertal partier i den svenska riksdagenanser att det är dags att vidta åtgärder angående ränteavdraget även i Sverige men nuvarandestatsminister Stefan Löven menar dock att en nedtrappning av ränteavdraget skulle försvåraden ekonomiska situationen för många hushåll och lovar därför att ränteavdraget för tillfälletkommer att behållas oförändrat (Dickson, 2015).Denna kvantitativa studie syftar till att undersöka hur stor den mikroekonomiska effektenskulle bli av ett nedtrappat ränteavdrag, med andra ord hur hushållens disponibla inkomsterskulle förändras. Det empiriska material som genererats är sekundära data från bland annatSCB och Riksbanken. Resultatet av studien visar att hushållen med högst skuldsättning skulleförlora mest på en nedtrappning av ränteavdraget. I undersökningen är det dock också dessahushåll som från början hade den högsta disponibla inkomsten, vilket gör att dessa hushålltrots nedtrappningen har en långt högre disponibel inkomst än hushållen i det lägreinkomstspannet med en lägre skuldsättningsgrad.

  • 40.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, 4-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 41.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Key sectors of the Namibian economy2013In: Journal of Economic Structures, ISSN 2193-2409, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents key sector research for the Namibian economy, based on input-output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyses. The analyses were derived from a Namibian SAM for the 2004 period, using 28 economic sectors. We find that mining and government services are currently key sectors. Some manufacturing and services sectors have important linkages in terms of output effects, whilst for employment and income effects, the agriculture sector is paramount. The results obtained are useful for policy purposes in terms of identifying those sectors where interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on the Namibian economy.

  • 42.
    Jacobson, Philip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wikstrand, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Penningpolitikens effekt på bolåneräntor: En undersökning om hur penningpolitiska variabler påverkar de svenska bolåneräntorna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Johansson, Rasmus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Peer to Peer Lending, Competitive in the Long Run?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Johnsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Ehrlemark, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Komparativ studie mellan Sverige och Japan med hänsyn till negativ reporänta: -En studie om inflation och deflation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Kachlami, Habib
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Determinants of SME growth: The influence of financing pattern.: An empirical study based on Swedish data2016In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 39, no 9, 966-986 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the firm-level financial variables affecting the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The study applies a resource-based view to analyze the firm-level as well as industry-level determinants of SME growth. Empirical evidence has also been provided from a data set of SMEs in Sweden to support the hypotheses. For a robust statistical analysis, three models – ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, random-effects regression and fixed-effects regression – are used to examine the influence of explanatory variables on growth. Findings: The findings of this study show a positive and significant influence of profitability, short-term debt and size on a firm’s growth across all three models. Results regarding the influence of long-term debt on growth, however, are mixed. While the results of a fixed-effect model show the negative and significant influence of long-term debt on growth, the results according to OLS and random effects show long-term debt positively related to growth. Research limitations/implications: This study has been conducted over a period of four years and in the context of Sweden which may limit the generalizability of its results for longer periods and for different contexts. Moreover, the low explanatory power of the models implies the need to also consider other types of variables, such as managerial or socio-economic variables, to better explain the determinants of SME growth. Practical implications: Understanding the determinants of growth can be important for policy makers, SME managers and financial institutions. The findings of this study can be used for designing policies which stimulate SME growth. Realizing the financial resources that influence growth can also help SME managers and financial institutions to understand each other’s need for better cooperation. Originality/value: This paper applies different models for analyzing large and cross-sectoral data regarding SME growth in the context of Sweden.

  • 46.
    Kallberg, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Economics of overfishing: Fishery economics in the Al-Batinah region, Oman2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse the sustainability of the fishing industry in the Al-­‐‑Batinah region in Oman using the Gordon-­‐‑Schaefer model and descriptive data. The Gordon-­‐‑Schaefer model did not give a realistic result with the data available. Looking at descriptive statistics of historical landings, there is nothing indicating that overfishing has been a problem in the region historically, but if current policies continue, it may develop into a future problem.

  • 47.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center).
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    What determines gender inequality in household food security in Kenya?: Application of exogenous switching treatment regression2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, 153-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics. Even if that had been thecase, however, results indicate that FHHs would still have been less food-secure than the MHHs due to unobservable characteristics.

  • 48.
    Lagerlöf, Lukas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Housing Shortage or Rising Rents: An examination of the potential for rent increases in case of a deregulation of the Swedish pricing system for rental apartments.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The post-war era housing market in Sweden has been characterized by wealth distributing- and social objectives. Regulation of the rent setting system, has been one of the primary instruments for the authorities in their attempts to achieve those objectives. The extensive shortage of rental apartments in the city of Gothenburg has raised the question whether it is appropriate to eliminate the pricing regulations or not. The general public view is that, at least in the short-run, market pricing will lead to a substantial increase in rents. The advocates of market pricing suggest that a rent increase will stimulate construction while the opponents argue that the regulated rents protects the least wealthy applicants from becoming excluded from the rental market.By studying the statistics from Boplats, the major housing agency in Gothenburg, and setting up a mathematical model, the objectives of this paper was to determine the magnitude of a rent increase, in case of deregulation of the current pricing system. The income requirements, imposed by the public housing companies, served as an upper limit for rising rents. However, an abolishment of these requirements is under investigation, wherefore, an examination of the effects of such abolishment has also been performed.The results from this analysis, suggest that rents in working-class districts, can only rise by 19 %, with income requirements as an upper limit, and 46.5 % with income requirements removed, before more than 79 % of the individuals applying for these apartments can no longer afford the rent. Based on these figures, I came to the conclusion that an abolishment of the income requirements will raise the potential for rent increases in case of deregulation of the rent setting system, bruksvärdesprincipen.

  • 49.
    Larsen, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Har de Skandinaviska länderna de rätta förutsättningarna för att bilda en valutaunion?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Larsson, Cristofer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lööv, Jonathan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Colombias frihandelsavtal och dess ekonomiska effekter.: Studie av komparativa fördelar och Terms of Trade2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of FTA’s on Colombia's aggregated industries. To be more specific, we look at how the industries that Colombia have comparative advantage in has changed. To identify comparative advantage we use two instruments, “ The Export index of revealed comparative advantage (XRCA)” and “Net Export Index (NX)”. We also look at Terms of trade during this period to analyze whether Colombia has benefited from these FTA’s and liberal trade policies. The study also try to explain the results that has occurred after the implementation of these FTA’s.It is difficult with the data in this study to draw any obvious conclusions regarding the comparative advantage in Colombia. Several factors can have an effect on Colombia’s comparative advantage. According to XRCA-index, Colombia has comparative advantage in fuel and agricultural sector. The sector fuel and mining products has had a positive trend since the financial crisis of 2008. While the agricultural sector has had a negative trend since 2013. Colombia’s NX-index, in the different industries, has had a negative trend during 2010s. According to the NX-index, Colombia’s comparative advantage has diminished in the sector in which they previously held comparative advantage in. The clothing industry lost its comparative advantage in 2012, we believe it’s due to the free trade agreement with Canada. We have also identified an increase in electronic components after the trade agreements.The result of Colombia’s terms of trade has been declining after the trade agreements were implemented after 2010, but the price of oil, which is Colombia’s biggest export good, might have played a significant role of this decline.

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