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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Paracetamol till barn och gravida – försiktighetsprincipen bör råda: Var återhållsam med paracetamol medan riskerna för adhd och astma utreds2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 34-35, 1350- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Buchanan, A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Nich, C.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Babuscio, T.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Easton, C. J.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Law and Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 34 Park St, New Haven, CT 06519, United States .
    Risk factors of violence during a 4-week period in a psychiatric outpatient population2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 12, 1021-1026 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical impact of structured risk assessment instruments has been limited by a lack of information regarding a) their short-term accuracy and b) the relationship between change as measured by the instrument and a change in the risk for harm. Data were collected every 4 weeks on a) variables designed to resemble the items of a structured risk assessment instrument, b) substance use, c) social circumstances and mental state, and d) violent behavior. Scores on the variables designed to resemble the items of a risk assessment instrument were associated with violence during the ensuing 4 weeks. However, an increase in a subject's score on these variables was not associated with violence. Instead, increasing cocaine use and increasing social conflict as described by the subject at interview were associated with violence during those weeks. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 3.
    Carolan, Patrick L.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Jaspers-Fayer, Fern
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Asmaro, Deyar T.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Liotti, Mario
    Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Electrophysiology of blunted emotional bias in psychopathic personality2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, no 1, 36-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diminished emotional capacity is a core characteristic of psychopathic personality. We examined behavioral and electrophysiological differences in attentional bias to emotional material in 34 healthy individuals rated high or low in psychopathic traits using the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (18 high-trait, 16 low-trait). While performing an emotional Stroop task, high-trait participants displayed reduced emotional modulation of the late positive potential (LPP, 400-600ms), and early anterior positivity (EAP, 200-300ms) amplitudes. Results suggest blunted bias to affective content in psychopathic personality, characterized by diminished early capture to emotional salience (EAP) and dampened cognitive emotional processing (LPP).

  • 4.
    Cox, J.
    et al.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Edens, J. F.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Magyar, M. S.
    Texas A and M University, United States.
    Lilienfeld, S. O.
    Emory University, United States.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Poythress, N. G.
    University of South Florida, United States.
    Using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory to identify subtypes of antisocial personality disorder2013In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 41, no 2, 125-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Poythress, Edens, et al. (2010) recently used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of antisocial and psychopathic offenders using a diverse collection of theoretically important clustering variables. Two predicted subtypes, primary and secondary psychopathy, were identified, in addition to non-psychopathic and (unexpectedly) "fearful" psychopathic offenders. The purpose of the present research was to determine whether these clusters could be replicated using a single self-report measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Method: Study 1: We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to predict cluster membership for the Poythress et al. subtypes based solely on the eight subscales of the PPI. Results: Study 1: Though overall classification accuracy with the original clusters was poor, PPI-derived subtypes differed from each other in theoretically consistent ways on several criterion measures. Method: Study 2: We used the PPI-based DFA to classify a separate sample of prison inmates from a prior PPI study (Edens et al., 2008). Results: Study 2: As predicted, inmates classified into the secondary psychopathy subgroup demonstrated the highest rates of aggressive misconduct whereas non-psychopathic were the least prone to engage in misconduct. Conclusion: The PPI may serve as a relatively simple method of identifying theoretically meaningful subtypes of psychopathic offenders.

  • 5.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Introduction to the Special Issue of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 91-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden .
    Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 130-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3). Three sets of ratings were completed by experienced clinicians for 35 forensic psychiatric patients, for both HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3. Reliability analyses focused on ratings of the presence of Version 3 risk factors, presence of Version 3 risk factor sub-items, relevance ratings for Version 3 risk factors, and Version 3 summary risk ratings for future violence. Concurrent validity analyses focused on the correlational association between Versions 2 and 3 in terms of the number of risk factors present. Findings indicated that Versions 2 and 3 were strongly correlated (.69 -.90). Interrater reliability was consistently excellent for the presence of risk factors and for summary risk ratings. The majority of relevance and sub-item ratings were in the good to excellent range, although there was a minority of such ratings in the fair or poor categories. Findings support the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of HCR-20V3. Implications for use of HCR-20V3 by professionals and agencies are discussed. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 7.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Hart, S. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Webster, C. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Guy, L. S.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States .
    Wilson, C. M.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 93-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20V3's risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 8.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A follow up study of former child and adolescent psychiatric patients´psychiatric care in adulthood2011In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, Vol. 26, no Suppl 1, FC27-03- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Alkohol hos ungdomar och risk för suicid: Svenska Lärkaresällskapets Riksstämma, sektionssymposium2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnpsykiatrins och vuxenpsykiatrins syn på varandras kunskaper och verksamhet.2000In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, no 4, 344-352 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Övergripande kunskaper kring gränsområdet och samarbetet mellan barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin och allmänpsykiatrin saknas nästan helt trots att de två disciplinerna har funnits parallellt under nästan hela 1900-talet. Brister i samarbetet har uppmärksammats i de statliga utredningar som under 1990-talet presenterades om den psykiatriska och den barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska vården. Undersökningen är en beskrivning av kunskaper/värderingar om varandra vid jämförelse av personalgrupper inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatri och vuxenpsykiatri. Målet är att beskriva vad som krävs för att utveckla samarbetet för äldre tonåringar/unga vuxna i åldrarna 16-25 år. Jämförelsen av personalgruppernas kunskaper/värderingar om varandra gjordes genom en enkätundersökning. Då liknande undersökningar ej har återfunnits vid litteratursökning kan denna enkätstudie ses som en �första förberedande� studie eller av pilotkaraktär. Till denna valdes sex personalgrupper med gemensam utbildning ut. . Resultaten tyder på att det inom vuxenpsykiatrisk verksamhet finns brister när det gäller barn- och ungdoms kunskap i allmänhet och att det finns skillnader i syn- och arbetssätt mellan disciplinerna. Grundutbildningen inom vårdyrkena borde förbättras både vad gäller barn- och ungdomspsykiatri och i vidareutbildningen bör kunskaper om varandras områden ingå. Organisationen inom sjukhuset ansågs utgöra ett hinder för samarbete. Övergången för patienter från barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin till vuxenpsykiatrin sågs som ett problem av båda personalgrupperna. Det fanns intresse för samarbete kring ungdomsgruppen med en vilja att närma sig varandra utifrån denna grupps behov.

  • 11.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Child psychiatric patients in adulthood: Psychiatric services use, mortality, and criminality.: Promoting Psychiatric Care, 27th Congress of the Nordic Psychiatric Association, Reykjavik2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 12.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Effektivare vård och nöjd personal då barnpsykiatrisk vård blev öppen1998In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 96, no 9, 1021-1022 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Beskrivning av organisationsförändring från traditionell barnpsykiatrisk skutenvård med miljöterapeutisk inriktning till öppenvård med systemisk inriktning. Intevjuer med personal 3 år efter förändringen Personalen är nöjdare med detta sätt att arbeta och vården kunde bedrivas på ett effektivare sätt

  • 13.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Har Ellen Key och barnperspektivet glömts bort helt och hållet?2009In: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 3-4, 55-63 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hur går det för barn- och ungdomspsykiatrins patienter?2009In: Psykisk Hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, no 2, 53-58 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna artikel bygger på Ulf Engqvists avhandling, som kan ses som ett steg i processen att bättre leva upp till bland annat psykiatrireformens intentioner kring barns och vuxnas psykiska hälsa. Det krävs ett bättre samarbete mellan de psykiatriska kunskapsområdena, psykiatriska verksamheter och andra myndigheter som påverkar den psykiska hälsan i det svenska samhället. Dessa förbättringar i hälso- och sjukvården som organisation och att alltid hålla patinternas bästa för ögonen kan förbättra prognosen för barn i riskzonen

  • 15.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence and their outcome in adulthood2012In: Clinical, Research and Treatment Approaches to Affective Disorders / [ed] Prof. Dr. Mário Francisco P. Juruena, IN-TECH, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Om samarbetet mellan barn- och ungdomspsykiatri och vuxenpsykiatri: Personalens kompetens och patienternas behov2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen behandlar gränsområdet mellan barn- och ungdomspsykiatri och vuxenpsykiatri. Syfte: att beskriva hur det går för barn- och ungdomspsykiatrins patienter, vilken den patientgrupp är som blir gemensam för de båda disciplinerna och vad som krävs för att utveckla samarbetet för äldre tonåringar/unga vuxna i åldrarna 16-25 år. Metod: Journal och registerstudie. Enkätundersökning riktad till personalgrupperna inom de två psykiatriska disciplinerna. Resultat: 25 patienter, 1,8 procent avled, majoriteten på grund av självmord. Drygt var 4:e tidigare BUP-patient och nästan dubbelt så många kvinnor som män (1,7:1), har sökt vuxenpsykiatrisk kontakt efter den barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska vården. En tredjedel av de tidigare BUP-patienterna var kända i kriminalregistret. Elva personer, 0,8 procent hade utvecklat så allvarligt missbruk att LVM-vård hade skett. Resultaten av enkätundersökningen tyder på att det inom vuxenpsykiatrisk verksamhet finns brister när det gäller barn- och ungdoms kunskap i allmänhet och att det finns skillnader i syn- och arbetssätt mellan disciplinerna. Övergången för patienter från barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin till vuxenpsykiatrin sågs som ett problem av båda personalgrupperna.

  • 17.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Psychoses in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Population and their Outcome in Adulthood2012In: Psychosis: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, 79-112 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Suicides, psychotic disorders and criminality among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to provide information about child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) patients and their outcome as adults: Were their difficulties in childhood due to mental illness, disablement and/or behaviour disorders? What happened to them as adults? Who were the patients in need of psychiatric care (GenP) in adulthood that had not had previous contact with CAP? Did this group differ from the former CAP group? Methods: Paper I-III: 1,400 CAP patients admitted 1975-1990 to inpatient or outpatient CAP care in Jämtland County, Sweden were followed until 2003. Paper IV: A sample of 167 GenP patients not treated in CAP was compared to GenP patients with a history of CAP care. Hospital records at CAP were reassessed according to a study specific protocol. Outcome was measured in relation to register data on mortality, suicides, psychiatric/somatic care, and criminal convictions. CAP records were examined for those treated for psychosis either at CAP and or in GenP. Results: Every third CAP patient has later received GenP care. They constituted a small part of the GenP patients in the same age-groups. The CAP patients showed an elevated rate of early death. Two of the 19 who later committed suicide had been initially admitted because of attempted suicide. Every third CAP patient had a criminal record. Over the past 50 years, the percentage of Swedish boys admitted to CAP care and later registered as criminals seems to have doubled while the corresponding percentage for girls has increased almost seven times. Behavioural disorders as a reason for CAP care were the most substantial risk factor for later criminality. Sixty-two former CAP patients (4.4%) received a psychosis diagnosis during the observation time 48 of them within the Schizophrenia categories and 14 with Psychotic Mood Disorder. Mean age at first onset was 21.4 years. Changes in behaviour, including social isolation, refusal to go to school, loneliness and odd behaviour in general were the initial signs and symptoms most frequently observed prior or upon admission to CAP-care. The GenP patients with and without a previous history in CAP care had similar problems as adults. Both groups had a larger need of somatic hospital inpatient-care before the age of 18 years when compared to the general population. More than a third of the treatment occasions occurred in paediatric care. Conclusions: Psychosocial risk factors and social maladjustment in childhood seem to be the most important predictors of early death, including suicide. The increased risk of later criminality is hypothetically the result of rising alcohol consumption in Sweden, the comorbid use of illegal drugs, and changes in the organization of child social welfare work, the school system, and CAP methods that has occurred since 1970. Patients with onset of schizophrenia before 13-17 years of age showed typical symptoms upon admission to CAP care; while late-onset psychosis among former CAP could not be predicted from information gathered during CAP care. There is a group of patients treated in paediatrics and in CAP during childhood and adolescence before becoming later patients in GenP. These patients can most likely be identified during childhood if a closer collaboration is developed between paediatrics and CAP services. Hypothetically, the need of GenP care as adults in the larger group of GenP patients without a previous CAP history may develop from accumulated stressful life-events.

  • 19.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, P-A
    Barn och ungdomar inom BUP - Hur går det för dem?2005In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 4, 39-44 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, P-A
    Child and adolescent psychiatric patients and later criminality2004In: Facilitating Pathways: Care, Treatment and Prevention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Proceedings. 16th International Congress of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, Berlin: Springer , 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, P-A
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Death and suicide among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients2006In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 6, 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increased mortality rates among previous child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) patients have been found in Scandinavian studies up to the 1980s. The suicide risk in this group has been estimated to be almost five times higher than expected. This article addresses two questions: Do Swedish CAP patients continue to risk premature death and what kind of information related to psychiatric symptoms and/or behavior problems can predict later suicide? METHODS: Hospital files, Sweden's census databases (including immigration and emigration) and administrative databases (including the Swedish Hospital Discharge register and the Persons Convicted of Offences register), and the Cause of Death register were examined to determine the mortality rate in a group of 1,400 former CAP inpatients and outpatients over a period of 12-33 years. Observed and expected numbers of deceased were calculated with the prospective method and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) method. The relative risk or the risk ratio (RR) is presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Significance level tests were made using two-by-two tables and chi-square tests. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four males and 14 females died. Compared with the general population, the standardized mortality ratio in this group of CAP patients was significantly higher in both sexes. Behavioral problems, school problems, and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse and criminality (including alcohol-related crimes) were found to be important predictors. Thirty-two deaths were attributed to suicide, intoxication, drug overdose, or accident; one patient died of an alcohol abuse-related disorder, and five patients died of natural causes. Suicide was the most common cause of death, but only 2 of these 19 cases were initially admitted for attempted suicide. CONCLUSION: We suggest that suicide and death prevention among CAP patients may not be a psychiatric issue per se but a future function of society's juvenile social-welfare investments and juvenile-delinquency prevention programs.

  • 22.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, P-A
    Mortality among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients.2004In: Facilitating Pathways: Care, Treatment and Prevention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16th International Congress of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 23.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, P-A
    Which child and adolescent psychiatric patients need psychiatric care as adults?: Trauma and recovery, Care of Children by 21st Century Clinicians, 14th International Congress of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, PA
    Young adult and middle-aged psychiatric patients - a comparison of those with and without a history as recipients of child and adolescent psychiatric care.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Child and adolescent psychiatric patients and later criminality2007In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, no 147, 221- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sweden has an extensive child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP) research tradition in which longitudinal methods are used to study juvenile delinquency. Up to the 1980s, results from descriptions and follow-ups of cohorts of CAP patients showed that children´s behavioural disturbances or disorders and school problems, together with dysfunctional family situations, were the main reasons for families, children, and youth to seek help from CAP units. Such factors were also related to registered criminality and registered alcohol and drug abuse in former CAP patients as adults. This study investigated the risk for patients treated 1975-1990 to be registered as criminals until the end of 2003. Methods A regional sample of 1,400 former CAP patients, whose treatment occurred between 1975 and 1990, was followed to 2003, using database-record links to the Register of Persons Convicted of Offences at the National Council for Crime Prevention (NCCP). Results Every third CAP patient treated between 1975 and 1990 (every second man and every fifth woman) had entered the Register of Persons Convicted of Offences during the observation period, which is a significantly higher rate than the general population. Conclusions Results were compared to published results for CAP patients who were treated between 1953 and 1955 and followed over 20 years. Compared to the group of CAP patients from the 1950s, the results indicate that the risk for boys to enter the register for criminality has doubled and for girls, the risk seems to have increased sevenfold. The reasons for this change are discussed. Although hypothetical and perhaps speculative this higher risk of later criminality may be the result of lack of social control due to (1) rising consumption of alcohol, (2) changes in organisation of child social welfare work, (3) the school system, and (4) CAP methods that were implemented since 1970.

  • 26.
    Engqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska Institutet, institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    The occurrence and nature of early signs of schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood2008In: Child and Adolescent Mental Health, ISSN 1475-357X, E-ISSN 1475-3588, Vol. 2, no 1, 30- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This investigation was designed to characterize psychotic disorders among patients originally treated as in- and outpatients by child and adolescent psychiatric services and subsequently followed-up into mid-adulthood. The age at the first onset on symptoms, possible changes in diagnoses, early signs noted prior to or upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care and possible differences between patients with early- and later- onset disorder were of particular interest.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of patients (285 in- and 1115 outpatients) born between 1957 and 1976 and admitted to and treated by child and adolescent psychiatric care units in Jämtland County, Sweden, between 1975 and 1990. The status of their mental health was monitored until 2003 using official registries and hospital records. Diagnoses based on the ICD-8 and -9 systems, which were used in Sweden from 1968-1997, converted to diagnoses according to ICD-10, which has been in use since 1997. The Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States was employed to assess the information concerning psychopathology provided by the hospital records.

    Results

    By the end of the follow-up period 62 former child and adolescent psychiatric patients (36 females and 26 males), 4.4% of the entire study group, had received an ICD-10 diagnosis of "F20-29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" (48) and/or "F30-39: Psychotic mood disorders" (14). One-third (21) of these individuals were given their initial diagnosis of psychosis in connection with child and adolescent psychiatric care. Two of these 21 were not treated later for this disorder in general (adult) psychiatric care whereas the remaining 19 individuals were diagnosed for the same type of disorder as adults. The other 41 patients were diagnosed as psychotic only in connection with general (adult) psychiatric care. The mean age at the time of first onset of symptoms was 21.4 years (SD 6.4) and corresponding median age was 18. Behavioural changes and positive symptoms were the most frequent signs associated with a diagnosis of "F20-F29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" made during child and adolescent psychiatric care. In cases where a specific psychopathology developed later on the initial admission to child and adolescent psychiatry involved unspecified psychopathology.

    Conclusions

    In summary, it appears that psychotic disorders are relatively uncommon among patients admitted to child and adolescent psychiatric care in Sweden. However, individuals experiencing early onset of disorders categorized as "F20-29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" may already exhibit typical symptoms upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care of the age of 13-17; whereas late-onset disorders it appear not be associated with any obvious signs or symptoms years before the disorder has developed fully. Finally, certain cases of psychotic disorder during adolescence seem to have been episodic.

     

  • 27.
    Fernandes, C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Grayton, H.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Poston, L.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Samuelsson, A. -M
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Taylor, P. D.
    Division of Women's Health, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Collier, D. A.
    MRC Social Genetic Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP), Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to hyperactivity in offspring2012In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 17, no 12, 1159-1160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Fields, Sherecce
    et al.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Edens, John F.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Smith, Shannon Toney
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Rulseh, Allison
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Donnellan, M. Brent
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Psychol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.
    Ruiz, Mark A.
    Univ S Florida, Dept Mental Hlth Law & Policy, Tampa, FL 33620 USA.
    McDermott, Barbara E.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Brief Form in Justice-Involved Samples2015In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 27, no 4, 1211-1218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulsivity is an important component If many forms of psychopathology. Though widely used as an index of this construct, the 30-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (HIS-11) has demonstrated questionable psychometric properties in several research reports. An 8-item shortened Version has recently been proposed, the Barran Impulsiveness Scale Brief (BIS-Brief) form, which was designed to overcome some of the limitations of the longer scale. In this report, we examine the internal structure and theoretically relevant external correlates of this new short form in large archival samples of individuals involved in the criminal justice system (prison inmates, substance abusers in mandatory treatment, and forensic inpatients). Confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS-Brief indicates adequate fit following a relatively minor modification. Correlations between the HIS-Brief and an array' of criterion measures other self-report scales, interview-based measures, and behavioral outcomes are consistent with predictions and show relatively little or no decrement in predictive validity when compared with the 30-item HIS-11. Our results suggest that the HIS-Brief is a promising brief measure of impulsivity that evinces good psychometric properties across a range of offender samples.

  • 29.
    Fundin Persson, Anette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Engqvist, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitet vid depression: - en del av den psykiatriska omvårdnaden2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and mental illness is now a major health problem. Although the physical health benefits are well known, there are few in health care that uses physical activity as complementary treatment of depression state. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identity and describe staff's experience and views on physical activity as part of psychiatric care for depression condition. The study was a qualitative study of structuring focus group interviews who were analyzed using content analysis in which a major theme; To have knowledge and ideas but not getting to it, two themes and seven subthemes, was the result. The results of the study showed that nursing staff felt that it was better before when it was a more structured life with exercise and planned activities of each department that the patients would participate in. The results showed both obstacles and opportunities in terms of physical activity as health care measure. The conclusion is that the staff has knowledge of care measures for depression but it is a great need for improved physical activity on depression for patients in psychiatric clinic.

  • 30.
    Israelsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Forskningsplattformen socialt arbete.
    Compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers - international trends during 25 years2012In: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 6, no 18, 302-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The study explores international trends in law on compulsory commitment to care of substance misusers (CCC), and two subtypes – civil CCC and CCC within criminal justice legislation – as well as maximum length and amount of applications of such care. Method: The time period covers more than 25 years, and a total of 104 countries and territories. The study is based on available data in three times of observation (1986, 1999 and 2009). Applications of CCC in number of cases are studied on European level for the years 2002–2006. Trends are analyzed using nonparametric tests and general linear models for repeated measures. Findings are discussed from contextual analysis. Result:  There is a trend towards decrease in the number of countries worldwide having civil CCC legislation after the millennium, while CCC under criminal law has increased since the mid-1980s, resulting in some total net decrease. The shift results in longer mean duration of CCC and an increase in the number of cases sentenced. Conclusion:  There is a risk that the shift from civil CCC to penal CCC implies more focus on young outacting males in compulsory treatment and that the societal responsibility for more vulnerable persons might be neglected.

  • 31.
    Johansson, I. M.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Skärsäter, I.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The experience of working on a locked acute psychiatric ward2013In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 20, no 4, 321-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study's aim was to elucidate health-care staff experience of working on a locked acute psychiatric ward. In many countries changes in health care has contributed to fewer beds available in inpatient care, and a concentration of patients with severe psychiatric conditions. This implies a changing work environment in acute psychiatric care. Qualitative interviews with health-care staff (n= 10) were carried out on a ward for patients with affective disorder and eating disorder in a Swedish hospital. Qualitative content analysis was used. Four themes were identified from the data: 'undergoing changes in care delivery', 'feeling a need for security and control', 'managing the demands at work' and 'feeling a sense of responsibility'. This study adds to earlier research into how a sense of responsibility can place a significant burden on health-care staff working on a locked psychiatric ward and also contribute to increased control of patients. This study also shows that relationships and power structures among health-care staff need to be addressed when organizational changes are made in care delivery. Further research is needed to reach a comprehensive understanding of care on locked acute psychiatric wards, including a development of nursing and medicine as knowledge domains in one common context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  • 32.
    Kamp, Carolin Friederike
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Psychotherapy, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Sport Sci, D-97082 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters2014In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 7, 709-714 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarises research studies on the impact and beneficial effects of different types of exercise on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provides recommendations for the scientific and therapeutic communities. Conclusion Although the design and the exercise interventions featured in these studies varied considerably, all showed that exercise reduced the symptoms of ADHD and led to improvements in social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters.

  • 33.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Clin Child Psychiat, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Placental Size Is Associated with Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, Art. no. e40534- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of the placenta in fetal programming has been recognized as a highly significant, yet often neglected area of study. We investigated placental size in relation to psychopathology, in particular attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in children at 8 years of age, and later as adolescents at 16 years. Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective data were obtained from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1986. Placental weight, surface area and birth weight were measured according to standard procedures, within 30 minutes after birth. ADHD symptoms, probable psychiatric disturbance, antisocial disorder and neurotic disorder were assessed at 8 years (n = 8101), and ADHD symptoms were assessed again at 16 years (n = 6607), by teachers and parents respectively. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between placental size and mental health outcomes, and controlled for gestational age, birth weight, socio-demographic factors and medical factors, during gestation. There were significant positive associations between placental size (weight, surface area and placental-to-birth-weight ratio) and mental health problems in boys at 8 and 16 years of age. Increased placental weight was linked with overall probable psychiatric disturbance (at 8y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.04-1.25]), antisocial behavior (at 8 y, OR = 1.14 [95% CI = 1.03-1.27]) and ADHD symptoms (inattention-hyperactivity at 16y, OR = 1.19 [95% CI = 1.02-1.38]). No significant associations were detected among girls. Conclusions/Significance: Compensatory placental growth may occur in response to prenatal insults. Such overgrowth may affect fetal development, including brain development, and ultimately contribute to psychopathology.

  • 34.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Univ Oulu, Clin Child Psychiat, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Prenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment and Later Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, Art. no. e81394- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC) and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. Methods: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC), n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment - gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort - matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves - pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. Results: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45]) and inattention (B=.97 [95% CI:. 16-1.80]) at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. Conclusions: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on the fetal brain.

  • 35.
    Laurell, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellstrom, Ake
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Deceptive behaviour and instrumental violence among psychopathic and non-psychopathic violent forensic psychiatric patients2014In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, Vol. 20, no 5, 467-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deceptive behaviour and instrumental violence are well-known psychopathic features and as such play important roles in the assessment of psychopathy. This study examined first, the nature of the violence committed by offenders that have been admitted to forensic psychiatric care and whether scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), Part 1, were associated with the instrumentality of violence. Second, we examined the proneness of offenders to re-frame the instrumentality in their past violent crimes, and whether this was associated with scores on the PCL:SV. The results show that the PCL:SV, Part 1 (interpersonal/affective features), was positively related to the officially coded instrumentality of the violent crimes. As expected, this association disappeared when the instrumentality was self-reported. However, the majority of the patients tended to exaggerate the reactivity of their violent crimes when it was self-reported, indicating that most offenders, independently of level of psychopathy, used deception when questioned about the characteristics of their past violent crimes. The reasons for, and implications of, the use of deception are discussed.

  • 36. Linnet, K.M.
    et al.
    Dalsgaard, S.
    Obel, C.
    Wisborg, K.
    Henriksen, T.B.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kotimaa, A.
    Moilanen, I.
    Thomsen, P.H.
    Olsen, J.
    Järvelin, M.R.
    Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy and risk of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders: A review of current evidence.2003In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 160, no 6, 1028-1040 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Lochner, C
    et al.
    Seedat, S
    Allgulander, C
    Kidd, M
    Stein, D
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The role of trauma history in predicting anxiety disorders: A cross-national study.2010In: African Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 1994-8220, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lochner, Christine
    et al.
    MRC Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Seedat, Soraya
    MRC Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Kidd, Martin
    Centre for Statistical Consultation, Department of Statistics & Actuarial science, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Stein, Dan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Childhood trauma in adults with social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A cross-national study2010In: African Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 1994-8220, Vol. 13, no 5, 376-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The influence of childhood trauma on the development of adult psychopathology is far from being elucidated.  As part of a collaborative project between research groups from South Africa (SA) and Sweden focusing on genetic and environmental factors contributing to anxiety disorders, this study specifically investigated rates of childhood trauma in South African and Swedish patients respectively, and whether, in the sample as a whole, different traumatic experiences in childhood is predictive of social anxiety (SAD) or panic disorder (PD) in adulthood.

    Method: Participants with SAD or PD (85 from SA, 135 from Sweden) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).  Logistic regression was performed with data from the two countries separately, and from the sample as a whole, with primary diagnoses as dependent variables, with gender, age, and country as covariates, and the CTQ subscale totals as independent variables.  Additionally the study investigated the internal consistency of the CTQ subscales.

    Results: SA patients showed higher levels of childhood trauma than Swedish patients.  When data from both countries were combined, SAD patients reported higher rates of childhood emotional abuse compared to those with PD; moreover, emotional abuse in childhood was found to play a predictive role in SAD/PD in adulthood in the Swedish and the combined samples, and the same trend was found in the SA sample.  The psychometric qualities of the CTQ subscales were adequate with the exception of the physical neglect subscale.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that anxiety disorder patients may differ across countries in terms of childhood trauma.  Certain forms of childhood abuse may contribute specific vulnerability to different types of psychopathology.  Longitudinal studies should focus on the potential sequential development of SAD/PD among individuals with childhood emotional abuse.

  • 39.
    Nordström, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Hurtig, Tuula
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Rodriguez, alina
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Savolainen, Jukka
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Moilanen, Irma
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Taanila, Anja
    University and University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Comorbidity of disruptive behavioral disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Indicator of severity in problematic behavior?2013In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 67, no 4, 240-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by certain patterns of misbehavior among adolescents. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine how the comorbidity of DBD and ADHD affects in misbehavior among adolescents. Methods: A total of 158 adolescents aged 16–18 years, from a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), were interviewed with the Finnish translation of the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children—Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) in order to obtain DBD, including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and ADHD diagnoses. The structure of the CD symptoms, obtained from the K-SADS-PL, was compared with the previously formed model about the development of the problematic behavior. The severity of the CD symptoms was compared with adolescents diagnosed with only DBD, only ADHD and with both DBD and ADHD. Also, the associations with other psychiatric disorders diagnosed at age 16 were evaluated. Results: The boys in the study sample were diagnosed with ADHD or with comorbid DBD and ADHD more often than girls. The severity of CD symptoms was statistically significantly associated with the comorbid DBD and ADHD group. The adolescents diagnosed with comorbid DBD and ADHD had an increased risk for anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Conclusions: The comorbidity of DBD and ADHD seems to indicate the severity of CD symptoms. Clinical implications: The comorbidity between DBD and ADHD should be considered in clinical practice because it could indicate more serious problematic behavior than pure disorders alone.

  • 40.
    Oliveira, S. E. H.
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisboa, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. CIS-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Carvalho, H.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIES-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 229, no 1-2, 167-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some mental illnesses and certain mental health care environments can be severely stigmatizing, which seems to be related to decreased self-esteem and a deterioration of the quality of social relationships for people with mental illness. This study aims to identify clinical profiles characterized by clinical diagnoses more strongly associated with the treatment settings and related to internalized stigma, self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships. It also aimed to analyze associations between clinical profiles and socio-demographic indicators. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on a sample of 261 individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, from hospital-based and community-based facilities. MCA showed four distinct clinical profiles allowing a differentiation among levels of: internalized stigma, social relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. Overall, results revealed that internalized stigma remains a pervasive problem for some people with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Particularly, internalized stigma and social relationships dissatisfaction and associated socio-demographic indicators appear to be a risk factor for social isolation for individuals with schizophrenia, which may worsen the course of the disorder. Our findings highlight the importance to develop structured interventions aimed to reduce internalized stigma, and exclusion of those who suffer the loss of their social roles and networks. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 41.
    Robbe, Michiel De Vries
    et al.
    Van der Hoeven Clin, Dept Res, NL-3500 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    de Vogel, Vivienne
    Van der Hoeven Clin, Dept Res, NL-3500 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Psychol, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Nijman, Henk L. I.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Psychol, Den Dolder, Netherlands.
    Changes in Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors for Violence During Inpatient Forensic Psychiatric Treatment: Predicting Reductions in Postdischarge Community Recidivism2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 1, 53-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have rarely investigated the association between improvements on dynamic risk and protective factors for violence during forensic psychiatric treatment and reduced recidivism after discharge. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of treatment progress in risk and protective factors on violent recidivism. For a sample of 108 discharged forensic psychiatric patients pre- and posttreatment assessments of risk (HCR-20) and protective factors (SAPROF) were compared. Changes were related to violent recidivism at different follow-up times after discharge. Improvements on risk and protective factors during treatment showed good predictive validity for abstention from violence for short-(1 year) as well as long-term (11 years) follow-up. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of the HCR-20 and the SAPROF to change and shows improvements on dynamic risk and protective factors are associated with lower violent recidivism long after treatment.

  • 42.
    Silva, C.
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Cis-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Da Fonseca, D.
    Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone (INT) UMR 7289, Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, Marseille, France.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Cis-IUL, Av. das Forças Armadas, Lisboa, Portugal .
    Deruelle, C.
    Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone (INT) UMR 7289, Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, Marseille, France.
    Motivational approach and avoidance in autism spectrum disorder: A comparison between real photographs and cartoons2015In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 17, 13-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a lack of motivation to engage in spontaneous social encounters with other human beings. However, the basis for these diminished approach-related social behaviours is still unclear. This study investigated social motivation in ASD using an approach-avoidance task. In particular, we presented a group of ASD and a group of neurotypical adolescents with a series of emotionally positive, negative, and neutral visual stimuli, comprised of real photographs and cartoons - a stimulus with incentive salience for individuals with ASD. Participants were asked to either push or pull a joystick in response to an emotionally independent feature of the stimuli (colour frame). Following the main task, participants also rated the stimuli for affective valence and arousal. Results showed a dissociation in motivational responses towards positive stimuli for the ASD group only: faster avoidance from positive real photographs, but greater approach to positive cartoons, while no differences were found between emotionally negative or neutral stimuli. By contrast, no differences between the groups were found for the self-reported affective ratings. In light of the social motivation hypothesis, these atypical motivational responses suggest a deficit in assigning reward to socio-emotional stimuli in adolescents with ASD. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    snyder, Kristen M.
    et al.
    university of south florida.
    Gomez, A.
    University of South Florida.
    Armstrong, M. L.
    University of South Florida.
    Dailey, K
    University of South Florida.
    Massey, O. T.
    University of South Florida.
    Evaluation of Florida's sub acute inpatient psychiatric program (SIPP)2000Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Strand, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Justitiedepartementet.
    Söderberg, Erik
    Rättspsykiatriska regionkliniken Sundsvall.
    Den rättspsykiatriska vården2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Falun, Åkeshov, Knutby, Gamla Stan, NK, Arvika, Norrahammar är namnen på några av de platser som har varit föremål för massmedias och allmänhetens intresse under senare år efter vad som betecknats som vansinnesdåd.Alla dessa vansinnesdåd har begåtts av gärningsmän som lider av psykiska problem. När problemen är så stora att tillståndet motsvarar det som i lagen benämns en allvarlig psykisk störning och gärningsmannen är i behov av vård kan domstolen överlämna gärningsmannen till rättspsykiatrisk vård i stället för att döma till fängelse. Boken beskriver de insatser som görs av dem som arbetar inom den rättspsykiatriska vården, vårdens organisation och även de lagar och regler som omger denna komplexa verksamhet. Den rättspsykiatriska vården är ingen lärobok i psykiatri, men ger en översikt över grundläggande begrepp och psykiatriska diagnoser, hur dessa manifesteras och representeras inom den rättspsykiatriska vården. Omvårdnad, behandling och etiska dilemman beskrivs också, liksom vårdens skyldigheter och patientens rättigheter. Säkerhet och riskbedömning är andra viktiga begrepp som belyses. En redogörelse för hur gärningsmän med svåra psykiska störningar bedöms och tas om hand i vår omvärld finns med för att illustrera att vårt nuvarande svenska sätt att döma och ta hand om sådana gärningsmän inte är det enda möjliga alternativet.Boken är främst avsedd för grundutbildningen av personal inom det rättspsykiatriska området och angränsande verksamheter samt för fortbildningsändamål, men den kan även vara en källa till ökad kunskap för andra som är intresserade av att ta del av detta komplexa och svåra, men samtidigt fascinerande område i korsningen mellan hälso- och sjukvården och rättssamhället.

  • 45.
    Strub, D. S.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada .
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Nicholls, T. L.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada .
    The Validity of Version 3 of the HCR-20 Violence Risk Assessment Scheme Amongst Offenders and Civil Psychiatric Patients2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 148-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study presents an empirical evaluation of the performance of the third version of the HCR-20. This prospective research project was conducted using a sample of 106 offenders and psychiatric patients who were transitioning out of institutions and into the community. Results provided strong support for the bivariate associations between the ratings of the presence and relevance of risk factors, as well as summary risk ratings, and violence at 4 to 6 weeks and 6 to 8 months. Although relevance ratings did not add incrementally to presence ratings, summary risk ratings added incrementally to both. Findings were not moderated by either sub-sample or gender. Version 3 of the HCR-20 was highly correlated with Version 2. Associations with violence were comparable between instruments. Findings were supportive of these basic elements of Version 3. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 46.
    Wallin , Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Omvårdnad i arbetet med patienter med Instabil personlighetsstörning: sjuksköterskans attityd gentemot denna patientgrupp2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Instabil personlighetsstörning är en komplex och allvarlig mental störning som karaktäriseras av en ostabil självbild där individen ofta använder sig av primitiva försvarsmekanismer. Det är den personlighetsstörning som oftast har kontakt med den somatiska sidan av hälso- och sjukvården där det behövs professionella som kan bemöta dessa patienter. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa omvårdnaden i arbetet med patienter med Instabil personlighetsstörning, samt hur sjuksköterskors attityder ser ut gentemot denna patientgrupp. Metod: Systematiska litteraturstudier tillämpades genom sök i databaserna Pubmed, Cinahl, Psykinfo samt manuellt sök. 15 artiklar valdes ut och en innehållsanalys ledde till tre kategorier som presenterades i resultatet. Resultat: Sjuksköterskorna hade negativa attityder och uppfattningar om patienter med Instabil personlighetsstörning. För lite kunskaper om patientgruppen gjorde att de kände sig dåligt förberedda inför arbetet. Djupare kunskap innebar positivare attityder. Diskussion: Det krävs att sjuksköterskan har en djup kunskap och ett professionellt förhållningssätt. Kunskapen kan indirekt göra vårdare- patient relationen mer behaglig för alla parter då sjuksköterskan genom en ökad förståelse kan jobba med patienten istället för mot denne. Slutsats: Utbildningstillfällen borde erbjudas till alla som arbetar med denna patientgrupp. Debriefingstunder borde bli rutin efter svåra händelser i omvårdnadsarbetet.

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