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  • 1.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Voltage transients measurements and power line communication2016In: 2016 57th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), IEEE, 2016, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2-150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments and public buildings were measured. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 150 kHz-500 kHz (according to EN 55011 to EN 55022) and in the lower frequency range of 3 kHz to 95 kHz. Results indicate that voltage transients are generated mostly by switching mode power supplies, pumps, rectifiers, inverters and even low quality smart meters. Several of these devices exceeded PLC standard level, 122 dBμV. Additionally we demonstrate that basic power quality recordings do not provide enough information to mitigate PLC problems occurring within microseconds and frequency specific voltage transient measurements are needed.

  • 2.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 3. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Falck, E.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Arctic Geophys, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Sjöblom, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Uppsala; Univ Ctr Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Kljun, N.
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, Wales.
    Sahlee, E.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Omar, A. M.
    Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Rutgersson, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Air-sea gas transfer in high Arctic fjords2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 2519-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Arctic fjords and high-latitude seas, strong surface cooling dominates during a large part of the year, generating water-side convection (w(*w)) and enhanced turbulence in the water. These regions are key areas for the global carbon cycle; thus, a correct description of their air-sea gas exchange is crucial. CO2 data were measured via the eddy covariance technique in marine Arctic conditions and reveal that water-side convection has a major impact on the gas transfer velocity. This is observed even at wind speeds as high as 9ms(-1), where convective motions are generally thought to be suppressed by wind-driven turbulence. The enhanced air-sea transfer of CO2 caused by water-side convection nearly doubled the CO2 uptake; after scaled to open-sea conditions the contribution from w(*w) to the CO2 flux remained as high as 34%. This phenomenon is expected to be highly important for the total carbon uptake in marine Arctic areas.

  • 5. Andersson, L
    et al.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Kompostering av använt katt skogsströ1998Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Andres, R. J
    et al.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions for China at monthly resolution (abs)2005In: Proceedings. Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December, 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Palm Oil2011In: Palm Oil: Nutrition, Uses and Impacts / [ed] Palmetti, Maria L., Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 159-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Palm oil is used for cooking in Southeast Asia and Africa and as a food additive in a number of processed foods world-wide. The production of palm oil is increasing, and it is of special interest from a nutritional point of view due to its high energy content and its significant content of micronutrients. In addition, palm oil is increasingly used to produce various biofuels. Due to large production volumes and diverse applications of palm oil, it is highly interesting and important to study the environmental impacts of its production. This chapter discusses how the environmental impacts of palm oil can be assessed, focusing on the life cycle environmental impacts of palm oil in comparison to similar products. A brief overview of life cycle assessment as a method is given, and results are presented together with suggestions for environmental improvements of palm oil cultivation and production. It is shown that the magnitude of the environmental impacts connected to palm oil in relation to other products is heavily affected by the choice of environmental indicators, which in LCA studies consist of both an environmental impact category and a so-called functional unit. Regarding impact categories, the global warming and acidification potentials of palm oil are lower than those of rapeseed oil per kg oil. The water footprint of palm oil and rapeseed oil are about the same on a mass basis, but for the two land use indicators soil erosion and heavy metal accumulation, rapeseed oil has a lower impact than palm oil. Specific interest is given to the life cycle energy use of palm oil in response to the unclear and diverse definitions of this impact category in different studies. It is concluded that there is a need to carefully define the energy use impact category when reporting on palm oil or similar products, and also to differentiate between different kinds of energy sources. If instead of mass the micronutrient content is applied as functional unit, palm oil still has lower global warming potential and acidification than rapeseed oil when compared on the basis of vitamin E content. However, if β-carotene content is used as functional unit, rapeseed oil is not relevant for comparison due to its negligible content of β-carotene. For that case, palm oil is therefore instead compared to tomatoes on a β-carotene basis, since tomatoes are rich in β-carotene. The tomatoes were shown to perform better then palm oil regarding global warming potential on a β-carotene basis. The effects of time and scale on the environmental impacts of palm oil, which includes changes in technical performance and electricity sources, are also discussed in this chapter. It is shown that combustion of the methane formed from the palm oil mill effluent can significantly reduce the global warming potential.

  • 8.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy use indicators in energy and life cycle assessments of biofuels: review and recommendations2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 31, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how indicators for energy use are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) and energy analysis case studies of biofuels. We found five inherently different types of indicators to describe energy use: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. It was also found that the examined reports and articles, the choice of energy use indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in relation to other energy use indicators. In order to investigate the differences between these indicators, they were applied to a case. The life cycle energy use of palm oil methyl ester was calculated and reported using these five different indicators for energy use, giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. The indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How much energy is used when producing biofuels?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use for production of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways, using well-defined indicators. The amount of fossil energy used in the production of a biofuel (e.g. diesel fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when comparing different biofuels or when optimizing the production systems. With increasing worldwide production of different biofuels, a shift in focus from fossil energy to the entire energy use will also be necessary. In that context, not only reducing the use of fossil fuels in biofuel production, but also optimizing the use of all energy sources over the whole life cycle becomes an important to ensure the sustainability of biofuels. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not straight forward due to methodological difficulties. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used in life cycle assessment (LCA). But the term ‘energy use’ is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different LCA studies of biofuels. It is often unclear whether the total energy use, or only fossil energy, has been considered, and whether primary or secondary energy has been considered. In addition, it is often difficult to tell if and how the energy content of the fuel or the biomass source was included in the energy use. This study presents and discusses the current situation in terms of energy use indicators are applied in LCA studies on biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As an illustration, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system (production of palm oil methyl ester), resulting in considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicator needs to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Above all, it is important to avoid direct comparisons between different energy use results calculated using different indicators, since this could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Towards transparent and relevant use of energy use indicators in LCA studies of biofuels2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of energy has led to resource crises during the history of mankind, such as the deforestation of the Mediterranean during antiquity, and of Great Britain before the 19th century, and the oil crisis in the 20th century and continuing. Considering this, the frequent use of the impact category ‘energy use’ in the environmental assessment tool life cycle assessment (LCA) is not surprising. However, in a previous study, some of the authors noted that the term ‘energy use’ was not applied in a transparent and consistent way in LCA studies of biofuels. In this work we investigate how energy use indicators are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biofuels. In the examined reports and articles, the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed and we observed five inherently different energy use indicators: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. These five energy use indicators were applied to the same cradle-to-gate production system of palm oil methyl ester (PME), giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Authors of LCA studies should first define the purpose of their energy use indicator (fossil scarcity, energy scarcity, energy efficiency, cost/benefit comparison) and may then make a motivated choice of the energy use indicator.

  • 12.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Persson, Sara
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape, oil palm and Jatropha2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) biofuel was performed. The study was commissioned by Volvo Technology Corporation and Volvo Penta Corporation as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the environmental impact of potential future biobased liquid fuels for cars and trucks. The life cycle includes production of vegetable oil from rape, oil palm or Jatropha, transport of the oil to the production site, production of the HVO from the oil, and combustion of the HVO. The functional unit of the study is 1 kWh energy out from the engine of a heavy-duty truck and the environmental impact categories that are considered are global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and embedded fossil production energy. System expansion was used to take into account byproducts from activities in the systems; this choice was made partly to make this study comparable to results reported by other studies. The results show that HVO produced from palm oil combined with energy production from biogas produced from the palm oil mill effluent has the lowest environmental impact of the feedstocks investigated in this report. HVO has a significantly lower life cycle GWP than conventional diesel oil for all feedstocks investigated, and a GWP that is comparable to results for e.g. rape methyl ester reported in the literature. The results show that emissions from soil caused by microbial activities and leakage are the largest contributors to most environmental impact categories, which is supported also by other studies. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil account for more than half of the GWP of HVO. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions from soil cause almost all of the life cycle EP of HVO and contribute significantly to the AP as well. The embedded fossil production energy was shown to be similar to results for e.g. rape methyl ester from other studies. A sensitivity analysis shows that variations in crop yield and in nitrous oxide emissions from microbial activities in soil can cause significant changes to the results.

  • 13. Asthana, Arvind
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Big efficiency in small scale2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14. Axblom, Caroline
    et al.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Astaxanthin from microalgae: effects of temperature and nutrient stress on production in the green alga Haematococcus lacustris1999In: 4th international Ecological Engineering conference: Manging the Wastewater Resource, June 7-11, Aas, Norway, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mårtenson, Ture
    Van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Åhlander, G
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Näringslivsinsatser i glesbygd: utvärdering av fem ekokommunprojekt1995Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mårtenson, Ture
    Van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Åhlander, G
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Svenska ekokommuner: utvärdering av fjorton ekokommunprojekt1995Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bazyan, Saloume
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Environmental impact of war technology and prohibition processes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays humans struggle to supply and attain longer and more appropriate life time. Introducing new technologies, which, speeded up by modernization and industrialization, is the main subject in many branches of science to improve the human’s life; but this rate of innovation is not always pleasurable. As seen in many cases, side effects of using new technology come up as warning signs, and lead to huge environmental and humanitarian disaster with irreversible impact. Moreover, most of these technologies might be applied in different kinds of warfare where nations use high-Tech as tools to reach other’s resources and raise their economic benefits. As in most wars that happened in the world, updated technologies have been applied to overcome the combatant, which finally shows up as damages on the environment, economy, civilians and soldiers. In this study we reviewed the reasons of shaping warfare and its consequences in different aspects of environment, civilians, soldiers and economy. The questions I followed to answer were: What are those main factors that induced by technology to form different kinds of warfare? And, can technology be altered as a tool to make a war more environmentally friendly? To answer these two main questions, we need to know reasons for shaping warfare a) Economy, b) Ideological/religious, and c) Power/pride/love which raise many theories such as Economic, Behavioural, Evolutionary, Demographic, Rational, and Political science theory. In 1990 members of the committee of environmental issue discussed development of technology in the future which should follow by consideration of global environmental issue. Therefore, new technology should bring solution to environmental problems. Nowadays technology creates some kind of competition, not only in combat, but also in cold war. According to reviews of many studies, the harshness of war increases and the aftermath becomes more severe on the environment and societies, consequently irreversible rehabilitation in short and long term. Applied technologies in some warfare have been considered by their impact on natural and human environment. As a case study I considered the recent war in Libya and its consequences, not only in the country, but also its impact on other nations and neighbours as well. Strict international laws is needed to explicit and declare the rights of each individual and nation to prevent and ban any activities in the term of war crime. Also groups of authentic authorities should set up to conduct an investigation into each activity in countries and survey on introduced technologies to ensure them about their result and consequences. Finally some reviews were released about how international committees and conventions, declarations and agreement has been set to prevent and prohibit crime in wars, and some international laws has been brought to guide nations about their rights and responsibility against each other.

  • 18. Bergstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Vegetationsförändringar på fjällen i västra Härjedalen: en kunskapsöversikt1999Report (Other academic)
  • 19. Bergstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Satellitbildsbaserad sårbarhetsanalys av mark och vegetation i västra Härjedalen2000Report (Other academic)
  • 20. Blasing, T. J.
    et al.
    Broniak, C. T.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of fossil-fuel carbon emissions estimates for the United States of America (abs.)2005In: Proceedings, Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Boulder, CO, USA, September 26-30, 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Blasing, T.J.
    et al.
    Broniak, C
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    State-by-state carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use in the United States 1960-20002005In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 659-674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Blasing, T.J
    et al.
    Brontiak, C.T
    Marland, Greg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The annual cycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the United States2005In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-series of estimated monthly carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of coal, petroleum and natural gas in the United States from 1981 to 2002 have been derived from energy consumption data. The data series for coal and natural gas each reveal a consistent seasonal pattern, with a winter peak for gas and two peaks (summer and winter) for coal. The annual cycle of total emissions has an amplitude of about 20 Tg-C, and is dominated by CO2 released from consumption of natural gas. Summation of the monthly estimates to obtain annual values reveals good agreement with other estimates of CO2 emissions. The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (δ13C), with a range of about 2 ‰. These monthly carbon emissions estimates should be helpful in understanding the carbon cycle by providing (1) monthly/seasonal input for carbon cycle models, (2) estimates of the annual cycle of the 13C isotope ratio in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions and (3) data at fine enough time intervals to investigate effects of seasonal climate variations and changes in seasonally dependent use patterns of certain appliances (e.g. air conditioners) on fossil-fuel carbon emissions.

  • 23. Bonde, Henrik
    et al.
    Bring, Gunnar
    Edvinsson, Josefin
    Elstad, Olav
    Rosenquist, Jakob
    Englund, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Miljöanalys av Mitthögskolan: verksamheten ur ett uthållighetsperspektiv1998Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Brandén Klang, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    bThe Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Akademigatan 2, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden.
    Brattebö, Helge
    Sustainable management of combustible household waste-Expanding the integrated evaluation model2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 8-9, p. 1101-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described model for the evaluation of sustainability in waste management has been expanded and applied to biodegradable and other combustible household waste. The model was applied to a case-study focusing on the special conditions in a municipality in the sparsely populated region of northern Sweden. In this region it is usual that the collection distances are long, the volume of waste is low and treatment facilities are remote. Four scenarios for the management of municipal household waste were compared: incineration, anaerobic digestion, composting and landfilling. A system analysis was performed to ensure that each scenario fulfil all the functions that the waste could provide (heat, electricity, fuel, and soil with a high nutrient content) and a sensitivity analysis was carried out to test the reliability of the results. The results show that the evaluation model can be used to assess the sustainability aspects of different treatment scenarios for combustible household waste. The model also allows for an individual interpretation of the results presented, depending on the choice of priorities. The effects of varying the time horizons and the difference in impact depending on what fuels are ultimately replaced in energy production are discussed.

  • 25. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Biomass transportation1996In: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and the environment: World Renewable Energy Congress, 15-21 June 1996, Denver, Colorado, USA, 1996, p. 1033-1036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive utilisation of logging residues, straw, and energy crops will lead to short transportation distances and thus low transportation costs. The average distance of transportation of biomass to a large-scale conversion slant. suitable for electricitv or methanol uroduction using 300 000 drv tonne biomass vearlv, will be about 30 km in Sweden, if the conversion plant is located at the centre of ihe biomass production area. The estimated Swedish biomass potential of 430 PJ/yr is based on production conditions around 2015, assuming that 30% of the available arable land is used for energy crop production. With present production conditions, resulting in a biomass potential of 220 PJ/yr, the transportation distance is about 42 km. The cost of transporting biomass 30-42 km will be equivalent to 20-25% of the total biomass cost. The total energy efficiency of biomass production and transportation will be 9597%, where the energy losses from transportation are about 20%. Biomass transportation will contribute less than 10% to the total NO,, CO, and HC emissions from biomass production, transportation, and conversion

  • 26. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Greenhouse Gas Balances in Building Construction: Wood versus Concrete from Lifecycle and Forest Land-Use Perspectives2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Greenhouse Gas Emission from Building Construction in a Life-Cycle Perspective - Wood or Concrete?1998In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings ; 10 : 1998., Washington: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from changed land use and substitution of biomass for fossil fuels1997In: International Conference on Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly <1997, Vancouver, British Columbia>: Technologies for activities implemented jointly ; proceedings of the conference, 26th - 29th May 1997, Vancouver, Canada, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 1997, p. 777-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Christersson, L
    Linder, S
    Future Production and Utilisation of Biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO~2 mitigation1997In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Canadel, Josep G.
    et al.
    Le Quere, Corrine
    Raupach, Michael R
    Field, Christopher B
    Buitenhuis, Erik T
    Ciais, Philippe
    Conway, Thomas J
    Gillett, Nathan P
    Houghton, R. A.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks2007In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, no 47, p. 18866-18870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y −1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.

  • 32.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adaptiv miljöplanering nästa2003In: Miljörätten i förändring: en antologi, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2003, p. 328-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Befolkningsfrågan - från överbefolkning till framtida generationer2001In: Fågelperspektiv på rättsordningen: vänbok till Staffan Westerlund, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2001, p. 335-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Control System for Sustainable Development2008In: Computing Anticipatory Systems / [ed] Dubois, DM, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2008, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as:

    Controlling system - Population - Sustainable ecosystems

    This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  • 35.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Framtiden i förfädernas händer: Om äganderätt och annan rätt till marken från landskapslagarna till modern tid ur ett miljörättsligt perspektiv2000Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The Resource Management Act 1991 through external eyes2007In: New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law, ISSN 1174-1538, Vol. 11, p. 181-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Resource Management Act 1991 was drafted for sustainability and probably still reflects the state of the art as regards environmental legislation for sustainable development. Modern theory of environmental law methodology has to a high extent focused on implementation deficits based on the significance of law in rule of law countries and consequently on the concept of legal operationalisation of environmental goals (ultimately ecological sustainability). This not only puts, inter alia, balancing in a new light but also calls for systemic thinking and reconsideration of bottom-up approaches. What, then, is to be legally operationalised under the RMA and are there counterproductive functions, explicit or implicit, in it? This is discussed in depth, putting the RMA planning system at the centre and observing the lack of far-reaching substantive standards and obscurities as regards goals and means. The discussion reflects theory of environmental law methodology, systems theory, and the issue of non-linearity of ecosystems, also when the role of courts is elaborated.

  • 37.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The rule of sustainability and planning adaptivity2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article confronts present main stream planning approaches against the perspective of ecological sustainability, as relevant for Rule of Law countries and based on a modern environmental law approach. It discusses the setting and implementation of environmental goals against the general experience of massive implementation deficits regarding environmental policies all over the world. In this confrontation, environmental planning, with at least some principles picked up from New Zealand's Resource Management Act, and much more taken from modern environmental law theory on legal operationalisation, is compared to adaptive management approaches which also allow for modifying the environment related goal if implementation fails or seems very difficult. The concept of adaptive environmental planning (AEP) is suggested as a possible road to choose for planning for sustainability, while maximizing development within the framework legally defined by means of environmental limits. This article presents five criteria, all of which must be met by AEP planning. One of these relates to a planning hierarchy which, among other things, leads to the conclusion that coastal planning, if it is intended to aim at sustainability, can not be dealt with in isolation, although such planning might have to meet very complex problems at the regional level.

  • 38.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Peters, Gregory
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental im-pacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing designare of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabellingschemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This studyinvestigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving thegarment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and con-trasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the materialwas analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currentlyonly marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For amore sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in thedesign process regarding sustainability of theirfinished products. Such a change is only possible if thedesigners can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 39.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Approach to establish relevant sustainability assessment parameters in product development2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Changing from petroleum to wood-based materials: critical review of how product sustainability characteristics can be assessed and compared2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 39, p. 372-385Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a literature survey on available approaches for the assessment of product sustainability, with a specific focus on assessing the replacement of non-renewable petroleum-based materials with renewable wood-based materials in absorbent hygiene products. The results are contrasted to needs in a specific material development project. A diverse number of methods exist that can help in assessing different product sustainability characteristics for parts of or whole product lifecycles. None of the assessment methods found include guidelines for how to make a case-specific interpretation of sustainability and there is a general lack of assessment parameters that can describe considerations in the comparison between the use of wood or petroleum as main raw material. One reason for this is lack of knowledge and/or consensus on how to describe and assess impacts of land and water use, e.g. on ecosystem services, different types of resource depletion and social impacts.

  • 41.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Consequences for wood resource use for incontinence diapers in Europe 2010 to 20502011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing life expectancy results in an ageing society in parts of the world. The old of tomorrow are also expected to have higher comfort demands. One likely consequence is an increase in the need of such products as disposable incontinence diapers, which are today partly based on cellulose from forestry. A calculation of the potential increase for heavy incontinence care (assuming the use of disposable incontinence diapers) was made based on the demographic trends for Europe and on the yield from forestry performed under Nordic conditions. The calculation is using a parameterisation known from literature: I = i * m * u * P. It expresses the impact (I, in our case, forest area in ha) as a product of four factors that humans have the ability to change, in our case, i = ha Nordic forest area / kg material, m = kg material / service, u = service / population in Europe, and P = population in Europe. The 'service' is to keep a customer with heavy incontinence dry for a year, assuming that the same fraction of the population above 50 years as today will need heavy incontinence protection. Under these assumptions, the forest area needed for heavy incontinence care in Europe will increase with about 75% until 2050. According to the current work in the WooDi research project, aiming at producing a wood-based diaper, if the petroleum-based material in the absorbent core in the diapers were to be replaced by wood-based, this would increase the needed forest area to about 136%, assuming a 1:1 replacement ratio by weight which seems to be a low estimate. This is still a small share of the total European forest area (0.2%). However, such an increase in wood demand for only one product is not without problems, since forests to a large extent are already utilised, e.g. for timber and pulp and paper production, and since there is an expected increase in demand for bio-based fuels and materials for replacement of fossil-based products, thus competing for either the yield from the forests or for the land area. At the same time, there are rising concerns regarding biodiversity and other ecosystem services in connection to forestry.

  • 42.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Insights from guiding material development towards more sustainable products2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Design, ISSN 1743-8284, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with current challenges in society, many companies will need to develop more sustainable products in order to continue operations in the long term. Therefore, ways of identifying important sustainability considerations already in the early stages of material or product development are of importance. The article is based on action research in a material development project. The article provides a description of activities that were performed in the project in order to guide the material development process to enable more sustainable final products, reflections on the lessons learned from this project, and suggestions to similar projects in the form of an overall process based on team learning with the aim of guiding material development towards more sustainable products. The suggested process emphasises the material or product development team's need to understand which surrounding world and future-oriented considerations will have significant impacts on the specific product's sustainability performance.

  • 43.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The ageing society – an example of consequences for biomass use2010In: MFA for Sustainable Future, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    To develop material for more sustainable products: Learning for action2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since companies have to develop more sustainable products to continue operation in the long term, there is a demand for ways to guide and compare the sustainability already in material or product development. This has been studied through action research in a material development project that aims to develop wood-based materials to replace petroleum-based materials while ensuring a more sustainable product. More sustainable future societies might put very different demands on products compared to the strictest requirements of today. To develop more sustainable products therefore requires future oriented assessment parameters already in early stages of material or product development - where choices determining many of the sustainability burdens of a product are made. Furthermore, the whole life cycle of products needs to be envisaged in order for sustainability to be defined. There is thus, for example, little point in talking about 'sustainable materials' since the sustainability of their use may be strongly affected by the rest of the life cycle, after material manufacturing, thus, the materials need to be seen in a context. A description of important sustainability considerations must be made in relation to the challenges that become visible when looking at a whole product system and in relation to its surrounding world which to complicate this further, are also changing over time, and therefore an appropriate time perspective must be applied. Relevant product sustainability aspects and parameters must be identified and described. Approaches for handling this complex situation has not been found in literature and therefore a team learning approach that deal with these issues has been developed. The proposed approach is aimed for material or product development. It has a specific focus on facilitating innovation towards more sustainable products by translating and integrating significant product sustainability characteristics into each team member’s specific area of expertise and everyday work. The material and product development team members are largely affecting the sustainability performance of the finished product. The approach is an iterative process which should continue until the material or product is available for sale and thus the product sustainability parameters will be modified during the process to include new knowledge. Hence, the assessments will be more exact with time.

  • 45.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Environmental challenges when developing renewable materials to replace non-renewable materials - receiving guidance from LCA studies2010In: 9th International Conference on EcoBalance 2010 'Towards & Beyond 2020' 9-12 November,Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demand for more sustainable products is growing, the pressure on material developers to improve the sustainability performance of the products that they are developing is increasing. As a consequence, the need to move away from a narrow understanding of “product” and “environment” is becoming more apparent. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been used to find rough estimates of how much process energy, raw materials etc. are used in the process of transforming a biomass feedstock into a new material. A reference product with a fossil based material intended to be replaced is used as a benchmark for the new product. The new product must perform at least as well as this benchmark and preferably better. We illustrate this LCA based methodology using the example of replacing petroleum-based polymeric material with wood-based material in a disposable consumer product.

  • 46.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Morgan, Fröling
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Assessing sustainability already in product development2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since companies need to develop more sustainable products to stay in business in the long term, there is a demand for ways to assess and compare product sustainability already in product development. This is studied through action research performed within the “wood based diaper” material development project (WooDi) aiming to develop a wood based material to replace a petroleum based while ensuring a more sustainable product. Approaches for environmental improvement in product development focus primarily on optimisation of the existing product system, e.g. on replacing parts or processes representing large environmental impacts. In some cases, broader system effects and effects of a changing surrounding system is taken into account e.g. by consequential LCA studies. Such approaches will result in marginal improvements compared to the present situation, and cannot fully take advantage of truly innovative ideas that are based on completely different solutions or the fact that a more sustainable future society might put very different demands on products compared to the strictest environmental requirements of today. Based on what was found in relevant literature, most often lists of predetermined parameters are being used without critical reflection on their importance in light of the specific situation. There is a specific lack of parameters describing the sustainability impacts of a shift from fossil to biomass resources in a life cycle perspective, e.g. related to competition for resources. As a result, an approach for establishing relevant product sustainability parameters is presented, emphasising the need to bringing in the diverse knowledge and experiences of the product development team members as vital for a successful result. The parameters are intended to guide product development as well as to be a base for a sustainability comparison of a new product with a current product.

  • 47.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings design2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund & A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 179-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of civilization, humans have built shelters to practice their social activities, while having protection against weather, wild animals, and other human beings. Over the course of time, vernacular dwellings have evolved to respond to climate challenges, available materials and cultural expectations in a given location. Such buildings include, e.g. the adobe house, the Inuit igloos in Greenland, and the open courtyard building design.Since the start of the postmodern architecture, in the middle of the 20th century, new technologies, new materials, and changes in societal structures have changed the way buildings have been designed and constructed. Modern lifestyle become more dependent on energy. For example Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) in buildings became widely used to improve indoor comfort. After the oil-supply crises in the middle of the 1970s, the connection between building design and the environment changed from just providing sufficient thermal comfort to promoting energy efficiency due to the awareness of the fact that natural resources are limited. That was the start of the sustainable architecture movement. It was during this time building regulations in many countries started to include aspects of energy efficiency. This chapter will discuss two aspects of building design and their effect on the overall energy efficiency of the building: the interior building design and the exterior building design.

  • 48.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 49.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy variations in apartment buildings due to different shape factors and relative size of common areas2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Large variations in specific final energy use in Swedish apartment buildings: Causes and solutions2012In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 49, p. 276-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible causes for variations in specific final energy use in new apartment buildings. The analysis is based on case studies of 22 new apartment buildings that were constructed as part of the ’Stockholm program for environmentally adapted buildings’. The buildings in the study were chosen because they share similar construction characteristics and similar energy systems but display unexpected large variations in specific energy use. Three causes were found to contribute to variations in monitored specific final energy use in the studied apartment buildings: (1) the time interval between the completion of construction work and the actual energy measurements, (2) the shape factor of the building and (3) the relative size of the common area. In addition, the buildings that participated in the Stockholm program failed to achieve the requirements for the specific final energy use, to a large extent, because of expectations based on the simulated values. The simulated specific final energy use predicted by the energy simulations were on average 19% lower than the monitored values, giving the impression that the buildings would fulfill the program’s energy requirements. The reasons for the low simulated values were determined to be large uncertainties in the input data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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