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  • 1.
    Abbaszad Rafi, Abdolrahim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hamidi, N.
    Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
    Bashir-Hashemi, A.
    University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States.
    Mahkam, M.
    Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
    Photo-Switchable Nanomechanical Systems Comprising a Nanocontainer (Montmorillonite) and Light-Driven Molecular Jack (Azobenzene-Imidazolium Ionic Liquids) as Drug Delivery Systems; Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Release Studies2018In: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, photoresponsive nanomechanical systems were prepared through the intercalation of positively charged photoswitching molecular jacks (azobenzene ionic liquids, Azo-ILs) within montmorillonite (MMT) layers (MMT@Azo-ILs). The study shows that MMT@Azo-ILs are photosensitive and the synthesized molecular jacks could change the basal distances of MMT layers upon UV irradiation. These changes come from changes in the structure and geometry of Azo molecules (i.e., cis-trans isomerization) between clay layers upon UV irradiation. The prepared photoresponsive nanomechanical systems were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Moreover, the in vitro release studies were performed in different conditions (upon UV irradiation and darkness) in pH 5.8 at 34 ± 1 °C, and it was found that the release rates from drug loaded MMT@Azo-ILs were higher upon UV irradiation in comparison with the release rates in darkness. According to the release studies, the prepared photoresponsive carriers might be considered as an excellent potential candidate in order to formulate smart sunscreens. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

  • 2.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Henshaw Osong, Sinke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    The Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eco-friendly design for scalable direct fabrication of nanocelluloseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cooperative Lewis Acids and Aminocatalysis2017In: Chiral Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis / [ed] J. Mlynarski, Wiley-Blackwell , 2017, p. 345-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the cooperative strategy of combining metal catalyst activation with aminocatalysis, with a focus on the metal acting as a Lewis acid catalyst. It gives examples where the metal catalyst promotes the reactivity of different substrates by the formation of reactive intermediates. These intermediates can act either as electrophiles or nucleophiles, which in turn can couple with nucleophilic enamine or electrophilic iminium intermediates formed between the carbonyl compounds and aminocatalyst. The chemical transformation ensues via the merging of the enamine and π‐allyl‐Pd complex via asymmetric counteranion‐direct catalysis (ACDC). Subsequently, several groups reported different co‐catalytic systems and chemical strategies for the α‐allylic alkylation of aldehydes and ketones. Cordova and coworkers reported the first example where iminium activation catalysis is combined with metal catalyst activation cooperatively. The stratagem was demonstrated for the catalytic enantioselective conjugate silyl addition to α,β‐unsaturated aldehydes.

  • 4.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Osong, Sinke H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Abbaszad Rafi, Abdolrahim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cellulosic Materials: Sustainable Surface Engineering of Lignocellulose and Cellulose by Synergistic Combination of Metal-Free Catalysis and Polyelectrolyte Complexes2019In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646, Vol. 3, no 7, article id 1970071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In article number 1900018 by Armando Cordova and co‐workers, the novel combination of metal‐free catalysis and renewable polyelectrolyte complexes leads to synergistic surface engineering of lignocellulose and cellulose fibers derived from wood. This sustainable strategy allows for improvement and introduction of important properties such as strength (up to 100% in Z‐strength), water resistance, and fluorescence to the renewable fibers and cellulosic materials under eco‐friendly conditions.

  • 5.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Sanhueza, Italo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Design and fabrication of superhydrophobic cellulose nanocrystal films by combination of self-assembly and organocatalysis2023In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 3157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals, which have unique properties of high aspect ratio, high surface area, high mechanical strength, and a liquid crystalline nature, constitute a renewable nanomaterial with great potential for several uses (e.g., composites, films and barriers). However, their intrinsic hydrophilicity results in materials that are moisture sensitive and exhibit poor water stability. This limits their use and competitiveness as a sustainable alternative against fossil-based materials/plastics in packaging, food storage, construction and materials application, which cause contamination in our oceans and environment. To make cellulose nanocrystal films superhydrophobic, toxic chemicals such as fluorocarbons are typically attached to their surfaces. Hence, there is a pressing need for environmentally friendly alternatives for their modification and acquiring this important surface property. Herein, we describe the novel creation of superhydrophobic, fluorocarbon-free and transparent cellulose nanocrystal films with functional groups by a bioinspired combination of self-assembly and organocatalytic surface modification at the nanoscale using food approved organic acid catalysts. The resulting film-surface is superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150°) and has self-cleaning properties (the lotus effect). In addition, the superhydrophobic cellulose nanocrystal films have excellent water stability and significantly decreased oxygen permeability at high relative humidity with oxygen transmission rates better than those of commonly used plastics. 

  • 6.
    Alves, Luis
    et al.
    CQC, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. CQC, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Lund University.
    Klotz, Björn
    BASF Personal Care and Nutrition GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Böttcher, Axel
    BASF Personal Care and Nutrition GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Haake, Hans-Martin
    BASF Personal Care and Nutrition GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Antunes, Filipe E.
    CQC, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    On the rheology of mixed systems of hydrophobically modified polyacrylate microgels and surfactants: Role of the surfactant architecture2018In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 513, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis The rheological control of suspensions is of key interest in the formulation design. A chemically cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMCL-PAA), used as rheology modifier, is pH sensitive and shows swelling behavior above a critical pH due to the ionization of the acrylic acid groups. At low pH, HMCL-PAA suspensions are liquid and turbid. The binding of surfactants to HMCL-PAA, at low pH conditions, can result in significant changes on rheology and transparency of the polymeric suspensions, due to the swelling of the microgel particles. Experiments The influence of surfactants addition on the rheological properties and transparency of HMCL-PAA suspensions was determined. A systematic study was performed using different types of surfactants (ionic, non-ionic and zwitterionic). Findings The gelation efficiency of HMCL-PAA suspensions at low pH is strongly dependent on surfactant architecture: ionic surfactants are found to be much more efficient than non-ionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Ionic surfactants lead to a liquid-to-gel transition accompanied by an increase of transparency of the suspensions. Among the ionic surfactants, anionics show stronger interactions with the polymer. Also the surfactant hydrophobicity is relevant; the more hydrophobic the surfactant, the stronger is the binding to the polymer and thus the larger the particle swelling. 

  • 7.
    Alves, Luis
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Chem, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Medronho, Bruno
    Univ Algarve, Fac Sci & Technol MEDITBIO, Campus Gambelas,Ed 8, P-8005139 Faro, Portugal..
    Antunes, Filipe E.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Chem, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Topgaard, Daniel
    Lund Univ, Ctr Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, Div Phys Chem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Nanyang Technol Univ, Mat Sci & Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Dissolution state of cellulose in aqueous systems. 1. Alkaline solvents2016In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 247-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of the state of dissolution of cellulose in a certain solvent is a critical step forward in the development of new efficient solvent systems for cellulose. Nevertheless, obtaining such information is not trivial. Recently, polarization transfer solid-state NMR (PTssNMR) was shown to be a very promising technique regarding an efficient and robust characterization of the solution state of cellulose. In the present study, combining PTssNMR, microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction, a set of alkaline aqueous systems are investigated. The addition of specific additives, such as urea or thiourea, to aqueous NaOH based systems as well as the use of an amphiphilic organic cation, is found to have pronounced effects on the dissolution efficiency of cellulose. Additionally, the characteristics of the regenerated material are strongly dependent on the dissolution system; typically less crystalline materials, presenting smoother morphologies, are obtained when amphiphilic solvents or additives are used.

  • 8.
    Alves, Luis
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Chem, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Medronho, Bruno
    Univ Algarve, Fac Sci & Technol MEDITBIO, Campus Gambelas,Ed 8, P-8005139 Faro, Portugal..
    Antunes, Filipe E.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Chem, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Topgaard, Daniel
    Lund Univ, Ctr Chem & Chem Engn, Dept Chem, Div Phys Chem, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Nanyang Technol Univ, Mat Sci & Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
    Dissolution state of cellulose in aqueous systems. 2. Acidic solvents2016In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 151, p. 707-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose is insoluble in water but can be dissolved in strong acidic or alkaline conditions. How well dissolved cellulose is in solution and how it organizes are key questions often neglected in literature. The typical low pH required for dissolving cellulose in acidic solvents limits the use of typical characterization techniques. In this respect, Polarization Transfer Solid State NMR (PT ssNMR) emerges as a reliable alternative. In this work, combining PT ssNMR, microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction, a set of different acidic systems (phosphoric acid/water, sulfuric acid/glycerol and zinc chloride/water) is investigated. The studied solvent systems are capable to efficiently dissolve cellulose, although degradation occurs to some extent. PT ssNMR is capable to identify the liquid and solid fractions of cellulose, the degradation products and it is also sensitive to gelation. The materials regenerated from the acidic dopes were found to be highly sensitive to the solvent system and to the presence of amphiphilic additives in solution.

  • 9.
    Alves, Luis
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Medronho, Bruno
    Univ Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Filipe, Alexandra
    Univ Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Antunes, Filipe E.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Topgaard, Daniel
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Davidovich, Irina
    Technion Israel Inst Technol, Haifa, Israel.
    Talmon, Yeshayahu
    Technion Israel Inst Technol, Haifa, Israel.
    New Insights on the Role of Urea on the Dissolution and Thermally-Induced Gelation of Cellulose in Aqueous Alkali2018In: GELS, ISSN 2310-2861, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gelation of cellulose in alkali solutions is quite relevant, but still a poorly understood process. Moreover, the role of certain additives, such as urea, is not consensual among the community. Therefore, in this work, an unusual set of characterization methods for cellulose solutions, such as cryo-transmission electronic microscopy (cryo-TEM), polarization transfer solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (PTssNMR) and diffusion wave spectroscopy (DWS) were employed to study the role of urea on the dissolution and gelation processes of cellulose in aqueous alkali. Cryo-TEM reveals that the addition of urea generally reduces the presence of undissolved cellulose fibrils in solution. These results are consistent with PTssNMR data, which show the reduction and in some cases the absence of crystalline portions of cellulose in solution, suggesting a pronounced positive effect of the urea on the dissolution efficiency of cellulose. Both conventional mechanical macrorheology and microrheology (DWS) indicate a significant delay of gelation induced by urea, being absent until ca. 60 degrees C for a system containing 5wt % cellulose, while a system without urea gels at a lower temperature. For higher cellulose concentrations, the samples containing urea form gels even at room temperature. It is argued that since urea facilitates cellulose dissolution, the high entanglement of the cellulose chains in solution (above the critical concentration, C*) results in a strong three-dimensional network.

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  • 10. Amenitsch, Hans
    et al.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Khan, Ali
    Marques, Eduardo
    La Mesa, Camilo
    Bile Salts Form Lyotropic Liquid Crystals2003In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 213, no 1, p. 79-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reinvestigation of the phase diagrams relative to some conjugated and non-conjugated bile salts in water has demonstrated the formation of lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, in contradiction with generally accepted statements. The phase behaviour is complex and the phase diagrams are unusual, compared to most surfactants and lipids. In particular, coexistence of liquid crystalline phases with crystals has been observed. The formation of liquid crystalline phases requires very long equilibration times and the thermal stability of the lyotropic phases is moderate. The observed structure is tentatively assumed to be of the reverse hexagonal type. Structural relations with currently accepted models for the organisation of bile salts into micelles and solid form have been found.

  • 11.
    Andersson, J
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTHB.
    Ageing of Flexographic Printed Model Cellulose Surfaces and Determination of the Mechanisms Behind Ageing2009In: Pulp & paper Canada, ISSN 0316-4004, Vol. 110, no 7-8, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of

    water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and

    handsheets was investigated. It was shown that UV light, elevated

    temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness, and

    increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink

    detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural

    characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No

    chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when

    stored under UV light.

     

  • 12.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lignin in wastewater generated by mechalical pulping: Chemical characterisation and removal by adsorption2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Kerstin I
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Marie
    SCA R&D Ctr, SE-85121 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Removal of Lignin from Wastewater Generated by Mechanical Pulping Using Activated Charcoal and Fly Ash: Adsorption Isotherms and Thermodynamics2011In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 7722-7732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin-related material found in wastewater from thermomechanical pulping resists conventional biological treatment, entailing the use of advanced removal methods. In this work, the use of adsorption for removing lignin-related material was investigated. Activated charcoal and fly ash were used to study the adsorption behavior of lignin and to determine the adsorption capacities of these two adsorbents. Experimental data were fitted to various isotherm equations to find the best description of the sorption systems, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Fly ash exhibited good sorption properties, although its sorption capacity was inferior to that of activated charcoal. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations provided reasonable models of the sorption processes, and the thermodynamic parameters indicated that sorption onto activated charcoal is endothermic, whereas sorption onto fly ash appears to be exothermic. Fly ash is a low-cost material that is often available on-site and offers an interesting alternative to high-cost advanced wastewater treatment systems for removing recalcitrant organic materials.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Kerstin I.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Marie
    SCA R&D Ctr, SE-85121 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Removal of Lignin from Wastewater Generated by Mechanical Pulping Using Activated Charcoal and Fly Ash: Adsorption Kinetics2011In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 7733-7739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible application of adsorption for the removal of lignin-related material found in wastewater generated by mechanical pulping was investigated. Activated charcoal and fly ash were used as adsorbents in batch experiments. The lignin-related material exhibited properties well-suited for adsorption onto both adsorbents, although the sorption capacity of activated charcoal exceeds that of fly ash. The experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order rate kinetic expressions, and an attempt was made to find the rate-limiting step involved in the adsorption processes. The results showed that lignin adsorption onto both activated charcoal and fly ash follows pseudo-second-order rate kinetics and that both boundary-layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion are likely involved in the rate-limiting mechanisms. Adsorption is an interesting option in advanced wastewater treatment, and fly ash appears to be a suitable low-cost adsorbent for recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Kerstin I
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    SCA R and D Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lignin removal from wastewater by adsorption2009In: Proceedings - 2009 International Mechanical Pulping Conference, IMPC 2009, 2009, p. 280-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin contributes to residual COD in wastewater after biological treatment. Available methods for removal of recalcitrant material like lignin, e.g. chemical oxidation and coagulation, are associated with heavy operational expenses. Stringent discharge requirements demand new cost-effective methods for removal of recalcitrant COD. Adsorption is an important mechanism for lignin removal in biological wastewater treatment. A study of lignin, using activated carbon as a model adsorbent, was performed to learn more about the adsorption behaviour of lignin. At the adsorbent dose 4 g/L and an initial lignin concentration of 0.5 g/L, 77% of the lignin was removed after six hours. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo second-order rate expression and no temperature dependency could be observed in the temperature range studied.

     

     

  • 16. Andreasson, Bo
    et al.
    Forsström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The porous structure of pulp fibres with different yields and its influence on paper strength2003In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The porous structure of the interior of papermaking fibres is a well-known important property of the fibres. Changes of this structure will influence tensile and burst strength of paper formed from the fibres and a change in pore size of the pores within the fibre wall is also important for the ability of molecules to diffuse in and out of the fibre wall. Relevant examples of this latter effect are the removal of lignin during cooking and the addition of performance chemicals during papermaking. In this paper, pore sizes and the pore size distribution of unbleached softwood fibres have been studied. A well-characterised fibre material consisting of laboratory cooked spruce and pine pulp of various lignin contents was used. Pore size and pore size distribution were measured by studies of the relaxation behaviour of 2H in fibres saturated with 2H2O. Beside this the total and surface charge of the fibres were also measured together with strength properties of papers from unbeaten fibres. For both pulps, there is a maximum in pore radius at a yield around 46%. Calculations of fibre wall volume from water retention values and yield levels show that there is a discontinuity in pore radius as a function of the fibre wall volume around a yield of 51%. It is suggested that this discontinuity is caused by the breakdown of the hemicellulose/lignin matrix within the fibre wall at this yield level. The strength of the papers formed from the fibres shows a correlation with the surface charge of the fibres. Based on the change in surface charge with yield and the change in total charge with yield, this correlation is suggested to be due to an opening up of the external part of the fibre wall. This stresses the importance of the chemical composition and physical structure of the outer layer of the fibre wall.

  • 17.
    Andreasson, Ulrika
    et al.
    SCA Packaging Research, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ink release from printed surfaces: new methodology and initial insights to the true mechanisms behind ink detachment2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Backlund, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gradin, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Study of tangential forces and temperature profiles in commercial refiners2003In: 2003 International Mechanical Pulping Conference, 2003, p. 379-388Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Batchelor, Warren J.
    et al.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Westerlind, B. S.
    SCA Graphic Research, Sundsvall.
    Hägglund, R.
    SCA Packaging Research, Sundsvall.
    Gradin, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of test conditions on measured loads and displacements in zero-span testing2006In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single fiber mechanical properties play a critical role in determining sheet mechanical properties, but fiber mechanical properties are rarely measured, because of the time-consuming nature of the tests. Zero-span strength is commonly used as a measure of fiber strength, but the results can vary with the test conditions. Modeling has shown that the load displacement curves are influenced by the thickness-to-span ratio, as there is a heterogeneous stress field in the thickness direction of the sample.

    This paper presents data on the effect of grammage on the loads and displacements in zero-span tests. Clamps were designed and made for a displacement-control led load frame. These clamps can test up to 10 plies of papers with,a span length from 0 to 3 mm. For the sake of comparison, tests were made using a commercial zero-span tester, which is load controlled but limited in span length and thickness of the tested material. Both machines were found to give comparable results. Isotropic 65 g/m(2) handsheets, 36 g/m(2) aluminum foil, and 42 g/m(2) greaseproof paper were tested as functions of sheet grammage. An intrinsic zero-span strength was defined as the y-axis intercept of a plot of zero-span strength versus grammage.

    Application:This paper demonstrates that the measured zero-span strength is always less than the intrinsic zero-span strength. The results show that, for best results, the grammage of the material tested should be minimized to obtain a measured value that is as close to the intrinsic value as possible.

  • 20.
    Becher, Paul G.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Lebreton, Sebastien
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Wallin, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Borrero, Felipe
    Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research, Las Palmas, Bogota, Colombia.
    Bengtsson, Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    Joerger, Volker
    Staatliches Weinbauinstitut, Freiburg, Germany.
    Witzgall, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
    The Scent of the Fly2018In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 431-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Z)-4-undecenal (Z4-11Al) is the volatile pheromone produced by females of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. Female flies emit Z4-11Al for species-specific communication and mate-finding. A sensory panel finds that synthetic Z4-11Al has a characteristic flavour, which can be perceived even at the small amounts produced by a single female fly. Since only females produce Z4-11Al, and not males, we can reliably distinguish between single D. melanogaster males and females, according to their scent. Females release Z4-11Al at 2.4 ng/h and we readily sense 1 ng synthetic Z4-11Al in a glass of wine (0.03 nmol/L), while a tenfold concentration is perceived as a loud off-flavour. This corroborates the observation that a glass of wine is spoilt by a single D. melanogaster fly falling into it, which we here show is caused by Z4-11Al. The biological role of Z4-11Al or structurally related aldehydes in humans and the basis for this semiochemical convergence remains yet unclear. 

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  • 21.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wood and fibre mechanics related to the thermomechanical pulping process2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this thesis was to improve the understanding of some aspects on wood and fibre mechanics related to conditions in the thermomechanical pulping process. Another objective was to measure the power distribution between the rotating plates in a refiner.

     

    The thesis comprises the following parts:

    –A literature review aimed at describing fracture in wood and fibres as related to the thermomechanical pulping process

    –An experimental study of fracture in wood under compression, at conditions similar to those in feeding of chips into preheaters and chip refiners

    –An experimental study of the effect of impact velocity on the fracture of wood, related to conditions of fibre separation in the breaker bar zone in a chip refiner

    –A micromechanical model of the deterioration of wood fibres, related to the development of fibre properties during the intense treatment in the small gap in the refining zone

    –Measurements of the power distribution in a refiner.

     

    The fracture in wood under compression was investigated by use of acoustic emission monitoring. The wood was compressed in both lateral and longitudinal directions to predict preferred modes of deformation in order to achieve desired irreversible changes in the wood structure. It was concluded that the most efficient compression direction in this respect is longitudinal. Preferable temperature at which the compression should be carried out and specific energy input needed in order to achieve substantial changes in the wood structure were also given.

     

    The fibre separation step and specifically the effect of impact velocity on the fracture energy were studied by use of a falling weight impact tester. The fracture surfaces were also examined under a microscope. An increase in impact velocity resulted in an increase in fracture energy.

    In the thermomechanical pulping process the fibres are subjected to lateral compression, tension and shear which causes the creation of microcracks in the fibre wall. This damage reduces the fibre wall stiffness. A simplified analytical model is presented for the prediction of the stiffness degradation due to the damage state in a wood fibre, loaded in uni-axial tension or shear. The model was based on an assumed displacement field together with the minimum total potential energy theorem. For the damage development an energy criterion was employed. The model was applied to calculate the relevant stiffness coefficients as a function of the damage state. The energy consumption in order to achieve a certain damage state in a softwood fibre by uniaxial tension or shear load was also calculated. The energy consumption was found to be dependent on the microfibril angle in the middle secondary wall, the loading case, the thicknesses of the fibre cell wall layers, and conditions such as moisture content and temperature. At conditions, prevailing at the entrance of the gap between the plates in a refiner and at relative high damage states, more energy was needed to create cracks at higher microfibril angles. The energy consumption was lower for earlywood compared to latewood fibres. For low microfibril angles, the energy consumption was lower for loading in shear compared to tension for both earlywood and latewood fibres. Material parameters, such as initial damage state and specific fracture energy, were determined by fitting of input parameters to experimental data.

    Only a part of the electrical energy demand in the thermomechanical pulping process is considered to be effective in fibre separation and developing fibre properties. Therefore it is important to improve the understanding of how this energy is distributed along the refining zone.

    Investigations have been carried out in a laboratory single-disc refiner. It was found that a new developed force sensor is an effective way of measuring the power distribution within the refining zone. The collected data show that the tangential force per area and consequently also the power per unit area increased with radial position.

    The results in this thesis improve the understanding of the influence of some process parameters in thermomechanical pulping related wood and fibre mechanics such as loading rate, loading direction, moisture content and temperature to separate the fibres from the wood and to achieve desired irreversible changes in the fibre structure. Further, the thesis gives an insight of the spatial energy distribution in a refiner during thermomechanical pulping.

     

     

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  • 22.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Braviken Paper Mill, Holmen Paper, SE-60188 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Low-consistency refining of mechanical pulp in the light of forces on fibres2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to find new approaches to evaluate the performance of low-consistency refiners. Data from a paper mill producing TMP from Norway spruce was used in order to find a possible way to calculate the power split between the zones in a TwinFlo refiner. An assumption of equal amount of fibres captured between overlapping bars was found successful in order to develop equations for the power split. The equations predicted equal power in both zones at equal disc gaps. The power was found to increase approximately linearly with decreasing disc gap over the range, 0.1-0.2 mm. The power split was essential to know for calculating refining intensities expressed as specific edge load and forces on fibres in the two zones. The reduction in fibre length was about 5% at 0.17 mm disc gap or at 0.03 N forces on fibres or at 0.7 J/m specific edge load. Disc gap, forces on fibres and specific edge load was found to predict fibre shortening approximately equally upon changes in power and flow rate through the refiner.

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  • 23.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Sandberg, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Holmen Paper, Braviken Paper Mill, Sweden.
    Engberg, Birgitta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    LC Refining Intensity In The Light Of Forces On Fibres2014In: International Mechanical Pulping Conference, IMPC 2014, Espoo: Paper Engineers' Association (PI) , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to find new approaches to evaluate the performance of a full sized two-zoned low-consistency refiner i.e. a refiner with two stators and one rotor in between. Data from a paper mill producing TMP from Norway spruce was used in order to find a possible way to calculate the power split between the two zones. An assumption of equal amount of fibres captured between overlapping bars was found successful in order to develop equations for the power split. The equations predicted equal power in both zones at equal disc gaps. The power was found to correlate approximately linearly with the disc gap. The power split was essential to know for calculating refining intensity expressed as specific edge load and forces on fibres in the two zones. The reduction in fibre length was about 5% at 0.17 mm disc gap corresponding to 0.03 N force on fibres and 0.7 J/m specific edge load. Disc gap, force on fibres and specific edge load was found to predict the fibre shortening with approximately equal sufficiency upon changes in power and flow rate through the refiner.

  • 24. Berglund, P
    et al.
    Vörde, Carin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Esterification of 2-Methylalkanoic Acids Catalysed by Lipase from Candida rugosa: Enantioselectivity as a Function of Water Activity and Alcohol Chainlength1994In: Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, ISSN 1024-2422, E-ISSN 1029-2446, Vol. 9, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bergström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Modelling Mechanics of Fibre Network using Discrete Element Method2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-density fibre networks are a fundamental structural framework of everyday hygiene products, such as baby diapers, incontinence and feminine care products, bathroom tissue and kitchen towels. These networks are a random assembly of fibres, loosely bonded and oriented in the plane direction.

    Designing such a complex network structure for better performance, better use of materials and lower cost is a constant challenge for product designers, requiring in-depth knowledge and understanding of the structure and properties on the particle (fibre) level.

    This thesis concerns the development of a computational design platform that will generate low-density fibre networks and test their properties, seamlessly, with the aim to deepening the fundamental understanding of the micromechanics of this class of fibre networks.

    To achieve this goal, we have used a particle-based method, the Discrete Element Method (DEM), to model the fibres and fibre networks. A fibre is modelled as a series of linked beads, so that one can consider both its axial properties (stretching and bending) and transverse properties (shearing,twisting and transverse compression). For manufacturing simulations, we developed the models for depositing fibres to form a fibre network, consolidating the fibre network, compressing to make a 3D-structured network, and creating creping. For testing the end-use performance, we have developed two models and investigated the micromechanics of the fibre network in uniaxial compression in the thickness direction (ZD) and in uniaxial tension in the in-plane direction.

    In the ZD-uniaxial compression of entangled (unbonded) fibrenetworks, the compression stress exhibits a power-law relationship with density, with a threshold density. During compression, the fibre deformation mode changed from fibre bending to the transverse compression of fibre. Accordingly, the transverse properties of the fibreshad a large impact on the constitutive relation. By considering a realistic value for the transverse fibre property, we were able to predict the valuesof the exponent widely observed in the experimental literature. We havefound that the deviation of the experimental values from those predictions by the earlier theoretical studies is due to the neglect of the transverse fibre property.

    For tensile properties of bonded networks, we have investigated scaling of network strength with density and fibre–fibre bond strength. The network strength showed beautiful scaling behaviour with both density and bond strength, with exponents 1.88 and 1.08 respectively. The elastic modulus of the network, on the other hand, showed a changing exponent(from 2.16 to 1.69) with density in accordance with previous results in the literature. We have also reconfirmed that, with increasing density, the deformation mode changes from bending to stretching. The predicted results for both elastic modulus and strength agreed very well with experimental data of fibre networks of varying densities reported in the literature.

    We have developed a computational platform, based on DEM, for accurately modelling a fibre network from its manufacturing process to product properties. This is a tool that allows a versatile design of materials and products used for hygiene products, providing a promising venue for exploring the parameter space of new material and process design.

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  • 26.
    Bergström, Per
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hossain, Shakhawath
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Scaling Behaviour of Strength of 3D-, Semi-flexible-, Cross-linked Fibre Network2019In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 166, no July 2019, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisotropic, semi-flexible, cross-linked, random fibre networks are ubiquitous both in nature and in a wide variety of industrial materials. Modelling mechanical properties of such networks have been done extensively in terms of criticality, mechanical stability, and scaling of network stiffnesses with structural parameters, such as density. However, strength of the network has received much less attention. In this work we have constructed 3D-planar fibre networks where fibres are, more or less, oriented in the in-plane direction, and we have investigated the scaling of network strength with density. Instead of modelling fibres as 1D element (e.g., a beam element with stretching, bending and/or shear stiffnesses), we have treated fibres as a 3D-entity by considering the features like twisting stiffness, transverse stiffness, and finite cross-link (or bond) strength in different deformation modes. We have reconfirmed the previous results of elastic modulus in the literature that, with increasing density, the network modulus indeed undergoes a transition from bending-dominated deformation to stretching-dominated with continuously varying scaling exponent. Network strength, on the other hand, scales with density with a constant exponent, i.e., showing no obvious transition phenomena. Using material parameters for wood fibres, we have found that the predicted results for stiffness and strength agree very well with experimental data of fibre networks of varying densities reported in the literature.

  • 27.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University.
    Some key aspects on screening of chemical pulp to achieve a fine fraction: a literature review2020Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Production of a fine fraction of refined kraft pulp using micro-perforated screens2020In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Björk, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    Holmen, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Production of a fine fraction using micro-perforated screens2020In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 611-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective for this work was to investigate the possibility to use a pressure screen equipped with a micro-perforated screen basket to produce a fine fraction from bleached chemical pulp. Trials were performed with unrefined bleached chemical hardwood pulp, and with unrefined and refined bleached chemical softwood pulp. The effect of feed concentration, feed flow, and volumetric fine fraction flow was evaluated. The difference between the fine fraction (i. e. the particles passing the screen) and the feed was analysed by studying the fibre morphology. The results showed that high feed concentration was positive for both the fine fraction concentration and the separation efficiency. A higher fine fraction concentration was also obtained when using hardwood pulp, which was explained by the shorter fibre length. Refining of the pulp prior to the fractionation proved beneficial, as a larger share of the refined pulp passed the screen, resulting in a twice as high concentration of the fine fraction when compared to unrefined pulp.

  • 30.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Htun, Myat
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    FORE – Ett nytt industrikombinat baserat på mekaniska massaprocesser2010In: Svensk papperstidning, Nordisk cellulosa, ISSN 1101-766X, no 2, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 31.
    Björkqvist, T.
    et al.
    Department of Automation Science and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.B 692, FIN-33100 Tampere, Finland.
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Salminen, L. I.
    VTT Technical Research Center Finland, P.O.B. 1000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland.
    Salmi, A.
    VTT Technical Research Center Finland, P.O.B. 1000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland.
    Towards optimal defibration: Energy reduction by fatiguing pre-treatment2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A motive for fatiguing wood prior to defibration would be to reduce the energy consumption needed in mechanical pulping processes. Therefore, the effects of fatiguing pre-treatment were here studied on wood samples, on defibration and also on produced paper. The results indicate that pre-fatiguing changes the mechanic response of wood to be more favorable for harsh defibration which in turn is positive for the process efficiency.

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  • 32. Branström, J.
    et al.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sandström, P.
    Ruel, K.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Compression wood in knots and the effect on surface roughness.2005In: proceedings from IMPC 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructural and ultrastructural characteristics of knot wood were examined and related to paper properties. Norway spruce (Picea abies) chips were laboratory fractionated and sorted into a knot containing assortment and a non knot containing reference assortment. The proportions of compression wood in these two assortments were then assessed and the two chip assortments refined in pilot refiners. The knot containing portion was divided into wood from the upper branch, wood from the lower branch compression wood and wood surrounding the branch. Fibres from the three knotwood portions and the reference chips were extracted and measurements were made of fibre properties including fibre length, fibre width and cell wall thickness. The two chip assortments were refined in a pilot plant and the surface properties of laboratory sheets were measured. The knot containing chips had adverse effects on several paper properties. However, no clear relationship was established between surface roughness and the presence of compression wood fibres in knot wood. (6 fig, 12 ref)

  • 33. Busson, Philippe
    et al.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Ihre, Henrik
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    Hult, Anders
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Ferroelectric Liquid Crystalline Dendrimers: Synthesis, Thermal Behavior, and Electrooptical Characterization2001In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 34, p. 1221-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation and characterization of a series of novel ferroelectric liquid crystalline dendrimers are presented. End-capping of 1-, 2-, and 3-generation dendrimers based on 2,2-bis- (hydroxymethyl)propionic acid with mesogens gave surface-functionalized liquid crystalline compounds with 6, 12, and 24 mesogen-containing units, respectively. 4¢¢-((R)-1-Methylheptyloxy)phenyl 4-{4¢-[10- (hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]phenyl}benzoate was synthesized and used as a mesogen-containing unit. The purity and structure of each compound were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and elemental analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy were used to investigate the mesomorphic properties of the mesogen-functionalized dendrimers. The materials displayed a variety of mesophases, including the smectic C* phase. All the liquid crystalline dendrimers showed ferroelectricity, and tilt angle and spontaneous polarization measurements were performed. The obtained results show that the ferroelectric properties of the materials are independent of the generation number of the dendritic scaffold.

  • 34.
    Busson, Philippe
    et al.
    KTH.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    KTH.
    Ihre, Henrik
    KTH.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Linköping University.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköping University.
    Preparation of Mesogen-Functionalized Dendrimers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics2002In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, Vol. 35, p. 1663-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid crystalline dendrimers with peripheral mesogen-containing units have been prepared. Multistep synthesis with several selective reactions was used in the preparation of the mesogen-containing molecules, 4¢¢-[10-(hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]phenyl 4-[4¢-(2-(R)-octyloxy)-3¢-nitrophenyl]benzoate and 4¢¢- [10-(hydroxycarbonyl)decyloxy]biphenyl 4-[4¢-(2-(R)-octyloxy)-3¢-nitrophenyl]benzoate. Both molecules possessed an electron-accepting nitro group placed perpendicular to the long axis of the molecules in order to enhance the nonlinear optical activity. A second generation hydroxyl functional aliphatic dendrimer based on the dihydroxy acid, 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, was used as dendritic scaffold and was subsequently functionalized with the aforementioned groups. The purity and structure of the two liquid crystalline dendrimers were determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and elemental analysis. The synthesis of both the mesogen-containing units and the liquid crystalline dendrimers is described in detail. Investigation of the liquid crystalline properties of the materials by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy showed that they exhibited different mesophases, including the chiral smectic C phase. Ferroelectric switching was observed in this tilted phase, and electrooptical properties, including tilt angle and spontaneous polarization measurements, were investigated. Finally, the nonlinear optical properties of one of the materials were preliminary characterized.

  • 35. Bäckström, Marie
    et al.
    Kolar, Marie-Claude
    Htun, Myat
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Characterisation of fines from unbleached kraft pulps and their impact on sheet properties2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 546-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Chen, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, Polymera material.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, Polymera material.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Polymera material.
    Chitosan extrusion at high solids content: An orthogonal experimental design study2014In: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2041-2479, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For economic reasons and to save time there is a need to shorten the drying operation associated with the production of chitosan materials. Hence it is of interest to extrude chitosan at as high a solids content as possible. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of the extrusion of chitosan at high solids content (60 wt%). An orthogonal experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of processing conditions and material factors on the extrudability of chitosan. This, together with the examination of the evenness and surface finish of the extrudate, made it possible to determine the best conditions for obtaining a readily extrudable high quality material. It was observed that a 1/1 ratio of chitosans with molar masses of 12 and 133 kDa, a process liquid containing 30 wt% acetic acid and 70 wt% water, and extrusion at 50 rpm and 50°C were the optimal material and processing conditions. Materials processed under these conditions were evaluated mechanically at different times after extrusion (stored at 50% RH) in order to see when the properties stabilized. Most mass loss occurred within the first three days after extrusion and this governed the mechanical properties (stiffness and extensibility), which also exhibited the largest changes within these three days (an increase in modulus from 18 to 830 MPa and a decrease in elongation at break from 17 to 3%).

  • 37.
    Chen, Xu
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China.
    Yang, Haiping
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China.
    Chen, Yingquan
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China.
    Chen, Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China.
    Lei, Tingzhou
    Henan Academy of Sciences Institute of Energy Co., Ltd, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Chen, Hanping
    State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, China.
    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce furfural using heterogeneous catalysts2017In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 127, p. 292-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfural is a valuable chemical, the production of furfural from renewable biomass resources becomes more attractive in recent years. In this study, biomass fast pyrolysis with heterogeneous catalysts (titanium compounds (TiN, TiO2 and TiOSO4) and metal nitrides (MoN, GaN and VN)) for furfural production was investigated experimentally by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The measurement results indicated that TiN and GaN promoted the furfural compounds production notably mainly through direct decomposition of oligosaccharides. The formation of furfural was promoted when the amount of TiN was increased, and the yield of furfural formed was about 5.5 times the size of that from non-catalytic pyrolysis when TiN/cellulose mass ratio was 4. The furfural yield decreased when the pyrolysis residence time increased from 10 to 30 s, which suggests competitive reactions (formation of 1, 6-anhydro-beta.-D-glucopyranose) against the formation of furfural. TiN, as a catalyst for fast pyrolysis towards furfural production, can be well applied to agriculture biomass residues. Comparing three biomass residues: corncob, wheat straw and cotton stalk, corncob showed higher furfural yield due to the higher holocellulose content, while wheat straw showed higher furfural selectivity. 

  • 38.
    Cordova, Armando
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sanhueza, Italo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Osong, Sinke H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    A sustainable strategy for production and functionalization of nanocelluloses2019In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0033-4545, E-ISSN 1365-3075, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 865-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable strategy for the neat production and surface functionalization of nanocellulose from wood pulp is disclosed. It is based on the combination of organocatalysis and click chemistry ("organoclick" chemistry) and starts with nanocellulose production by organic acid catalyzed hydrolysis and esterification of the pulp under neat conditions followed by homogenization. This nanocellulose fabrication route is scalable, reduces energy consumption and the organic acid can be efficiently recycled. Next, the surface is catalytically engineered by "organoclick" chemistry, which allows for selective and versatile attachment of different organic molecules (e.g. fluorescent probes, catalyst and pharmaceuticals). It also enables binding of metal ions and nanoparticles. This was exemplified by the fabrication of a heterogeneous nanocellulose-palladium nanoparticle catalyst, which is used for Suzuki cross-coupling transformations in water. The disclosed surface functionalization methodology is broad in scope and applicable to different nanocelluloses and cellulose based materials as well.

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  • 39.
    Costa, Carolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cellulose Dissolution and Amphiphilicity: Insights on the Emulsion Formation and Stabilization2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An amphiphilic polymer is expected to adsorb at the oil-water interface and be capable of stabilizing emulsions. Cellulose derivatives, cellulose nanoparticles and regenerated cellulose particles show an intrinsic amphiphilic character by self-assembling at oil-water interfaces and stabilizing emulsions without the aid of surfactants or any other co-stabilizers. In its polymeric form, the native cellulose chains could be expected to share similar emulsifying abilities. However, cellulose dissolution is the main issue when it comes to its direct application in emulsion technology and, therefore, there is a lack of knowledge when it comes to this type of approach on making emulsions. Cellulose does not dissolve in either oil or water, but it can be dissolved in water based-solvents at extreme pH's. In this thesis, the interfacial behaviour of cellulose was studied at oil-water interfaces by having cellulose dissolved in aqueous solutions of H3PO4 (very low pH) and NaOH/NaOH-urea and TBAH (very high pH). 

    In its dissolved state, cellulose was seen to substantially decrease the interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil phase and the aqueous media, which was a consequence of the adsorption of cellulose at oil-water interfaces. The extent of the IFT reduction was shown to be dependent on the solvent quality. The optimal solvency conditions for cellulose were found for the alkaline solvent with an intermediate polarity (NaOH-urea), which is in line with the favourable conditions for adsorption of an amphiphilic polymer. However, in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions (O/W), to achieve long-term stability and prevent oil separation from the emulsions, further reduction in cellulose's solvency was needed. This was achieved by a change in the pH of the emulsions that induced the regeneration of cellulose on the surface of the oil droplets (in-situ regeneration) in the form of a continuous film, which was revealed by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). The topography of the droplets surface was found to be very different from what has been reported for cellulose Pickering emulsions. Upon in-situ regeneration, the rate of droplets coalescence was dramatically reduced and emulsions showed a remarkable stability against oil-separation. Finally, the combination of cellulose with lignin as an amphiphilic natural co-stabilizer was studied regarding their compatibility in solution. Lignin was found to improve cellulose dissolution in NaOH (aq.) and delay the gelation kinetics upon ageing or temperature increase in the solutions. Data suggests lignin as an amphiphilic additive able to weaken the hydrophobic interactions among cellulose molecules. 

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  • 40.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Mira, I.
    Williams, J.B.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cellulose as a dispersion stabilizer2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Mira, I.
    Williams, J.B.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Native cellulose as an efficient emulsifier for nanosized emulsions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Medronho, Bruno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Filipe, Alexandra
    University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    Mira, Isabel
    RISE, Stockholm.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules: The leading role of cellulose2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsion stabilization by native cellulose has been mainly hampered because of its insolubility in water. Chemical modification is normally needed to obtain water-soluble cellulose derivatives. These modified celluloses have been widely used for a range of applications by the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutic, paint and construction industries. In most cases, the modified celluloses are used as rheology modifiers (thickeners) or as emulsifying agents. In the last decade, the structural features of cellulose have been revisited, with particular focus on its structural anisotropy (amphiphilicity) and the molecular interactions leading to its resistance to dissolution. The amphiphilic behavior of native cellulose is evidenced by its capacity to adsorb at the interface between oil and aqueous solvent solutions, thus being capable of stabilizing emulsions. In this overview, the fundamentals of emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules are briefly revisited before different aspects around the emerging role of cellulose as emulsion stabilizer are addressed in detail. Particular focus is given to systems stabilized by native cellulose, either molecularly-dissolved or not (Pickering-like effect). 

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  • 43.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Medronho, Bruno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Ed. 8, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal .
    Filipe, Alexandra
    University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Ed. 8, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.
    Romano, Anabela
    University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Ed. 8, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    University of Lund; University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004- 535 Coimbra, Portugal .
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    On the formation and stability of cellulose-based emulsions in alkaline systems: Effect of the solvent quality2022In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 286, article id 119257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With amphiphilic properties, cellulose molecules are expected to adsorb at the O/W interface and be capable of stabilizing emulsions. The effect of solvent quality on the formation and stability of cellulose-based O/W emulsions was evaluated in different alkaline systems: NaOH, NaOH-urea and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH). The optimal solvency conditions for cellulose adsorption at the O/W interface were found for the alkaline solvent with an intermediate polarity (NaOH-urea), which is in line with the favorable conditions for adsorption of an amphiphilic polymer. A very good solvency (in TBAH) and the interfacial activity of the cation lead to lack of stability because of low cellulose adsorption. However, to achieve long-term stability and prevent oil separation in NaOH-urea systems, further reduction in cellulose's solvency was needed, which was achieved by a change in the pH of the emulsions, inducing the regeneration of cellulose at the surface of the oil droplets (in-situ regeneration).

  • 44.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Medronho, Bruno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Rheological study of Alkali-Based Solvent Mixtures of Cellulose and Chitosan2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Costa, Carolina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Mira, Isabel
    RISE, Stockholm.
    Benjamins, Jan-Willem
    RISE, Stockholm.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Interfacial activity and emulsion stabilization of dissolved cellulose2019In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 292, article id 111325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some aspects of the interfacial behavior of cellulose dissolved in an aqueous solvent were investigated. Cellulose was found to significantly decrease the interfacial tension (IFT) between paraffin oil and 85 wt% phosphoric acid aqueous solutions. This decrease was similar in magnitude to that displayed by non-ionic cellulose derivatives. Cellulose's interfacial activity indicated a significant amphiphilic character and that the interfacial activity of cellulose derivatives is not only related to the derivatization but inherent in the cellulose backbone. This finding suggests that cellulose would have the ability of stabilizing dispersions, like oil-in-water emulsions in a similar way as a large number of cellulose derivatives. In its molecularly dissolved state, cellulose proved to be able to stabilize emulsions of paraffin in the polar solvent on a short-term. However, long-term stability against drop-coalescence was possible to achieve by a slight change in the amphiphilicity of cellulose, effected by a slight increase in pH. These emulsions exhibited excellent stability against coalescence/oiling-off over a period of one year. Ageing of the cellulose solution before emulsification (resulting in molecular weight reduction) was found to favour the creation of smaller droplets. 

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  • 46.
    Cuomo, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Cofelice, Martina
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Venditti, Francesco
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Ceglie, Andrea
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Miguel, Maria
    Coimbra Univ, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Lund Univ, Lund.
    Lopez, Francesco
    Univ Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    In-vitro digestion of curcumin loaded chitosan-coated liposomes2018In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 168, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liposomes are considered a major route for encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. Chitosan coated liposomes could represent an alternative way as a carrier for delivery of drugs in human body. In this study the preparation and applicability of chitosan-coated liposomes containing curcumin as well as curcumin loaded anionic liposomes were evaluated. The applicability of the carriers was tested by means of an in vitro digestion procedure allowing for measurement of the bioaccessibility of ingested curcumin. Values of diameter, polydispersity index and surface charge for curcumin loaded anionic liposomes obtained through dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential measurements were 129 nm, 0.095 and -49 mV, respectively. After chitosan-coating, diameter and polydispersity index remain unvaried while the surface charge gets positive. Slightly higher curcumin concentrations were found after the mouth and the stomach digestion phases when curcumin was loaded in anionic liposomes. On the contrary, after the intestinal phase, a higher percentage of curcumin was found when chitosan-coated liposomes were used as carrier, both in the raw digesta and in the bile salt micellar phase. It was shown that the presence of a positively charged surface allows a better absorption of curcumin in the small intestine phase, which increases the overall curcumin bioavailability. The mechanism behind these results can be understood from the composition of different environments generated by the digestive fluids that differently interact with anionic or cationic surfaces. 

  • 47.
    Cuomo, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Molise, Dipartimento Agr, Ambiente Alimenti DIAAA, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.
    Lopez, Francesco
    Univ Molise, Dipartimento Agr, Ambiente Alimenti DIAAA, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.
    Piludu, Marco
    Univ Cagliari, Dipartimento Sci Biomed, I-09042 Monserrato, CA, Italy.
    Miguel, Maria G.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Chem, P-3004535 Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Lund Univ, Phys Chem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Ceglie, Andrea
    Univ Molise, Dipartimento Agr, Ambiente Alimenti DIAAA, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.
    Release of small hydrophilic molecules from polyelectrolyte capsules: Effect of the wall thickness2015In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 447, p. 211-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer nanocapsules assembled on cationic liposomes have been built through the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Chitosan and alginate, two biocompatible polyelectrolytes, were used to cover the template, where the Rhodamine B was previously loaded. The multishell formed with the alternate deposition of the polyelectrolytes, according to the principles of the LbL assembly, was supposed to change the permeability of the capsule wall. The thickness of the multishell was seen increasing with the number of layers deposited through the observations with the Transmission Electron Microscope. The permeability of the capsules was studied through Rhodamine B release assays. Nanocapsules with seven layers of polyelectrolytes released the dye slowly compared to the capsules with three or five layers. The Ritger-Peppas model was applied to investigate the release mechanisms and a non-Fickian transport behavior was detected regardless of the number of layers. Values of diffusion coefficients of Rhodamine B through the capsule wall were also calculated. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 48.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Quantitative microscopy of coating uniformity2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Print quality demands for coated papers are steadily growing, and achieving coating uniformity is crucial for high image sharpness, colour fidelity, and print uniformity. Coating uniformity may be divided into two scales: coating thickness uniformity and coating microstructure uniformity, the latter of which includes pigment, pore and binder distributions within the coating layer. This thesis concerns the investigation of both types of coating uniformity by using an approach of quantitative microscopy.First, coating thickness uniformity was analysed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of paper cross sections, and the relationships between local coating thickness variations and the variations of underlying base sheet structures were determined. Special attention was given to the effect of length scales on the coating thickness vs. base sheet structure relationships.The experimental results showed that coating thickness had a strong correlation with surface height (profile) of base sheet at a small length scale. However, at a large length scale, it was mass density of base sheet (formation) that had the strongest correlation with coating thickness. This result explains well the discrepancies found in the literature for the relationship between coating thickness variation and base sheet structure variations. The total variance of coating thickness, however, was dominated by the surface height variation in the small scale, which explained around 50% of the variation. Autocorrelation analyses were further performed for the same data set. The autocorrelation functions showed a close resemblance of the one for a random shot process with a correlation length in the order of fibre width. All these results suggest that coating thickness variations are the result of random deposition of particles with the correlation length determined by the base sheet surface textures, such as fibre width.In order to obtain fundamental understandings of the random deposition processes on a rough surface, such as in paper, a generic particle deposition model was developed, and systematic analyses were performed for the effects of particle size, coat weight (average number of particles), levelling, and system size on coating thickness variation. The results showed that coating thickness variation3grows with coat weight, but beyond a certain coat weight, it reaches a plateau value. A scaling analysis yielded a universal relationship between coating thickness variation and the above mentioned variables. The correlation length of coating thickness was found to be determined by average coat weight and the state of underlying surfaces. For a rough surface at relatively low coat weight, the correlation length was typically in the range of fibre width, as was also observed experimentally.Non-uniformities within the coating layer, such as porosity variations and binder distributions, are investigated by using a newly developed method: field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) in combination with argon ion beam milling technique. The combination of these two techniques produced extremely high quality images with very few artefacts, which are particularly suited for quantitative analyses of coating structures. A new evaluation method was also developed by using marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) of the secondary electron images (SEI).The high resolution imaging revealed that binder enrichment, a long disputed subject in the area, is present in a thin layer of a 500 nm thickness both at the coating surface and at the base sheet/coating interface. It was also found that the binders almost exclusively fill up the small pores, whereas the larger pores are mainly empty or depleted of binder.

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    Doctoral Thesis 129
  • 49.
    Dahlström, Christina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Pettersson, T
    Rojas, Orlando J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Medronho, Bruno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Triboelectric Performance Of Regenerated Cellulose2023In: Book of Abstracts EPNOE 2023, Graz University of Technology , 2023, p. 116-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose has shown great potential in the development of green triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) [1]. Particularly, regenerated cellulose (R-cellulose) has shown remarkably high output power density but the structural features and key parameters that explain such superior performance remain unexplored. In this work, wood cellulose fibers were dissolved in a LiOH(aq)-based solvent to produce a series of R-cellulose films. Regeneration in different alcohols (from methanol to n-pentanol) was performed and the films’ structural features and triboelectric performance were assessed. Nonsolvents of increased hydrophobicity led to R-cellulose films with higher hydrophilic character; the films showed a (1- 10) diffraction peak of larger amplitude and higher apparent crystallinity. An open-circuit voltage (VOC) of up to ca. 260 V and a short-circuit current (ISC) of up to ca. 150 μA were measured for R-cellulose against polytetrafluoroethylene (as negative counter-layer). However, R-cellulose showed an increased VOC of 175% (from 88.1 V) against polydimethylsiloxane from methanol to n-pentanol. The corresponding ISC and output power also increased by 76% (from 89.9 μA) and by 382% (from 8.8 W m–2), respectively. The higher R-cellulose hydrophilicity, combined with soft counter-layer that follow the surface structures increasing the effective contact area, are the leading reasons for a superior triboelectric performance.

    [1] Zhang, R., Dahlström, C., Zou, H., Jonzon, J., Hummelgård, M., Örtegren, J., Blomquist, N., Yang, Y., Andersson, H., Olsen, M., Norgren, M., Olin, H. & Wang, Z.L. Adv. Mater. 32, 2002824, 2020; https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002824

  • 50.
    Dahlström, Christina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    New Insights into Coating Uniformity and Base Sheet Structures2009In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 48, no 23, p. 10472-10478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Base sheet structures, such as surface roughness and mass density distribution (formation), have been known to affect coating uniformity. However, the literature is not necessarily consistent in determining which structure controls coating uniformity. This study employed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis, combined with autocorrelation and frequency analyses, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of coating and to resolve some of the controversies in the literature regarding the base sheet effects. The results showed that coating thickness variation resembles a process of random deposition with leveling. At small length scales (in the size of fiber width), leveling causes a very strong dependence of coating thickness variations on the surface profile of the base sheet, whereas at larger length scales, coating thickness variation diminishes in its intensity by the same leveling effect, but still retains a significant correlation with base sheet structure, particularly formation. Frequency analyses clearly showed that the discrepancies in the results for the base sheet effects in the literature are due to the length scales used in the experiments, that is, the sampling area and the resolution of the measurements.

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