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  • 1.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system2013In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

  • 2.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Classical style constructed roller skis and grip functionality2011In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Technology on Sports IV / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Clifton P., Elsevier, 2011, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers for snow-free training, with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling.

    A new type of roller ski was constructed with a function which makes it necessary to use the same kick technique as that used on snow, i.e. the ski has a camber that must be pushed down to obtain grip. Its stiffness can be adjusted based on factors that influence grip, i.e. the skier’s bodyweight and technical skiing skills.

    Thus, our aim was to make comparative measurements as regards grip between ratcheted roller skis and the roller ski with a camber and compare with previous published results for grip waxed skis during cross-country skiing on snow.  The measurements were carried out using specially developed equipment, with a bottom plate and an overlying rubber mat of the same type as used on many treadmills and a function for applying different loads and generating traction on the back of the roller ski.

  • 3.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The multi functional roller ski2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sterilisering av medicinska modeller: En studie av lämpliga metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of medical models within the Swedish healthcare is limited. One reason for this is the lack of knowledge how to sterilize them to be able to use the in an operating room. The goal of this thesis has therefore been to investigate if medical models manufactured by rapid prototyping can be sterilized by any of the methods approved by the Swedish authority Socialstyrelsen. The study has covered two different rapid prototyping methods FDM - Fused Deposition Modeling and JP - Jet Print. The two machines that were used are Stratasys Prodigy Plus (FDM) and ObJet Eden 260v (JP). The building materials that were used are P400 ABS in FDM and FullCure720 in JP. The support materials that were used are P400-SR in FDM and FullCure705 in JP. In order to avoid misconceptions with various stakeholders has a definition of what a medical model is been created. Different grades of purity has been studied and how to achieve them. In order to determine the purity of the samples before and after they have been sterilized have an environmental investigation been performed. Due to different sterilization methods can affect the material in different ways and hence its shape have a deformation study been performed. A number of reference geometries have been measured before and after they have been subjected to the sterilization process.  In order not to skip any aspect and to have measurable and comparable values have an experimental plan been constructed. The conclusion to be drawn after the study is: Sterilization of FullCure720 with saturated water vapour works and the material can be considered sterile. Sterilization of P400 ABS with cold chemical sterilization also works; however, the material can only be classified as a high-purity material. The other test samples can only be classified as clean. The shape changes that have been measured are all below 0.5 mm and are therefore considered not to have any bearing on the medical model's function.

  • 5.
    Bergström, Axel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jahren, Even
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Implementering av additiv tillverkning för dämparkolv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the companies, AIM Sweden and NewSoTech have the possibility to adapt a product to the additive manufacturing ben investigated. With AIM Sweden's expertise in additive manufacturing of titanium parts and NewSoTechs method for surface hardening of titanium, TiSurf ®, an opportunity for cooperation were identified. NewSoTech presented a piston to a motocross rear damper as a possible product to adapt to the manufacturing method. This formed the basis of the completed thesis. The aim of the work has been to explore the process of additive manufacturing of a damper piston and partly to generate a basis for further cooperation. This determined the objectives; to develop prototypes and test and analyze these, provide suggestions to design variations and develop a methodology for implementation of design variations. The work began with investigating the pistons function; this were done through a theoretical study and by modeling the piston with CAD software. Thereafter, the project were carried out by examining and thereby develop a process to adjust the piston to additive manufacturing. The opening process was divided into five stages, defining the problem, generating concepts, designing, manufacturing and analysis. These steps were repeated in whole or in part and could iteratively be improved. The first phase was to define the pistons design-related limitations and freedoms. In the concept generation were six different concepts developed that were considered interesting for the adaptation. These concepts were not intended to optimize the function of the piston, but only to show the potential of the manufacturing method. In the design process a methodology to easily implement design changes was developed. In the fabrication phase pistons were prepared and manufactured additively and then the necessary post-processing were performed. A full analysis of the pistons could not be carried out within the project. The result was a process of adjustment of the damper piston to the additive manufacturing method with the overlying process described above with added sub-steps identified as necessary for the process. The conclusions were that more work needs to be to perform on a complete analysis of the pistons, refine and develop the preparations for production and to evaluate and refine post processing methods.

  • 6. Berquist, B
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sandvik Wiklund, Pia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Strengthening the Student´s Role in the Work with Quality Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education2002In: Proceedings of the 6th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge Management, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7. Bjurstam, Peter
    et al.
    Bäckström, M
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Adaptive Control of Machining Centres1993Report (Other academic)
  • 8. Borking, Kjell
    et al.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm university.
    Davies, Guy
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Transcending Business Intelligence2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How on Earth did this happen? The question is not infrequent, but more to the point, it?s unnecessary. It arises because in many cases people haven?t thought things through beforehand. Yes, sometimes people can be unlucky, but far from every time that things go awry; bad luck is never so consistent - by definition. Thinking things through properly beforehand might seem a fairly obvious requirement for making a good decision, but startlingly often, even critical decisions are made without any in depth analysis. Well, there may have been some background data lying around somewhere, but not much is done with it. Though it's easy to blame authoritarian leadership or the like, poor decision making is far more usually due to not really knowing what to do with the available information, whether it's sufficient and what else needs to be known There?s nothing weird or idiotic about today?s decision makers, but there often is about the tools and methods available to them. It would be more accurate to say that many decision makers have been lead astray regarding their remit and capacity, but fortunately with structured decision processes they can be guided back on track far more easily than had they been as dim- witted as some of their decisions would indicate.Businesses introduce various BI solutions both timely and untimely, but what most of them don't have is any kind of methodology by which to deal with decisions. With no processes, knowledge, techniques or tools, they soon come to grief. Happily this is fairly easy to remedy.Decision processes and decision methods can be greatly improved. In this book we simply explain how to go about it.

  • 9.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    On the Relationship between Sustainable Health and Quality Management: Leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sickness absence not only causes significant costs for organizations but also leads to other negative consequences for individuals and societies. Previous research has shown that working with organizational values within Quality Management affects job satisfaction and results in increased profitability and customer satisfaction. There would, in addition, seem to be great gains if managers, by working with Quality Management, can manage to establish sustainable health among co-workers.

     

    The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to examine how Quality Management could be practised in order to support sustainable health among co-workers and what it is within Quality Management that influences sustainable co-worker health. Accordingly, the purpose was also to contribute to the understanding of the relation between sustainable health and Quality Management. To fulfil this purpose, three research questions were asked. The results are described in three parts related to the three research questions and are the product of six case studies carried out in seven different organizations.

     

    Interviews with managers and workshops with co-workers were carried out to investigate how Quality Management can be practised within organizations in order to promote sustainable co-worker health. These investigations took place in four organizations that had received awards. Three had been awarded for their excellence in leadership, work environment and co-workership, along with improved profitability; one for its successful implementation of quality programmes. The results are descriptions of methodologies, behaviours, values and organization structure used by the organizations to support sustainable health. These are exemplified with practical examples. The methodologies, behaviours, values, and organizational structure are considered possible for other organizations to adopt and all of them are already supported in the quality, management and leadership literature. Support from the health literature is also found for most of the behaviours, methodologies, values, and organizational structure.

     

    Surveys and focus groups interviews were carried out in five different organizations in order to find out what is of most importance when practising Quality Management in order to influence sustainable co-worker health. The results pointed to ‘Leadership Commitment’ as the most central of the values for achieving sustainable health among the co-workers. Furthermore, the values ‘Continuous Improvements’, ‘Participation of Everybody’ and ‘Customer Orientation’ were found to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. The values ‘Leadership Commitment’ and the value ‘Participation of Everybody’ were then further elaborated to find aspects of importance for sustainable co-worker health. From the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ four aspects were extracted. These were labelled ‘Empathy’, ‘Presence and Communication’, ‘Integrity’, and ‘Continuity’. The results showed relations between the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ within Quality Management and sustainable health among the co-workers. Thus it is essential for leaders to work in accordance with that value to achieve results in the work towards sustainable co-worker health. The results indicate that this requires management and leadership that are characterized by the aspects above. The leaders have to:

     

    • Really understand the co-workers and their work situation.

    • Be present and available for co-workers and communicate with them.

    • Act as a role model, be fair and keep their promises.

    • Stay in their positions long enough to build up trust and confidence.

     

    The value ‘Participation of Everybody’ has also been shown to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. This indicates that it is important to work in accordance with that value in the struggle to achieve sustainable health among the co-workers. The results imply that this value is characterized by the aspects ‘Development’, ‘Influence’ and ‘Being informed’. This could be done by:

     

    • Giving the co-workers opportunities to develop their skills and develop personally.

    • Letting the co-workers influence their work situation and taking suggestions and proposals from them seriously.

    • Having good communication within the whole organization.

     

    To manage this; the managers have to delegate more and empower the co-workers.

     

    These results were then further elaborated within another organization in order to develop a measurement approach that can clarify the extent to which the values, ‘Leadership Commitment’ and ‘Participation of Everybody’ permeate an organization. The developed measurement approach can be used to clarify the extent to which the organization is practising the health-promoting values within Quality Management and in what areas improvement is needed to increase co-worker health. The approach can also help the organization to detect those shortcomings within the management which are important for co-worker well-being. The developed measurement approach can be used to establish and enhance co-worker health by improving their well-being, satisfaction and motivation.

  • 10.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Harnesk, Roland
    Schön, Karin
    Empiriskt underlag till forskningsrapporten "hur framgångsrika organisationer uppnår hållbar hälsa"2004Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Learning from chaos : a necessity for adapting quality management to the future?2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the core leadership behavior in Change Oriented Leadership, the KaosPilots and Deming´s 14 points. Furthermore we aim to compare similarities and differences in these leadership behaviors, in order to propose new leadership behaviors within Quality Management to fit tomorrow´s more creativity based organizations. Methodology The research has been conducted through describing and comparing core leadership behaviors, in Change Oriented Leadership, KaosPilots and Deming´s 14-points. Findings Our comparison indicates that there are behaviors in the Change Oriented Leadership that are missing in Quality Management and probably would benefit organizations if they were adopted. The leadership that the KaosPilots addresses is different from the leadership in Quality Management in many ways but probably necessary to learn from to meet new demands from the customers and the co-workers. Originality/value Leadership within Quality Management developed with innovation and entrepreneurship from Change Oriented Leadership complimented with playfulness and chaos from the KaosPilots would most likely generate a more creative environment and thereby create more competitive organizations.

  • 12.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Learning from others to adapt Quality Management to the future2011In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to compare leadership behaviours from two different approaches with the leadership behaviours within Quality Management in order to find possible areas for developing leadership within Quality Management. A case study has been carried out at a Swedish award-winning organisation in order to study leadership behaviours. In-depth interviews have been carried out with the intention to explore how the manager has worked to become one of Sweden’s best workplaces. Leadership behaviours from three different approaches are summarised in ‘The Core Leadership Behaviours’. The analysis of the leadership methodologies and behaviours used by the leaders and the ‘Core Leadership Behaviours’ from the three different approaches has been summarized for each approach. The comparison indicates that there are interesting leadership behaviours in Change Oriented Leadership as well as in KaosPilots that are not established within Quality Management. The leadership behaviours could complement Quality Management to meet new and challenging demands from customers and co-workers

  • 13.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wreder, Åsa
    Achieving Sustaniable Health Among Co-workers: A case study at FöreningsSparbanken2005Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst.
    Are successful organizations working in a way that provides co-workers with what they need to be healthy?2010In: 14th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2011, Cottbus, Germany, August 29 - 31 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Are healthy and successful organizations working accordingly to Quality Management?2009In: International journal of workplace health management, ISSN 1753-8351, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management. The purpose is also to describe in more detail how they are working.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    Three Swedish organizations that have shown excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment and profitability have been examined, to find out what methodologies they have used for their success. To discover whether these healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management, Deming’s 14-point list has been used as an analytical tool.

     

    Findings

    Identified methodologies used by the healthy and successful organizations are described.  Viewed in the light of our analysis, a relationship between the three examined healthy and successful organizations and Quality Management is indicated.

     

    Practical implications

    Working with the methodologies described in the paper, the three organizations have improved co-worker health. Other organizations could probably adopt the identified and described methodologies to improve the health of their co-workers and effectiveness in the organization.

     

    Originality/value

    Concerning the performance evaluation and the continuous improvement component in Quality Management, substantial contributions could be made to the health area by applying the tools that the quality area have used over a considerable period to improve the quality outcomes.

    Quality and health aspects have common success factors, and a focus on high quality could be seen as positive for health outcomes.

  • 16.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Management methodologies for sustaniable health: A case study at three Swedish organisations2005In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Quality Management for Organisational and Regional Development : QMOD 2005: QMOD 2005 Palermo, Italy 29.06.2005 - 01.07.2005, Luleå, 2005, p. 703-712Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good management and leadership are key factors for sustainable development and long-term success in all types of organisations. Nevertheless, many organisations are still struggling with quality problems, sick ness absence and financial difficulties caused by poor top management. Many researchers have reported on relationships between good management and working environment, quality and efficiency. So the question is why good management is not practised to a greater extent. In this paper, management methodologies for sustainable health among employees and consequent customer satisfaction and good bottom line results are explored by studying top leaders in three Swedish successful organisations. General questions dealt with in the paper are: How can managers commit employees to be part of the proactive work with sustainable health? What methodologies can top managers use to get well-motivated employees, a good working environment, satisfied customers and good financial results? The studied organisations are two manufacturing companies and one hospital. The organisations have received national awards for their excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment and efficiency. They all demonstrate good examples of long-term work with sustainable health among employees which has decreased sick ness absence. Explorative qualitative methods have been used to identify management methodologies in the case organisations. The results confirm a relation between leadership and sustainable health. In all organisations sustainable leadership has been characterised by great humanity, a long-range perspective and a holistic view of management. These management methodologies with concrete examples are described in the paper.

  • 17.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Danvind, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sports Technology Education at Mid Sweden University2013In: 6TH ASIA-PACIFIC CONGRESS ON SPORTS TECHNOLOGY (APCST), Elsevier, 2013, Vol. 60, p. 214-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present paper we would like to share some experiences of building new education in Sports Technology at MidSweden University and the results of 10 years of successfully running it in Östersund. The Sports Technologyeducation at Mid Sweden University started at Campus Östersund in 2003 as a part of the curriculum of theEngineering Department. This specialization was initially at the three-year Bachelor level, and later it was extendedto an additional two-year Master level. Aiming at the quality of Sports Technology education, three keystones areunderlying its process, representing the solid knowledge base, capacity to be flexible in problem solving and the usean innovative approaches. The Department unites researches with a background in both natural sciences andengineering disciplines, having a wide experience of working with and within the industry, equally active in researchand teaching. The unique constellation of the profiles forming the Department include not only the SportsTech®group, being “the backbone”, but also the Ecology and Eco-technology, and Quality Technology groups bringing theexcellence and extra competence needed to assure the quality of the Sports Technology education. We were the firsthigher education institution in Sweden to give this kind of education program and now some other SwedishUniversities have followed us. Our success can be measured by a number of graduates taking good jobs in theindustry. We also enjoy a steady flow of new students coming from all parts of Sweden, and Sports Technologyeducation stays among the most desirable ones in the country.

  • 18. Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    A step towards integrated supervisory control of complex machining processes1998In: Changing the ways we work : shaping the ICT-solutions for the next century : proceedings of the Conference on Integration in Manufacturing, Göteborg, Sweden, 6-8 October 1998, Amsterdam: IOS press , 1998, p. 817-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    An approach to integrated process monitoring and quality control of advanced machining1999In: Life cycle approaches to production systems : management, control, and supervision; preprints; ASI '99; Advanced Summer Institute '99, ICIMS-NOE; September 22 - 24, 1999, Leuven, Belgium, Leuven, Belgien, 1999, p. 150-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Deployment of quality and productivity requirements in integrated process control1999In: Proceedings of The 26th International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering, December 15-17, 1999, Melbourne, Australia, 1999, p. 70-74Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Design and Application of a Prototype System for Process Modelling and Control in Integrated Machining1997In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Production Engineering, Design and Control, 1997, p. 417-426Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Development of a multi-tooth approach to tool condition monitoring in milling1998In: Insight (Northampton), ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 548-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Integration of real-time quality control and process monitoringManuscript (preprint) (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Integration of real-time quality control and process monitoring2000In: The 33rd CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems : the manufacturing systems in its human context : a tool to extend the global welfare : 5-7 June, 2000, Stockholm, Sweden : proceedings.: CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems (33 : 2000 : Stockholm), Sth.: KTH, Inst.för farkost och flyg , 2000, p. 438-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    On the application of quality function deployment in integrated supervisory process control2000In: IMechE conference transactions, 2000, Vol. 2000, no 5, p. 531-540Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    On the use of neural networks and statistical methods in the integrated supervisory process control concept1999Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    QFD as a tool to improve quality control in a complex manufacturing environment2004In: The Asian Journal on Quality, ISSN 1598-2688, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    QFD as a Tool to Improve Quality Control in a Complex Manufacturing Environment2003In: Proceedings of The Sixth Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference (QMOD 2003) Paris, France 1-3 october 2003 - Paris, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Cai, D. Q.
    et al.
    Xie, M
    Goh, T. N.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Bäckström, Mikael
    A study of control chart for adjusted processes1999In: The 26th International Conference on Computers & Industrial Engineering (the 26th C & IE) : December 15-17, 1999, Melbourne, Australia, 1999, p. 443-447Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sundström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Esping, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Koptioug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Cross-Country Ski2015In: The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports / [ed] Braghin F., Cheli F., Maldifassi S., Melzi S. and Sabbioni E., Springer, 2015, p. 107-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiing, biathlon and ski orienteering are competitive sports with practitioners who are mostly from countries in the northern hemisphere. The competition season is during the time when the ground is covered with snow, which roughly extends from mid-November to late March. During the rest time of the year, which is a long preparatory period of training for the skiers before the competition season, the skiers use roller skis for dryland training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Furthermore, over the last few decades, fairly specific indoor testing methods for cross-country skiers have become possible due to the development of treadmills that allow roller skiing using classical and freestyle techniques.

  • 31.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    AIM Sweden.
    Legrell, Pererik
    Norrlands universitetssjukhus.
    Tidehag, Per
    Norrlands universitetssjukhus.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Dental Implant Manufacturing using Electron Beam Melting – Geometry Deviation from Intraoral Scanning and from Cone Beam Computed Tomography2016In: EBAM 2016: 1st International Conference on Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, Kjell G.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci Orthopaed, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Börje
    Ostersunds Sjukhus, Dept Orthopaed, Ortopedmottagningen, S-83183 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Patient-Specific Clavicle Reconstruction Using Digital Design and Additive Manufacturing2015In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 137, no 11, article id 111418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trend toward operative treatment for certain types of clavicle fractures and these are usually treated with plate osteosynthesis. The subcutaneous location of the clavicle makes the plate fit important, but the clavicle has a complex shape, which varies greatly between individuals and hence standard plates often have a poor fit. Using computed tomography (CT) based design, the plate contour and screw positioning can be optimized to the actual case. A method for patient-specific plating using design based on CT-data, additive manufacturing (AM), and postprocessing was initially evaluated through three case studies, and the plate fit on the reduced fracture was tested during surgery (then replaced by commercial plates). In all three cases, the plates had an adequate fit on the reduced fracture. The time span from CT scan of the fracture to final implant was two days. An approach to achieve functional design and screw-hole positioning was initiated. These initial trials of patient-specific clavicle plating using AM indicate the potential for a smoother plate with optimized screw positioning. Further, the approach facilitates the surgeon's work and operating time can be saved.

  • 33.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    AIM Sweden.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hamberg, Åke
    Östersund hospital.
    Samuelsson, Börje
    Östersund hospital.
    Nilsson, Kjell G
    Norrlands universitetssjukhus.
    Custom design and additive manufacturingof orthopedic implants and medical models in titanium and plastics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Davidsson, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling av kälkhockeykälken2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An independent degree project in product development of the sledge hockey sledge

  • 35.
    Eberger, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling av korrigerande osteotomi och design av sågguide: Ett utredande arbete för AIM Sweden AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ett självständigt arbete på grundnivå inom området design och tillverkning av patientspecifika guider för ortopedi.

  • 36.
    Eberger, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling av korrigerande osteotomi och design av sågguide: Ett utredande arbete för AIM Sweden AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An independent degree project in the fields of design and manufacturing of patient-specific guides for orthopedics.

  • 37. Edenhagen, Görgen
    et al.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schön, Lennart
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Improving continuing engineering education through institutional co-operation: a swedish case study2004In: Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Continuing Engineering Education – Tokyo May 15–20, 2004: 9th IACEE World Conference on Continuing Engineering Education, 2004, p. 195-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unique CEE-collaboration between three universities in Sweden concerning the development of a distance course in quality technology and management. The course is based on distance spanning technology and is mainly aimed at engineers who have a degree and have been working for a few years. The background, organisation and practical experiences from the co-operative course development work are presented and discussed in the paper

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Konstruktion av justerbar rullstol för styrketräning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of Christer Eriksson Jörnelind, the owner of Nordic Gym, has a project to develop a visual prototype of a wheelchair for weight training been conducted. The purpose of this project was to develop a basis for improvement of weight training at the gym for people that need a wheelchair. The project's goal was to create a visual prototype of a wheelchair by designing and producing all the parts of the wheelchair, create a model with CAD software and make strength calculations. The wheelchair must allow training and be adjustable to suit different user. To reach the goals of the project, a product development phase, a visualization phase and a calculation phase were made. In the product development phase, a product planning, feasibility study and product specification, concept generation, selection of concepts as well as configuration and detailed design were made. From the product development phase one of six concepts was selected to be visualized. The choice of which concept was based on how well the concepts fulfilled the requirements and requests. When the product development phase was done, a visualization of the wheelchair was made with CAD software to eventually do strength calculations in the form of FEM analysis. Based on the results of the project's phases, conclusions can be drawn about the purpose and goals being achieved. A visual prototype of the wheelchair that is adjustable for the use of machines at the gym, adjustable to suit different users and has approved strength calculations have been constructed. Other findings show that there is interest in producing a wheelchair for weight training and that there is improvement options to work with.

  • 39. Eriksson, H
    et al.
    Johanson, F
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Effects of in-company quality awards on operational performance2002In: The 7. World congress for total quality management : business excellence, make it happen] : Proceedings, Verona, Italy, 25-27 June 2002: 2 b., Verona: Sinergie-CUEIM , 2002, , p. -Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Effects of In-Company Quality Awards on Organizational Performance2003In: Total quality management (Print), ISSN 0954-4127, E-ISSN 1360-0613, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between total quality management (TQM) practices and improved performance has been frequently discussed in the literature. In this paper, the costs and the effects of in-company quality awards on performance are discussed and analysed. The paper covers a survey of Swedish companies that use or have used in-company quality awards to stimulate TQM efforts and thereby to improve performance. The study cannot show any strong evidence of improved performance for units that applied for the in-company quality award. However, in contrast to units that have not applied, some units that have applied for the in-company quality award considered that the results related to performance have improved greatly. One large positive effect perceived by the participating units was increased customer orientation while the largest costs were put on the description of activities and the improvement work itself.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Creating customer value in commercial experiences2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a type of business offering gaining much attention, both in the media and in financial figures, which provides the customer with something extra, something to be remembered. This offering is a commercial experience. It is claimed that commercial experiences are different from traditional industry and mass-production and even separated from goods and services. The possibility of creating something extraordinary in order to gain profit is of increasing interest in today’s business world. Consumers are seeking for experiences to reach a higher level of personal growth, an experience that create personal identity and lead to long-lasting memories. This is something an increasing amount of consumers are willing to pay money for - the commercial experience market.

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute knowledge about and a deeper understanding of commercial experiences, both in general and especially with regard to how customer value is created. The focus of the research was also to strengthen and support organizations that offer commercial experiences. In order to fulfill the purpose, two case studies were conducted with different focal points. The first aimed to find best practice and explore excellent ways of working when providing commercial experiences. The second study aimed to identify the needs for improvement to strengthen organizations offering commercial experiences.

    According to my findings, there seems to be several distinctions between commercial experiences and goods and services. These include; the level of price, the time spent by the customer, the customer affect as strongly emotional and maybe most importantly, the finding that commercial experiences create a higher level of customer value than goods and services. All this proves that the commercial experience is to be considered an offering on its own, a refined customer offer of higher value. Since commercial experiences are said to engage customers in an inherently memorable way, reaching a higher level of customer value than goods and services, is seen as a critical factor. Understanding what the customer really wants, needs and what builds customer value when offering commercial experiences then become particularly important as drivers of success. When studying a particular organization for best practice, several similarities between providing commercial experiences and working according to the core values of TQM were found and established as a factor of business excellence. Further when it comes to providing commercial experiences storytelling, theming and a creative environment stood out as additional factors of business excellence. Moreover, selecting the right co-workers based on their values rather than merely their skills and academic qualifications was seen as an important factor of success. The co-worker is often the co-creator of the experience together with the customer and therefore has an important part to play in the organization. Creating a corporate culture with co-workers sharing the values is seen as essential in order to run a successful business. It appears that any type of organization can provide an experience for the customer, the key is adding on the extra value to reach the level of attractive quality. The commercial experience is described as deeply affecting both the feelings and senses of the customer, resulting in new memories; it is a memorable event the customer is willing to pay for. The commercial experience contains elements of engagement, personal relevance, novelty, surprise and learning and is not limited to certain types of businesses. The fact that this is an area of increasing business interest but as yet a poorly explored one indicates that there is a need to develop improved ways of working, tools and methods, tailor-made for providing commercial experiences. Improved tools for identifying customer expectations and measuring customer satisfaction are clearly needed, especially since this is a growing industry that cannot be ignored. Welcome to further explore the experience economy where new memories are so highly valued that people are prepared to pay for them!

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Creating Customer Value in Commercial Experiences: from the leaders perspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Fagerberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jägerström, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Modellering av blodkärl med additiv tillverkning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett examensarbete utfört under tredje året på Sportteknologiprogrammet. Ett undersökande arbete för Mittuniversitetet Östersund som berör additiv tillverkning och bearbetningsmetoder. Syftet var att genom litteraturstudie och undersökningar skapa en fungerande modell av blodkärl, samt att öka förståelsen för additiv tillverkning och medicinteknik. Målet var att presentera en fungerande modell av blodkärl som flödes - och tryckmätningar kan utföras på. Arbetet leddes med agil metod och följde de agila faserna, förstudie, planering, genomförande, överlämning och avslut. Förstudien gav svar på vad och varför projektet skulle genomföras. Planeringsmetoderna besvarade hur projektet skulle genomföras. Under planeringsfasen låg fokus på att planera inför de två studierna som skulle genomföras, samt planering inför den slutgiltiga modellen. Studie – Additiv Tillverkning genomfördes med avseende på geometri, rengöringsmetoder samt placering i 3D-skrivaren. Studie – Gjutning genomfördes med avseende på geometri och materialegenskaper. Genomförandet bestod av att dessa tester och undersökningar utfördes. Studie – Additiv Tillverkning gav tydliga resultat som kunde analyseras, resultatet visade att möjligheten att tillverka blodkärl kommer vara möjligt. Resultatet ifrån Studie - Gjutning gav tydliga resultat som kunde analyseras, resultatet visade att det är möjligt att tillverka ett tillräckligt mjukt gummi till slutmodellen. Slutmodellen tillverkades utifrån de tidigare studierna, gummit som användes var det som var lättast att hantera. Slutsatsen är att undersökningarna gav förväntade resultat och att det är möjligt att skapa ett modulärt blodkärlssystem med de metoder som användes. Syftet och målet uppnåddes då en fungerande modell har tillverkats. Fortsatta studier och förbättringar uppmuntras för att göra en mer geometriskt korrekt modell.

  • 44.
    Fries, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Säkerhetspänne till hundar: Från idé till prototyp2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett examensarbete i maskinteknik inom produktutveckling.

  • 45. Garvare, R
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Facilitating the use of statistical methods in small and medium sized enterprizes1997In: 41st Annual EOQ Congress, Trondheim 1997 : proceedings: Quality - a critical factor in the past, present and future, Bern: European Organization for Quality , 1997, , p. 211-220Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Gidlund, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Förarstol för fritidsbåt: utveckling och konstruktion2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Hammar, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Teknisk lösning för sulor: Lösning för sulor så de går att använda på snö och is2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48. Hansson, O
    et al.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse i kundteam: en fallstudie på Frigoscandia Distribution AB (examensarbete)2002Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Harnesk, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schön, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    How successful Swedish organisations achieve sustaniable health2005In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 233-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs connected to the rapidly increasing sick leaves have risen to alarming levels in Sweden and, for instance, Norway and the Netherlands. To find out how to handle the situation on an organizational level, a case study of two organizations has been carried out, which are recognized and have been awarded for their excellence in methodologies for decreasing the number of sick leaves. One is a small manufacturing company and the other one is a large public health care organization. Both organizations are non-hierarchical with responsibility and authority delegated to different groups. The data collection has mainly been carried out through brainstorming in groups, structured in tree diagrams, complemented by interviews. Important working methods for mangers are low-prestige, visibility and functioning as coaches with activities aimed at building relations. On the basis of the result of this study, suggestions are presented which are considered possible for others to adopt.

  • 50.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    How to create a commercial experience: Focus on Leadership, Values and Organizational Culture2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new kind of commercial offer is on the rise, that of a commercial experience. It is said to be the next progression of value after a service and that it is distinct from a service in several ways, two important being a) the provider having to create something new or memorable to the customer, i.e. creating attractive quality, and b) the offer being a co-creation between the customer and the provider.

    Little has been written though about how creating a commercial experience can affect the way organizations should work. One of the areas that ought to be affected is the way organizations work to shape and coordinate co-workers and leaders behaviors by having a common set of values, or in other words a strong organizational culture.  A number of studies show that the leaders in an organization have a strong influence on its culture while others show that working with Total Quality Management (TQM) can enhance the corporate values and lead to profitable organizations.

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and contribute knowledge about how to create a commercial experience. The more specific purpose was to explore this area in relation to leadership, values, organizational culture and TQM.

    To fulfill these purposes two case studies were carried out with the intention of finding ways of working. The first focused on how a renowned organization that offers commercial experiences works and the second on organizations offering commercial experiences in the region of Jämtland.

    One conclusion drawn from the research is that methodologies and tools that aim directly to enhance the organization´s values and hence its culture might be of even more importance in organizations offering a commercial experience. It seems to be important to be aware that values need to be translated into behaviors to make them understandable in the organization. Storytelling is one tool that can be used as an enhancer of organizational culture, a tool that might be a fairly unrecognized for this purpose. It is also evident that the leadership practiced within the organization is crucial if a strong organizational culture is to be achieved.

    Further, strategies for selecting the right values appear to be important when trying to create a strong organizational culture - a strategy not so evident within TQM. This could be one area where TQM needs to be developed in order to support the creation of a commercial experience but also to implement TQM more effectively.

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