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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Towards New Levels of Creating/Improving and Understanding Value in Swedish Municipalities: A Review of Research on Understanding and Creating Value in Municipal Quality Development by Qualitative Approaches (and Co-Creation)2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Quality management and Lean initiatives are currently widespread in the Swedish municipal sector. It is also made clear that all Lean initiatives should be initiated to benefit the customer and not for internal organizational reasons. However, the practices currently used for understanding value creation in the municipalities tend to focus heavily on the use of numerical, quantitative approaches. In sharp contrast, the growing field of, for example, design thinking argue that qualitative approaches are key when it comes to getting closer to the citizens, establishing new levels of understanding and thereby inspiring new and better solutions. In sum, it seems likely that municipalities are struggling with developing quality due to relying, in too one-sided on the use of quantitative rather than qualitative approaches to understand and spark new levels of value creation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with a review of research concerning qualitative approaches for understanding and co-creating value in municipal quality development.

     

    Methodology/Approach The paper is based on a literature review.

     

    Findings The paper provides an overview of previous research concerning practices for evaluating and understanding value creation in the context of a municipal quality development.

     

    Value of the paper

    This overview is of value for practitioners within the context, as well as researchers that wants to contribute within this area.

  • 2.
    Adelholt, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hydra Coupler: Snabbkoppling till protessystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många amputerade upplever att deras protessystem inte är lika anpassningsbara som de hoppats på. Dagens protes­system är utformade med låsta komponenter vilket begrän­sar användarens möjlighet att anpassa systemen till specifika ändamål. Därför påbörjades ett projekt med målet att under­söka om det finns möjlighet att skapa en snabbkoppling till protessystem genom att framställa ett konstruktionsförslag av ett lösningsalternativ. I starten av projektet påbörjades en problemformulering för att undersöka om problemen uppvisade några beroenden eller påverkade andra poster inom det framställda flödesschemat. Efter genomförd problemformulering påbörjades förstudierna för att samla in relevant information till genomförandet av projektet, där förstudien genomfördes med hjälp av en konkurrensanalys, funktionsanalys och enkätundersökning. Efter att förstudien var avklarad påbörjades en designprocess för att framställa ett konstruktionsförslag av ett lösningsförslag. Under designprocessens start formulerades en kravspecifikation så att konstruktionsförslaget hade något att förhålla sig till, och sedan påbörjades modelleringen av ett konstruktionsförslag med hjälp av Solidworks. En prototyp framställdes i plast med hjälp av en 3D- printer för att kontrollera passform av ingående komponenter och slutligen så undersöktes konstruktionsförslagets hållfasthet i Solidworks med hjälp av hållfasthetssimuleringar. Genomförandet av projektet har resulterat i en framställning av konstruktionsmaterial, prototyp, konstruktionsritningar till ett konstruktionsförslag av en snabbkoppling till protessystem. Konstruktionsförslaget kallat Hydra Coupler förser protesanvändare med möjligheten att enkelt byta proteskomponenter efter ändamål utan behov av externa verktyg, och Hydra Coupler kan även inneslutas av kosmetik utan att förlora funktionalitet.

  • 3.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate roller ski characteristics; classical and freestyle roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficients (μR) and classical style roller skis’ static friction coefficients (μS), and to study the influence of different μR and μS on cross-country skiers’ performance and both physiological and biomechanical indices. The aim was also to study differences in skiing economy and efficiency between recreational skiers, female and male junior and senior elite cross-country skiers.The experiments showed that during a time period of 30 minutes of rolling on a treadmill (warm-up), μR decreased significantly (p<0.05) to about 60-65 % and 70-75 % of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. Also, there was a significant influence of normal force on μR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μR.The study of the influence on physiological variables of a ~50 % change in μR showed that during submaximal steady rate exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non-significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a change in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non-significant or small.The study of classical style roller skis μS showed values that were five to eight times more than the values of μS reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis.The subsequent physiological and biomechanical experiments with different μS showed a significantly lower skiing economy (~14 % higher v̇O2), higher heart rate, lower propulsive forces coming from the legs and shorter time to exhaustion (~30 %) when using a different type of roller ski with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a (similar) higher μS.The part of the thesis which focused on skiing economy and efficiency as a function of skill, age and gender, showed that the elite cross-country skiers had better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18 %) compared with the recreational skiers, and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5 %) than their junior counterparts, while no differences could be found between the genders.

  • 4.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, 2008, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study the roller skis’ rolling resistance has been measured using equipment on the ski-treadmill. The study investigates the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results show that during submaximal exercise, heart rate, blood lactate, power and oxygen uptake are significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there are no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests show that time to exhaustion is significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate, and the influence on maximal power and ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

  • 5.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study, the roller skis’ rolling resistance was measured on the ski-treadmill’s surface using a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system specially produced for this purpose. The study investigated the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results showed that during submaximal exercise, power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there were no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

     

  • 6.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing2008In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

    This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

    Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

    Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

  • 7.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μ S) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼14%), heart rate (∼7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μ S similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μ S. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μ S, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μ S.

  • 8.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system2013In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

  • 9.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    An experimental study to compare the grip of classical style roller skis with on-snow skiing2013In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiers use roller skis for their snow-free training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Also, exercise laboratories evaluate the biomechanics and physiology of cross-country skiing using roller skis on a treadmill. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling (static friction). The aim of this study was to investigate static friction coefficients (μS) of ratcheted wheel roller skis, and compare the results to the μS reported from skiing on snow with grip-waxed cross-country skis. Also, a new type of roller ski with a camber and adjustable grip function was evaluated. The results showed that ratcheted wheel roller skis, on a treadmill rubber mat and on dry and wet asphalt surfaces, reached μS values that were five to eight times greater than the values reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis. For the roller skis with a camber and adjustable grip function, the μs could be varied from no grip at all up to the level of the tested ratcheted wheel roller skis.

  • 10.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Classical style constructed roller skis and grip functionality2011In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Technology on Sports IV / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Clifton P., Elsevier, 2011, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers for snow-free training, with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling.

    A new type of roller ski was constructed with a function which makes it necessary to use the same kick technique as that used on snow, i.e. the ski has a camber that must be pushed down to obtain grip. Its stiffness can be adjusted based on factors that influence grip, i.e. the skier’s bodyweight and technical skiing skills.

    Thus, our aim was to make comparative measurements as regards grip between ratcheted roller skis and the roller ski with a camber and compare with previous published results for grip waxed skis during cross-country skiing on snow.  The measurements were carried out using specially developed equipment, with a bottom plate and an overlying rubber mat of the same type as used on many treadmills and a function for applying different loads and generating traction on the back of the roller ski.

  • 11.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing: Presented at International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing 2006, June 18-20, 2006, Vuokatti, Finland2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The multi functional roller ski2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Al-Sahli, Firas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ibrahimson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Delaktighetens förutsättningar och begränsningar i förbättringsarbetet2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Participation is an important aspect when it comes to continuous improvements. Participation increases quality and creates support among employees and is a tool for achieving successful quality work. Companies need prerequisites for creating participation, and in successful companies this success is characterized by the creation of participation and motivation among employees. The aim of the study was to describe how production supervisors create opportunities for participation in improvement processes. The method used was a qualitative inductive approach from a life-world perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight production supervisors and qualitative content analysis was used to examine texts to find sentence entetities and categories. Fishbone diagrams were created as a complement to the interviews. The results and the analysis indicated two categories, prerequisites and limitations to create participation in improvement work. This showed that there are difficulties when it comes to interpreting the term participation and even more difficult to specify the tools inuse. In the future it is of great importance to ensure that the research around the creation of participation is in focus.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Mari
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Willner, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Förluster i solfångare Avsvalning av rörsystemet i solfångarfält2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Volymberäkning med temperaturgrund: Beräkning av volymändringen i ackumulatortanken med hänsyn till nätets volymändring utifrån temperatur2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out on behalf of Sundsvall Energi AB, with the purpose of establishing a link between Sundsvall Energi AB:s accumulator in Granloholm and the urban network with a temperature base, and using this connection to get a better understanding of their leakage.

    During the project, a literature study and a survey of the company's current system, was conducted to gain an understanding of the system and the mission. The lack of similar work forced me to look at leak detection methods that were relevant even though they did not handle the same area altogether. On the other hand, counselors and staff members assisted in obtaining the information requested and gave advice and tips on aspects of the assignment that had not been included in the report before.

    The model was developed piece by piece during the work period, when no other work was found that could provide a proper framework for the work. The model has proven to be more accurate than its predecessor but also more difficult to implement.

    The thesis has shown how different energy systems can be from each other and how different, the different methods that are available to look and solve problems in the system are. The use of existing meters and instruments is not always reliable or available, and assumptions and occurrences must sometimes be made to get an overview picture and a valid basis.

  • 16.
    Anundi, Elina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kundlojalitet i mindre B2B företag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Är nöjda kunder automatisk lojala kunder? Det krävs mer än bara en positiv upplevelse av servicekvalitet för att nå hög lojalitet bland sina kunder. Trots att kunderna upplever servicen lika, kan deras bedömning av tillfredsställelse variera p.g.a. olika förväntningar och prioriteringar. Upplevd servicekvalitet och tillfredsställelse är de första faktorer som påverkar lojalitet. Men det krävs också förtroende för såväl företaget som också på individnivån till företagets representanter, innan kunderna vågar binda sig till en relation med en leverantör. Allt detta påverkar relationen, som med tiden kan utvecklas och fördjupas. Det är alltså servicekvalitet, tillfredsställelse, förtroende samt beredskap att binda sig till en relation och relationskvalitet som påverkar lojalitet i olika utsträckning inom olika branscher.

    Den empiriska undersökningen som genomfördes i form av en webbenkät bland kunder hos ett mindre Business-to-Business (B2B) företag visar att segmentering baserad på lojalitet är ett effektivt sätt att skapa förståelse för hur lojala och icke-lojala kunder ser på företaget och deras servicekvalitet. Segmentering baserar på några extra frågor som mäter lojalitet. Trots låg antal svar (17 svar) är resultat enhetlig för varje segment och visar därmed vilka brister som bör åtgärdas.  

  • 17.
    Arvidsson, Totte
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Det kommunala ledarskapet i det förebyggande krisberedskapsarbetet- En kris eller en möjlighet?: Kvalitativ studie- med utgångspunkt i offensiv kvalitetsutveckling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study, with it ́s base in Total Quality Managment, was to contribute with knowledge about the minuicipal leadership and the proactive crisismanagment. The method that has been used has been hermenetuic, inductive and qulitative method. A multiple casestudy has been made through three interviews with crisis coordinators in the municipal sector. The questions in the study have been semistructurated. The questionnaire was made with the influence of Appreciative Inquiry. The conclusion was that the municipal leadership have strengths and opportunities to development in the proactive crisimanagment. There was strengths and opportunities in all six principels in Total Quality Management. These strenghts and opportunities in the municipal leadership could contribute to a positive developmen of the crisismanagment and create a safer community. Exampels of perceived strenghts was municipal leaders that alowed participation in risk- and vulnerabillity assessments and educations. Exampels of development areas of municipal leaders was that leaders schould contribute to openness, responsiveness, participation and discussions regarding crisis management.

  • 18.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Design Wisdom of Production System Designers2003In: Proceedings of the 5th European Academy of Design Conference, Barcelona 28- 30 April 2003, 2003, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Key Factors for a Preventive Disturbance Approach During Design of Production Systems: Abstract submitted for the ICPR 18th International Conference2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bellgran, Monica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Aresu, E
    Handling Disturbances in Small Volume Production2003In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bellgran, Monica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Production System Design and Evaluation for Increased System Robustness: Second World Conference on Production and Operations Management, POM and 15th Annual POM Conference in Cancun, Mexico, April 30 - May 3, 20042004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bellgran, Monica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Produktionsutveckling - utveckling och drift av produktionssystem2005Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of impact velocity on the fracture of wood as related to the mechanical pulping process2001In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 343-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fibre separation step in refining is crucial for energy consumption in subsequent refining where the pulp properties are developed. The size reduction of chips during refining is dependent on refining intensity and chip strength. Factors affecting these two parameters are discussed in a literature review. The impact strength of chips and the break down of chips to separate fibres are also discussed. Specifically the effect of impact velocity on the fracture of wood has been studied by use of a falling weight impact tester. Samples were prepared from a freshly cut log of Norway spruce, Picea abies, and the impact strength was measured using an instrumented falling weight impact tester. An increase in impact velocity from about 2.7 to 4.8 m/s resulted in an increase in impact strength of about 50%.

     

  • 24.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fracture Behaviour of Wood and Fibres as Related to the Mechanical Pulping Process1996Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The fibre separation step in refining is crucial to energy consumption

  • 25.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gradin, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of Temperature on Fracture of Spruce in Compression Using Acoustic Emissions1995In: AECM-5, Fifth International Symposium on Acoustic Emission From Composite Material, Columbus, OH, USA: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. , 1995, p. 139-148Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gradin, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Micromechanical Model of the Deterioration of a Wood Fibre1999In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple analytical model is presented in this paper for the prediction of the stiffness degradation and the damage state in a wood fibre, loaded in uniaxial tension or shear. The model is based on an assumed displacement field together with the minimum total potential energy theorem. For the damage development, an energy criterion is employed. The model is applied to a specific example and the relevant stiffness coefficients are calculated as a function of the damage state. The damage development as a function of the applied loads is also given. The results from a specific example considered indicate that a tensile load affects the stiffness degradation to a larger extent than does a shear load.

  • 27.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gradin, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Effect of Temperature on Fracture of Spruce in Compression, Investigated by Use of Acoustic Emission Monitoring2000In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 294-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring during compression of wood has been used to investigate the fracture history with specific emphasis on its dependence on temperature, moisture content, strain and loading direction. The wood was compressed in both the lateral and longitudinal directions in order to select preferred modes of deformation to achieve desired irreversible changes in the wood structure. The elastic modulus, the compressive strength and the cumulated number of AE events decreased with increasing temperature. It was concluded that the most efficient loading direction is longitudinal in order to introduce flaws in wood under compression and that a longitudinal compression of 24%, corresponding to a specific energy input of 3 kWh/ton, is needed in order to achieve substantial changes in the wood structure. The compression should be carried out at temperatures well below 120°C in order to introduce many failure sites.

  • 28.
    Berg, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Gulliksson, Mårten E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Gradin, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    On the energy consumption for crack development in fibre wall in disc refining - A micromechanical approach2009In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model has been applied to calculate the acquired strain energy density in order to achieve a certain damage state in a softwood fibre by uniaxial tension or shear load. The energy density was found to be dependent on the microfibril angle in the middle secondary wall, the loading case, the thicknesses of the fibre cell wall layers, and conditions such as moisture content and temperature. At conditions, prevailing at the entrance of the gap between the plates in a refiner and at relative high damage states, more energy is needed to create cracks at higher microfibril angles. The energy density was lower for earlywood compared to latewood fibres. For low microfibril angles, the energy density was lower for loading in shear compared to tension for both earlywood and latewood fibres. Material parameters, such as initial damage state and specific fracture energy, were determined by fitting of input parameters to experimental data.

  • 29.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Co-Creative Learning - using IT to Visualise Progression (CIP): En studie av former för systematiskt kvalitetsarbete på klassrumsnivå2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is partly to understand how systematic quality management can be implemented at the classroom level and partly what it means to apply it from a student perspective, and to compare student progression with that of a control group. As a result of this, this study contributes with a method on how quality management can be implemented at the classroom level. This working method is named Co-Creative Learning - using IT to Visualise Progression.

    This is an action research study that encompassed questionnaires, focus groups and a time series. Three assignments from 65 students were assessed in the study, out of which two were compared to those from the control group.

    To enhance reliability and validity the selected control group were from the same catchment area, had qualified teacher with corresponding number of working years who also worked with formative assessment and visualising criteria. Two assignments were identical for both groups, and thus, the two groups' results could be compared.

    To minimise the effects of the presence of a teacher during evaluation, the students were not brought together to form focus groups, until after the grades were communicated. They then reflected on continuous improvement efforts, quality, inclusion, understanding objectives, perceived progression and the use of IT.

    Before the concluding discussion the collected data sets were analysed separately. The results showed the difference in both student experience and progression. The main differences lay in the student experience: where change primarily affected the students’ involvement; the extent to which the students were satisfied students with their own development.

    In the time series, the differences were not as high as in the student experience. The studied group started at a slightly lower grade, and completed at a slightly higher grade, than the control group. It was mainly the boys who accounted for the progression. One reason for could be that the girls

    already held high average grades (leaving little room for progression). Compared to the control group, the differences with the boys in the studied group remains.

    The conclusions drawn are thus that the method enhances progression, but that the main benefits are harvested from the enhanced educational experience of the students.

  • 30.
    Bergman, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sterilisering av medicinska modeller: En studie av lämpliga metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of medical models within the Swedish healthcare is limited. One reason for this is the lack of knowledge how to sterilize them to be able to use the in an operating room. The goal of this thesis has therefore been to investigate if medical models manufactured by rapid prototyping can be sterilized by any of the methods approved by the Swedish authority Socialstyrelsen. The study has covered two different rapid prototyping methods FDM - Fused Deposition Modeling and JP - Jet Print. The two machines that were used are Stratasys Prodigy Plus (FDM) and ObJet Eden 260v (JP). The building materials that were used are P400 ABS in FDM and FullCure720 in JP. The support materials that were used are P400-SR in FDM and FullCure705 in JP. In order to avoid misconceptions with various stakeholders has a definition of what a medical model is been created. Different grades of purity has been studied and how to achieve them. In order to determine the purity of the samples before and after they have been sterilized have an environmental investigation been performed. Due to different sterilization methods can affect the material in different ways and hence its shape have a deformation study been performed. A number of reference geometries have been measured before and after they have been subjected to the sterilization process.  In order not to skip any aspect and to have measurable and comparable values have an experimental plan been constructed. The conclusion to be drawn after the study is: Sterilization of FullCure720 with saturated water vapour works and the material can be considered sterile. Sterilization of P400 ABS with cold chemical sterilization also works; however, the material can only be classified as a high-purity material. The other test samples can only be classified as clean. The shape changes that have been measured are all below 0.5 mm and are therefore considered not to have any bearing on the medical model's function.

  • 31.
    Bergström, Axel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jahren, Even
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Implementering av additiv tillverkning för dämparkolv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the companies, AIM Sweden and NewSoTech have the possibility to adapt a product to the additive manufacturing ben investigated. With AIM Sweden's expertise in additive manufacturing of titanium parts and NewSoTechs method for surface hardening of titanium, TiSurf ®, an opportunity for cooperation were identified. NewSoTech presented a piston to a motocross rear damper as a possible product to adapt to the manufacturing method. This formed the basis of the completed thesis. The aim of the work has been to explore the process of additive manufacturing of a damper piston and partly to generate a basis for further cooperation. This determined the objectives; to develop prototypes and test and analyze these, provide suggestions to design variations and develop a methodology for implementation of design variations. The work began with investigating the pistons function; this were done through a theoretical study and by modeling the piston with CAD software. Thereafter, the project were carried out by examining and thereby develop a process to adjust the piston to additive manufacturing. The opening process was divided into five stages, defining the problem, generating concepts, designing, manufacturing and analysis. These steps were repeated in whole or in part and could iteratively be improved. The first phase was to define the pistons design-related limitations and freedoms. In the concept generation were six different concepts developed that were considered interesting for the adaptation. These concepts were not intended to optimize the function of the piston, but only to show the potential of the manufacturing method. In the design process a methodology to easily implement design changes was developed. In the fabrication phase pistons were prepared and manufactured additively and then the necessary post-processing were performed. A full analysis of the pistons could not be carried out within the project. The result was a process of adjustment of the damper piston to the additive manufacturing method with the overlying process described above with added sub-steps identified as necessary for the process. The conclusions were that more work needs to be to perform on a complete analysis of the pistons, refine and develop the preparations for production and to evaluate and refine post processing methods.

  • 32.
    Bergström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The reflectance of steels and non-ferrous alloys: 2nd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics 20062006In: PICALO 2006 - 2nd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Laser and Optics - Conference Proceedings, 2006, p. 140-145Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of reflectance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the reflectance data presently available consider only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys which are actually being processed. This paper presents the results of reflectance measurements carried out on as-received engineering grade metals including: hot and cold rolled mild steel, zinc coated mild steel, stainless steel, aluminium alloys, copper and brass. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 nm and 527 nm). The results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help to improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models.

  • 33. Berquist, B
    et al.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sandvik Wiklund, Pia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Strengthening the Student´s Role in the Work with Quality Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education2002In: Proceedings of the 6th International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge Management, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34. Bjurstam, Peter
    et al.
    Bäckström, M
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Adaptive Control of Machining Centres1993Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Fridén, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energiåtervinning vid LC-raffinering – Förstudie2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Normally, steam recovery from a conventional low consistency (LC) mechanical pulprefining system is not possible. This is due to the fact that the temperature level in theLC-refiner is less than 100°C. The steam with such a low temperature and associatedpressure has limited value in the mill. In this project, we study a concept of increasingthe temperature in the refiner to a level were process steam with higher quality can berecovered. The temperature level can be increased by transferring heat from outgoingpulp or drainage to incoming pulp or water. This makes it possible to recover heat fromthe process.An initial estimate indicates that steam recovery from LC-refining systems may have agood economic potential. Three cases have been analyzed: Case A: Steam recovery incombination with pulp/pulp heat exchanging, Case B: Steam recovery in combinationwith a pressurized screw press and finally Case C: steam recovery in combination withpump/water heat exchanging.Case B show the best specific steam recovery, 87% kWh recovered steam per kWh usedelectricity. This concept has a lower technological uncertainty compared to cases A andC as it does not need heat exchanging from pulp.The specific heat recovery from case A and C is 78% and 82% respectively. However,the suggested heat exchangers used in these cases do not exist on the market today.There is hence a need for development of exchangers that can handle pulp with highviscosity. The technological risk associated with the screw press scenario is lower and itis likely that this concept is easier to implement.

  • 36.
    Blomberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wadell, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Att köpa en framtid: En flerfallstudie av kommuners processer för avtalsuppföljningar gällande upphandlade HVB2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to contribute with knowledge regarding in what way a processorientation can improve the way public sector manage contracts. As a method a qualitative multicasestudy was used. Three municipalities, and the way they manage contracts with residential carehomes for children and young persons (HVB) was studied. The study showed a complex situation surrounding the carecontract management in public sector. As a way of handling this complex situation the municipalities would gain from using a systems thinking, with the values, tools and workmethods that characterizes Total Quality Management. With an increased processorientation using processmanagement as a tool, the municipalities could improve the quality in their process for managing contracts.

  • 37. Borking, Kjell
    et al.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm university.
    Davies, Guy
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Transcending Business Intelligence2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    How on Earth did this happen? The question is not infrequent, but more to the point, it?s unnecessary. It arises because in many cases people haven?t thought things through beforehand. Yes, sometimes people can be unlucky, but far from every time that things go awry; bad luck is never so consistent - by definition. Thinking things through properly beforehand might seem a fairly obvious requirement for making a good decision, but startlingly often, even critical decisions are made without any in depth analysis. Well, there may have been some background data lying around somewhere, but not much is done with it. Though it's easy to blame authoritarian leadership or the like, poor decision making is far more usually due to not really knowing what to do with the available information, whether it's sufficient and what else needs to be known There?s nothing weird or idiotic about today?s decision makers, but there often is about the tools and methods available to them. It would be more accurate to say that many decision makers have been lead astray regarding their remit and capacity, but fortunately with structured decision processes they can be guided back on track far more easily than had they been as dim- witted as some of their decisions would indicate.Businesses introduce various BI solutions both timely and untimely, but what most of them don't have is any kind of methodology by which to deal with decisions. With no processes, knowledge, techniques or tools, they soon come to grief. Happily this is fairly easy to remedy.Decision processes and decision methods can be greatly improved. In this book we simply explain how to go about it.

  • 38.
    Boström, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gradin, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sjuksköterskors och läkares delaktighet i kvalitetsutveckling: En fallstudie vid Karlskoga lasarett2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master's degree thesis was to develop an understanding of how hospital management, in the case studied, worked to achieve changes in an organization influenced by differing professional cultures. To gain insight into the conditions that may have contributed to nurses and physicians developing appropriate attitudes and behaviours, which may have affected the organization's ability to achieve the Swedish Quality Award 2012.

     A qualitative single case study was conducted at Karlskoga Hospital, with focus groups as well as individual depth interviews.

     

    The results of the case study showed the following conditions provided nurses and physicians the potential to develop appropriate attitudes and behaviours, which may have influenced the hospitals ability to achieve the Swedish Quality Award:  

    • Responsibility and influence over the development processes.
    • Participation in management teams and quality development groups as well as individual fields of responsibility.
    • Training programs that have given insights and skills in quality management related to clinical practice.
    • Nurses and physicians as key individuals gave legitimacy to development process, and served as management advisors.
    • Collaboration between all kind of employees and responsibilities.
    • Committed management.    
  • 39.
    Boström, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics. Landstinget Västernorrland, Sundsvall.
    Hillborg, Helene
    Landstinget Västernorrland, Sundsvall.
    Lilja, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Cultural Change of Applying User Involvement for Improving Healthcare Quality: A Review of the Impact on Attitudes, Values and Assumptions among Healthcare Professionals and Users2017In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 158-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the impact on culture (attitudes, values and assumptions) among both healthcare professionals, as well as users, when involving users for improving quality in healthcare.

    Methodology/Approach: The paper is based on an extensive, narrative literature review considering studies that included professional’s and users experiences of user involvement in quality improvement. The included articles were analyzed using an interpretive, along with a deductive, approach according to a theoretical framework.

    Findings: The results indicate that there is currently limited research focusing on the impact of user involvement in quality improvement processes regarding professionals’ and users’ attitudes, values and/or assumptions. The articles identified during the study provides situations and statements, during the process of development, which can be interpreted as change in the culture. Although few articles specifically draw conclusions on user involvement as a “tool” for cultural change, the authors interpret several findings which strengthens that theory.

    Research Limitation/implication: Research published in other databases could have been missed. The authors have tried to avoid this by using a snowball method reading references in identified articles.

    Originality/Value of paper: The review provides a platform for both future research and the development of current practice within the area. There have been literature reviews showing obstacles and enablers when using patients, users and relatives in quality improvement work, but few which investigates cultural change.

  • 40.
    Brandes, Carolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Stöttar kvalitetsteknik strategiskt arbete med informationshantering?: Mognadsmodeller och standarder som stöd för strategiskt arbete med verksamhetsinformation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to identify what a suitable model for Information Governance should contain. In order to find out, I analyzed which models people commonly used, which challenges people expressed and to what extent Quality Management supported dealing with these challenges.

    The study mostly relied on literature studies. The presence of values, key temes and challenges have been noted and analyzed. A questionnaire was sent out to 80 IG-professionals and interwievs were held with four people with in-depth experience from working with information Governance. In order to define the scope for this study ” Quality Management has been delimited to values and key themes used in Excellence Models and the corner stones of TQM.

    The analyzes indicates that the expressed challenges to a great extent could be met with values and key themes present in Quality Management. Models dealing with Information Governance and BPM, Business Process Management, could also support dealing with the challenges, esp. dealing with stakeholders.

  • 41.
    Brantros, Nina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Mellanmänskliga relationer i arbete och dess betydelse för ett teamarbete: Tillhörighet, kontroll, öppenhet och ledarskap2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Breitkreuz, Rikard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Ackumulering av ånga: Effektivare ångproduktion vid Akzo Nobel Stockvik2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to examine if it is possible to install an accumulator for steam-accumulation at the steam plantof Akzo Nobel Stockvik and to calculate its dimensions. The accumulator’spurpose is to level out the steam production when there is intermittent usage of steam at different steamconsumers.

    Within site Stockvik it is possible to use internal fuels such as CO-gas and hy-drogengas for steam production, the use of internal fuel is both environmental and economically positive.When large steam demands occurit is not sufficient to only use internal fuels and oil has to be used to produce steam as backup to meet the steam demand.An accumulator can be used to store steam at low steam demand and use at high demand instead of producing steam with oil as fuel.

    An energy audit shows that the two major consumers also has very varying needs of steamwhich results in a need to use oil as backup fuel in boiler 3.This shows that there is a need of an accumulator in the system.

    The accumulator can be installed close to the steam plant which reduces the energy losses. Three accumulators havebeen calculated from an average effect of boiler 3. The accumulators havea total volume of 29, 70 and 112 m3. Large quantities of data from the steam process are digitally stored atAkzo Nobel, this data have been used to compare the different accumulators to the actual steam production 2015 and 2016.

    The profit of installing a steam accumulator is independent of the accumulator size but the cost of installing the accumulator increases with larger volume.The shortest payback period 4,4 years is when choosing the smallest accumulator, 29 m3.Environmental benefitsareachieved by a reduction of oil usage by350 m3/year whichreduces the CO2emissions by 1000 tons/yearand SO2emissions by 1,3 tons/year

  • 43.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    On the Relationship between Sustainable Health and Quality Management: Leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sickness absence not only causes significant costs for organizations but also leads to other negative consequences for individuals and societies. Previous research has shown that working with organizational values within Quality Management affects job satisfaction and results in increased profitability and customer satisfaction. There would, in addition, seem to be great gains if managers, by working with Quality Management, can manage to establish sustainable health among co-workers.

     

    The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to examine how Quality Management could be practised in order to support sustainable health among co-workers and what it is within Quality Management that influences sustainable co-worker health. Accordingly, the purpose was also to contribute to the understanding of the relation between sustainable health and Quality Management. To fulfil this purpose, three research questions were asked. The results are described in three parts related to the three research questions and are the product of six case studies carried out in seven different organizations.

     

    Interviews with managers and workshops with co-workers were carried out to investigate how Quality Management can be practised within organizations in order to promote sustainable co-worker health. These investigations took place in four organizations that had received awards. Three had been awarded for their excellence in leadership, work environment and co-workership, along with improved profitability; one for its successful implementation of quality programmes. The results are descriptions of methodologies, behaviours, values and organization structure used by the organizations to support sustainable health. These are exemplified with practical examples. The methodologies, behaviours, values, and organizational structure are considered possible for other organizations to adopt and all of them are already supported in the quality, management and leadership literature. Support from the health literature is also found for most of the behaviours, methodologies, values, and organizational structure.

     

    Surveys and focus groups interviews were carried out in five different organizations in order to find out what is of most importance when practising Quality Management in order to influence sustainable co-worker health. The results pointed to ‘Leadership Commitment’ as the most central of the values for achieving sustainable health among the co-workers. Furthermore, the values ‘Continuous Improvements’, ‘Participation of Everybody’ and ‘Customer Orientation’ were found to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. The values ‘Leadership Commitment’ and the value ‘Participation of Everybody’ were then further elaborated to find aspects of importance for sustainable co-worker health. From the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ four aspects were extracted. These were labelled ‘Empathy’, ‘Presence and Communication’, ‘Integrity’, and ‘Continuity’. The results showed relations between the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ within Quality Management and sustainable health among the co-workers. Thus it is essential for leaders to work in accordance with that value to achieve results in the work towards sustainable co-worker health. The results indicate that this requires management and leadership that are characterized by the aspects above. The leaders have to:

     

    • Really understand the co-workers and their work situation.

    • Be present and available for co-workers and communicate with them.

    • Act as a role model, be fair and keep their promises.

    • Stay in their positions long enough to build up trust and confidence.

     

    The value ‘Participation of Everybody’ has also been shown to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. This indicates that it is important to work in accordance with that value in the struggle to achieve sustainable health among the co-workers. The results imply that this value is characterized by the aspects ‘Development’, ‘Influence’ and ‘Being informed’. This could be done by:

     

    • Giving the co-workers opportunities to develop their skills and develop personally.

    • Letting the co-workers influence their work situation and taking suggestions and proposals from them seriously.

    • Having good communication within the whole organization.

     

    To manage this; the managers have to delegate more and empower the co-workers.

     

    These results were then further elaborated within another organization in order to develop a measurement approach that can clarify the extent to which the values, ‘Leadership Commitment’ and ‘Participation of Everybody’ permeate an organization. The developed measurement approach can be used to clarify the extent to which the organization is practising the health-promoting values within Quality Management and in what areas improvement is needed to increase co-worker health. The approach can also help the organization to detect those shortcomings within the management which are important for co-worker well-being. The developed measurement approach can be used to establish and enhance co-worker health by improving their well-being, satisfaction and motivation.

  • 44.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Quality Management for Sustainable Health: Methodologies, Values and Practices taken from Swedish Organizations2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries today, not least in Sweden, there are a lot of organizations that have great problems with sickness absence. The costs connected to the high rates of sickness absence have also risen to alarming levels. Healthy co-workers and healthy organizations are obvious goals for many leaders, but this is not always so easy to establish. Work practices and leadership that are beneficial to co-worker health are thus vital to identify.

     

    Studies have shown relationships between company-wide implementation of quality programs and improved co-worker satisfaction along with low co-worker turn over; in other words, co-worker health along with improved customer satisfaction and financial results. Despite the great problems concerning sickness absence, there are organizations that have been awarded prizes for excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment, and profitability.

     

    The overall purposes of the research described in this thesis are to examine and describe how management and leadership can establish sustainable health among the co-workers and examine how the leadership for sustainable health is related to Quality Management. The in-depth purpose is to examine which aspects within the values derived from the quality movement are those that primarily influence the co-workers’ perceived health.

     

    The results presented can be described in three parts and are results from four case studies carried out in five different organizations. Three of the organizations have received awards for establishing good working environment, good financial results, and low sick leaves among their co-workers; the fourth received an award for the successful implementation of quality programs.

     

    The first part consists of results from case studies in three different organizations and describes how organizations can work to achieve sustainable health among their co-workers, with practical examples. The results are methodologies, values and organizational structure, which it is  considered possible for other organizations to adopt in their efforts to achieve good working conditions resulting in fewer sick leaves.

     

    The second part is an attempt to investigate if leadership for sustainable health is related to Quality Management. Methodologies, leadership values, organizational structure, and general values found in organizations which have achieved sustainable health are analyzed in the light of Deming’s 14 points, and a correlation is indicated. There is also correlation found between the TQM values and the co-workers’ perception of their health.

     

    The third part examines which of the aspects within the values grown from the quality movement are those that influence the co-workers perceived health. The results show significant correlation between the values and the co-workers’ perception of their health. Aspects found within the value “Top management commitment” were named; Empathy, Presence and Communication, Integrity, and Continuity. Within the value “Let everybody be committed” the aspects; Development, Influence and Being informed were found. These aspects are described in more detail and also in one model per value.

     

    The result implies that the TQM values; “Top management commitment”, “Improve continuously” “Let everybody be Committed” and “Focus on customers” are important for achieving healthy organizations and sustainable health among co-workers.

  • 45.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    A health-related Quality Management approach to evaluating health promotion activities.2011In: QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, San Sebastian: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 188-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper was to describe health promotion activities accomplished within a project and to measure the conditions for sustainable health within the case organizations. The purpose was also to test a previously developed measurement approach, which measures health-related Quality Management.

     

    Methodology/ApproachA health promotion project currently being carried out at eight Swedish elementary schools has been studied. In earlier research a measurement approach had been developed to measure health-related Quality Management. The approach was handed out to the co-workers at the eight different schools in the initial stage of the project.  The result was analyzed and the leaders at the schools were informed of the results of their own school and the mean value of all the eight schools. The consistency and reliability of the statements within the approach was  tested.

     

    Findings

    In the results a description of health promotion activities accomplished and planned within the project can be found. The results from the measurement of the health-related Quality Management in the eight schools is presented together with the mean score of all schools. The test of the measurement approach is presented and discussed.

    ValueA description of health promotion activities can help managers and project leaders to plan and carry out valuable health promotion activities in their striving for both sustainable health among the co-workers and efficient organizations. This measurement approach can help managers and project leaders to measure the starting point and also the effects of the health promotion activities.

  • 46.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    A health-related quality management approach to evaluating health promotion activities2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to describe health promotion activities accomplished within a

    project and to measure the conditions for sustainable health within the case organizations. Also, the

    purpose is to test a previously developed measurement approach, which measures health-related

    quality management.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – A health promotion project currently being carried out at eight

    Swedish elementary schools has been studied. In earlier research a measurement approach was

    developed to measure health-related quality management. The approach was handed out to the

    co-workers at the eight different schools in the initial stage of the project. The leaders at the schools

    were informed of the results of their own school and the mean value of all the eight schools. The

    consistency and reliability of the statements within the approach was tested.

    Findings

    – A description of health promotion activities accomplished and planned within the project

    can be found. The results from the measurement of the health-related quality management in the eight

    schools are presented, together with the mean score of all schools. The test of the measurement

    approach is presented and discussed.

    Originality/value

    – A description of health promotion activities can help managers and project

    leaders to plan and carry out valuable health promotion activities in their striving for both sustainable

    health among the co-workers and efficient organizations. This measurement approach can help

    managers and project leaders to measure the effects of the health promotion activities.

  • 47.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Harnesk, Roland
    Schön, Karin
    Empiriskt underlag till forskningsrapporten "hur framgångsrika organisationer uppnår hållbar hälsa"2004Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Do Lean Leaders get healthy co-workers?2014In: 17th QMOD-ICQSS Conference, Prague, Czech Republic: Entering the Experience Economy – from product quality to experience quality / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgard-Park and Jens J. Dahlgaard, Lund: Lund University Library Press , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose was to examine the relationship between Lean values, Lean leadership and perceived co-worker health.Methodology/approach – A questionnaire used at a Swedish municipality that has been working with quality improvements for 20 years and with Lean for seven years was analyzed. More than 800 co-workers were asked to fill in the questionnaire which had been designed and earlier tested to measure the presence of a number of Lean values and Lean leadership as well as self-reported perceived health.Findings – The results show a medium positive relationship between Lean values, Lean leadership and the co-workers’ perception of their health. Customer focus presents the highest mean value, the lowest standard deviation and the highest correlation with co-worker health, which is interesting as the investigated organization is a municipality.

  • 49.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Exploring the relationship between Appreciative Inquiry, Lean and perceived co-worker health2015In: Creating a Sustaniable future through Quality: on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2015, October 12-14, Lund: Lund University Library Press , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Quality Management approaches, such as Lean, are deficit-based and focus on problems and how to overcome them and another way to approach this could be to focus on possibilities.  When focusing on problems instead of possibilities, organizations are prevented from using their full potential which leads to decreased organizational capacity. Appreciative Inquiry is, in contrast to a deficit-based approach, a positive approach to change. The problems should not be ignored but, by focusing on strengths, this approach could be more effective when it comes to promoting better workplace health. 

    Earlier research has examined if Lean values affect co-workers’ perceived health and found a connection. Even though the relationships between co-workers’ perceived health and Lean leadership and also Lean values were not very strong, they are all positively correlated. What happens however if we introduce Appreciative Inquiry to see in what way it links to Lean values and co-worker perceived health?

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore if and how Appreciative Inquiry correlates with Lean values and co-workers’ perceived health.

    Methodology/approach – To investigate the relationship between Lean, Appreciative Inquiry and perceived co-worker health, a questionnaire was developed based on two previously tested questionnaires.  The new questionnaire was filled in by 841 co-workers at a Swedish municipality and was then analysed to explore in what way Appreciative Inquiry correlates with a number of Lean values as well as perceived co-worker health.

    Findings – All variables were found to be significantly correlated with the variable ‘Appreciative Inquiry’. The variable ‘Continuous improvements’ relates most to ‘Appreciative Inquiry’ followed by ‘Eliminating Waste’ as those variables can be considered to have a large positive relationship. ‘Supportive Leadership’ and ‘System view’ have a medium positive relation to ‘Appreciative Inquiry’ and the variables ‘Health’ and ‘Customer focus’ have a small relation to Appreciative Inquiry in this context.  

    Keywords Supportive leadership, Lean values, co-worker health, Appreciative Inquiry

    Paper type Case study

  • 50.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Is there a relationship between Lean Leaders and healthy co-workers?2015In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 123-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between Lean values, Lean leadership and perceived co-worker health both from an empirical and theoretical perspective. Methodology/Approach: A questionnaire used at a Swedish municipality that has been working with quality improvements for 20 years and with Lean for seven years was analyzed. 841 co-workers answered the questionnaire which had been designed and pre-tested to measure the presence of a number of Lean values and Lean leadership as well as self-reported perceived health.  Findings: The results show a moderately positive relationship between Lean values, Lean leadership and co-workers’ perceptions of their health. Customer focus presents the highest mean value, the lowest standard deviation and the highest correlation with co-worker health, which is interesting as the investigated organization is a municipality.

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