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  • 1.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy variations in apartment buildings due to different shape factors and relative size of common areas2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Large variations in specific final energy use in Swedish apartment buildings: Causes and solutions2012In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 49, p. 276-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible causes for variations in specific final energy use in new apartment buildings. The analysis is based on case studies of 22 new apartment buildings that were constructed as part of the ’Stockholm program for environmentally adapted buildings’. The buildings in the study were chosen because they share similar construction characteristics and similar energy systems but display unexpected large variations in specific energy use. Three causes were found to contribute to variations in monitored specific final energy use in the studied apartment buildings: (1) the time interval between the completion of construction work and the actual energy measurements, (2) the shape factor of the building and (3) the relative size of the common area. In addition, the buildings that participated in the Stockholm program failed to achieve the requirements for the specific final energy use, to a large extent, because of expectations based on the simulated values. The simulated specific final energy use predicted by the energy simulations were on average 19% lower than the monitored values, giving the impression that the buildings would fulfill the program’s energy requirements. The reasons for the low simulated values were determined to be large uncertainties in the input data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 4.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy implications of end-of-life options for building materials2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 2025-2032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy flows associated with the materials comprising a building can be a significant part of the total energy used in a building's life cycle. Buildings have finite life spans, and the materials from demolished buildings can be either a burden that must be disposed, or a resource that can be used. In this paper we analyse the end-of-life energy impacts of concrete, steel and wood. End-of-life options considered include reuse; recycling; downcycling; energy recovery; and disposal in landfill. We follow the life cycles of the building materials from the acquisition of natural resources through to the end of the product's life cycle. We identify possibilities and constraints for integrating more effective end-of-life material processing options into existing industrial systems.

  • 5.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Nygren, Karl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energianvändande i bostadshus: En studie i byggnaders energibalans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Ewertzh, Jaqueline
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Alicia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Styrdokument för kontorsbyggnation ur ett ekologiskt hållbarhetsperspektiv: Aspekter och argument2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate industry represents a significant part of Sweden's total impact on the environment and mainly affects the following national environmental objectives: reduced climate impact, a good built environment and a non-toxic environment. By establishing internal rules, companies within the industry can reduce their environmental impact. SMT (AB Sandvik Materials Technology), a part of the industrial group Sandvik AB, has set a target that during 2014 develop a guiding document with special consider to the environmental impact during construction of office buildings, that they establish at the Swedish regional capital Sandviken, for both internal and external tenants. This study therefore aims to clarify which environmental aspects that the construction and real estate sector mainly are responsible for, and therefore should be part of a guiding document for a company for establishing office buildings, and to present arguments regarding the use of such a document. The study is based on literature studies and personal contact with other companies, in the form of e-mail conversations and a telephone interview. The results of the study have revealed that companies have guiding documents describing their overall environmental work, but there are currently no documented standardized procedures for establishing buildings from the ecological sustainability perspective. A guiding document should originate from the Brundtland Commission's definition of sustainable development that states: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Sustainable development include three dimensions; ecological, economic and social sustainability, which depend on and influence each other. All together, the study showed that the primary environmental aspects that a guiding document for a company at least should take in consideration, based on the ecological sustainability, are: energy consumption, waste production, greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions. Suggestions for companies regarding the practical work with these environmental aspects are to focus on BREEAM and to use available product databases such as BASTA, SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen as complementary tools. Arguments for the use of such a document is that an active environmental program can be used for marketing purposes, potentially provides reduced business costs, reach more customers through new business areas and create and maintain an attractive position due to the growing environmental awareness in the community.

  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures in district heated buildings2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the effects of end-use energy efficiency measures on different district heat production systems with combined heat and power (CHP) plants for base load production and heat-only boilers for peak and medium load productions. We model four minimum cost district heat production systems based on four environmental taxation scenarios, plus a reference district heat system used in Östersund, Sweden. We analyze the primary energy use and the cost of district heat production for each system. We then analyze the primary energy implications of end-use energy efficiency measures applied to a case-study apartment building, taking into account the reduced district heat demand, reduced cogenerated electricity and increased electricity use due to ventilation heat recovery. We find that district heat production cost in optimally-designed production systems is not sensitive to environmental taxation. The primary energy savings of end-use energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the district heat production system and the type of end-use energy efficiency measures. Energy efficiency measures that reduce more of peak load than base load production give higher primary energy savings, because the primary energy efficiency is higher for CHP plants than for boilers. This study shows the importance of analyzing both the demand and supply sides as well as their interaction in order to minimize the primary energy use of district heated buildings.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effects of environmental taxations on district heat production structures2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of wood frames and other innovations in multi-storey building construction2011In: World Sustainable Building Conference, 18 - 21 October, Helsinki, Finland., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Holmgren, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Utvärdering av val av hållfastetsklass2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Concrete is divided into a number of different strength classes that affects which properties the concrete has in terms of strength, higher class gives greater strength. In the design of concrete structures, the choice of the strength class of the concrete will have impact on how large amount of reinforcement required. To what degree the amount of reinforcement is effected depends on the type of element it applies and the types of loads it is influenced by, but the foundation is that higher strength class to the concrete provides a lower amount of reinforcement. Pressure loaded structures, such as walls, columns and arches in concrete can handle large loads itself without heavy reinforcement.

    This study has aimed to develop a document that demonstrates the types of elements it financially worthwhile to use a higher strength class with a lower amount of reinforcement as a result, and report the price of the respective cross-section. The fictive building that has been studied is a 15 storey residential building built in Östersund. Loads used in the calculations, snow load, self-weights, live load, wind load and the load that represents the element is able to be transported (transport loads). The calculations have been carried out partly by hand to obtain the design loads. Then two different calculation programs from StruSoft have been used (Concrete Beam and Frame Analysis) to try different strength classes and obtain reinforcement quantities. All calculations have been made according to the Eurocodes.

    The results have been compiled in a variety of tables for the different cross-sections which show the strength class that is most advantageous to use for each element, as well as the amount of reinforcement it generates. Linked to each table showing strength classes and reinforcement quantities, a table showing the cost for each cross section has been developed.

    Keywords: Strength classes, concrete, rebar amount

  • 12.
    Jonasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Mikaelsson, Lars Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Approach For Sustainable Processes For The Built Environment In Triple Helix Cooperation: The Case Of Storsjö Strand In Östersund2014In: proceedings of: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2014, Kalmar, Sweden, November 24-26, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The built environment is an important component for a sustainable society. Choices made today will affect society during decades to come, both regarding performance of buildings and in affecting what is possible choices regarding mobility, energy, waste handling and human well being in general. There have been several projects in Sweden and around the world aiming at better sustainability performance of new built areas. A strong experience from earlier projects is that it is not that easy to actually achieve high ambitions set up at project initiation; the most common example in this direction that requirements on energy efficiency are not achieved when measuring in actual use of the final building.The project Storsjö Strand, a new township in Östersund in an earlier industrialized area, has aimed to work around identified earlier problems, using a strong interactivity and a triple helix process with the municipality, developers, and the university. The role of the university is to through an action research approach both be involved in the process to help guide it and to document and evaluate the process, with the research goal to contribute to and develop sustainable building processes for Sweden and elsewhere.The Storsjö Strand project is presently an ongoing project. This paper describes the approach taken and how it is a development of earlier approaches for sustainable building processes and also evaluates early experiences of the triple helix process.

  • 13.
    Jonasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Mikaelsson, Lars-Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Plannig To Build Sustainable? -The Case Of Storsjö Strand2016In: Proceedings of: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Östersund is presently developing a new township called Storsjö Strand close to the town centre by the lakefront of the lake Storsjön. The ambition is that the new area should be a good example of more sustainable building engineering and societal planning. Mid Sweden University was engaged to follow the process in action research setting, and to enhance the learning process. A triple helix process intending to better achieve such outcomes was presented at the Eco-tech 2014 conference. The process has now moved to a stage where the first two buildings are erected.

    This paper reports on present status with a focus on how the sustainability goals have been transferred through the chain of involved organizations and individuals, developers and contractors, but also how the goals affect the production of the building, regarding materials, methods and costs, based on interviews . We have observed connections between sustainability outcomes, and the combination of quality of the goals set for the project and the types of processes for achieving them. So far, it seems like the sustainability goals partly have been transferred through the process. The process will be followed until the buildings has been in use for some time

  • 14.
    Lagerstedt, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Slöserijakt i betongdjungeln: En tidseffektivisering av monteringsprocessen inom stål- och betongprefab2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The different aspects of each individual construction project such as the general conditions, design and economic restrictions as well as many more factors mean it is difficult to standardize building processes or plan in detail based on past experiences. As a result operational efficiency is often reduced, and unnecessary waste is generated. To make an organization more efficient and therefore reduce waste production everybody involved needs to appreciate and understand the improvements that can increase the organization’s efficiency. To investigate these improvements a time study was performed on two different construction sites, both of which involved buildings being constructed of prefabricated steel and concrete elements. All activities that required cranes were recorded and afterwards identified as waste or non-waste. The identification of waste is a part of ‘lean production’ and its philosophy. In lean production, there are eight defined waste categories: over-production, waiting, transporting, over-processing, inventory, motion, defects and unused expertise. Put simply, lean production is about creating more value for customers with fewer resources. The purpose of this essay is to identify the largest and most frequently occurring wastes of crane time, and then the appropriate actions to reduce or eliminate that wastage. The study was conducted over two different weeks at two different construction sites, which equates to 2 400,0 minutes on each project. During the time study, each moment where the cranes were used was recorded. Execution time, type of lifting, quantity, reason for delay and waste category serves as the structural basis in the time study. The results show that the two most frequently occurring wastages were waiting and inventory, and the most common reasons for crane inefficiencies were preparation, inefficiency before and after breaks, and errors caused by external factors. It was also shown that non-productive craning represented 48 % of the total crane activity. Inventory of prefabricated elements and absence of elevator were the two most common wastages due to non-productive craning. Results and discussion led to the conclusion that the average ‘wasted’ time was 919,8 minutes per construction site and per working week. The identified waste could be reduced or eliminated by taking the right actions in the long term. The conclusion also shows that it is possible eliminate 393,5 minutes of waste to, in the short term, which would mean improvement by 393,5 minutes per working week and project.

  • 15.
    Lans, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Utveckling av erfarenhetsåterföring - en fallstudie hos NCC Mark/Anläggning i Västernorrland/Jämtland2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To seize experiences from completed projects in order to improve the quality of conducted work, does currently not work satisfactorily in the construction industry. Research shows that up to 1/3 out of the construction cost of renovation and new constructions projects can be attributed to poor quality costs. Some of these poor quality costs can be reduced by conducting a systematic improvement work through experience feedback within companies. NCC sees a potential to improve their work within the area of experience feedback. The aim of this study is to describe how the work is conducted today and by literature- and a case study identify ways to improve their work. The case study has been conducted with both interviews and a questionnaire that six officials from the group have participated in. Theory from literature has then been discussed in relation to the outcome of the case study.Overall, the attitudes towards working with experience feedback are positive within the group and officials believe it is important to pursue this work. This attitude will facilitate the development of the experience feedback. NCC has central directives for how the experience feedback should be conducted, but these are not always complied. To ensure that experience feedback will be done NCC should follow the directives since the directives contain certain key elements such as end meetings. Other things that NCC should do are to gather experiences in a database so that it becomes more accessible in contrast to the verbal experience feedback that dominates today. NCC should see the experience feedback as an ongoing support process and provide adequate resources to this process. Distinguishing the experience feedback from the projects to a separate process with adequate resources, will ensure that the data can be collected, analyzed and lead to systematic improvements.Keywords: experience feedback, improvement work, continuous improvement, poor quality costs, production monitoring

  • 16.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Full service energy efficient renovation business for Swedish single-family houses2011In:  , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ladängen: Skillnader och likheter hur entreprenörer och beställare upplever ett större projekt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Nilsson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Etablering av takstolsfabrik i Stugun: Produktionsförutsättningar och transporter2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visions of broadening the horizons have interested a contractor from the region of Jämtland to seek new ways for the company, which led them to trusses manufactured in a factory. Previously the contractor has been ordered trusses from a manufacturer in Norrbotten because of the interest in a lower price than local producers have been able to offer. For a time they have had contact with a timber supplier who can offer industrial premises to rent. The proximity to the timber and the minimized transports has been attractive for an establishment.

    The study whose result is presented in this report intends to examine the economic costs of the establishment for the truss factory in Stugun. It also intends to investigate in which case the transport of the components of a truss can be reduced. To get the information that responds to these concerns has contacts been established with stakeholders that are involved in the industry in various ways. They have communicated their thoughts and ideas, which have helped to form the result in this case-study.

    The parameters included in the survey were the production conditions that apply to this type of industry. Also the prevailing conditions have left their mark. Costs for energy consumption or renovation of the premises have been excluded from the study.

    The economic basis for the production conditions which should be established shows that an establishment is possible. The price of the truss that the study brings out is in the same price range that many construction companies today pay for their trusses. When the target area of ​​the factory's production is Jämtland with vicinity can also transport distances be reduced compared with current alternatives.

  • 19.
    Palmqvist, Robin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Tjernkroken, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Trähus: Varför bygg det inte fler flerfamiljshus i trä?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av trähusindustrin har gått framåt de senaste åren och är idag både ett ekologiskt hållbart och ekonomiskt konkurrenskraftigt alternativ till att bygga höga hus i stål och betong. Sverige har gott om skog och har en skogsindustri som är både stabil och är en av hörnstenarna i den nationella ekonomin. Syftet med rapporten har varit att ta reda på vilka orsaker som kan finnas till att inte fler flerfamiljshus i trä byggs.  Metoden som har använts är en enkät som har skickats ut till 14 olika aktörer som är involverade i projektet Storsjöstrand, där 8 svar har kommit tillbaka. Fakta har också tagits fram genom att studera litteratur, vetenskapliga artiklar och webbaserade sidor. Resultatet av svaren på enkäten visar att kunskap och erfarenheter av att bygga flerfamiljshus i trä saknas. Vidare visar resultatet också att trä är bättre ur ekologisk synvinkel, än att bygga flerfamiljshus i stål och betong. Resultatet visar också att det inte finns några regelverk som sätter krokben för att bygga flerfamiljshus i trä och att det därför också kommer att öka i framtiden. Slutsatsen har därför blivit att den största orsaken till att inte fler flerfamiljshus i trä byggs är bristen på kunskap och om fler aktörer vågar ta steget att bygga höga hus i trä, så kommer också kunskaperna öka i branschen.

  • 20.
    Pettersson, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Åsell, Madelene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Olika systemlösningar vid utbyte eller förnyelse av enskilt avlopp: En jämförelse mellan biologisk och kemisk vattenrening2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden we nowadays have rules that determine how our individual sewage must be dimensioned considering out coming emissions. Nearly half of the 700 000 existing properties using individual sewage have a system that isn’t approved. In Sweden the individual sewage systems releases as much phosphorus as the communal wastewater treatment plants according to Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (Marine and Water Authority).

     

    The communal authority in Sweden has been entrusted to carry out extended control of the private sewage system in effort to inform the problems with what the insufficient of wastewater treatment entails and in pursuit of "sustainable development". In guidance for decisions about what applies to the individual property, the communal authority in Sweden has applied the manual by Naturvårdsverkets allmänna råd (NFS 2006:7) (Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines)

     

    The purpose of this report is to study various methods of purification of individual sewer systems. A comparison between a couple of different techniques in chemical and biological treatment is going to be studied. The issue we will addressed in this report are following: Which of biological- or chemical technology water purification is from a sustainability perspective, the best solution when replacing or renovation is taken place of an individual sewer systems;

     

    -       Which solution is most optimal where the normal level of protection required?

    -       Which solution is most optimal where the high level of protection required?

     

    This study has several methods and instrument used to achieve the high reliability of the collected data. Literature studies, surveys, interviews, correspondences and analysis of these are instruments that largely have been used in the implementation. The compilation of the results from the surveys is presented in a pie chart.

     

    In normal protection level, we believe that the infiltration is the most optimal solution.

    At the high level, we believe that the vertical flow constructed wetland in combination with a pond is the most optimal solution.

  • 21.
    Risén, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Skotska förrådet: Förslag till byte av bärande stomme2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the Swedish armed forces closure, many facilities remain withouttenants. Many facilities have been rebuilt, and in Östersund, on A4’sregimental area, the Mid Sweden University and other companies arelocated. One of the buildings on the grounds is a storage facility, whosefacade consists of sinusoidal corrugated sheet metal from Scotland,hence the name, “Skotska förrådet” (Scottish storage facility). The sheetmetal facade is protected as a historic building, and because of that, itcannot be removed. This puts more demand on an already complicatedbuilding process. The idea is to let a martial arts association rent part ofthe building. While exercising their sport, they have requirements aboutopen space and a distance from floor to ceiling of 3.50 meters, demandsthat the facility cannot supply at the moment. This thesis has been usingcalculation software, calculations by hand as well as literature studies tocome up with two ideas that create this open space and requireddistance from floor to ceiling. One of the proposals provides a flexiblebuilding with no columns in the open floor spaces in any of the twolevels. The second proposal creates the open floor space on the firstlevel, but preserves the frame on the second level. The choice of frameand insulation solution was evaluated from different angles. Workenvironment for the construction workers, assembly technique andrespects to the buildings conservation has been taken underconsideration. The conclusion is that the first proposal, where the entirebody is replaced, and only the facade preserved, is the better option, asit offers advantages in production technology and offers a better andsafer work environment.

  • 22.
    Steging, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svällskiffer, En studie i möjliga svällskifferåtgärder på Barberaren 72013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Södergren, Markus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jämförelse mellan olika kopplingstyper för betongkonstruktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This Study has been done hand in hand with SCF Betongelement AB, with anidea to evaluate the total cost of three different coupling types, which are usedbetween prefabricated concrete beam and column.A total cost for the three different types of couplings has been produced byexamining: additional reinforcement for each solution, reinforcement profit in columns because of reduced bending momentthanks to reduced eccentricity of load point, labor cost in factory and purchase costs of fastening productsThe total cost has been compared to the cost for the other couplings.The connection types which have been studied are two solutions with hiddencorbels, the PCs console from Peikko and the Invisible Connections BSF fromSB Produksjon AS, as well as the traditional concrete corbel.The three different connection types have been compared by calculating on abuilding located in Östersund. Different dimensions and lengths of columnswith different load cases have been calculated. Designing the columns and thetraditional corbel have been performed by using calculation programs fromStrusoft AB. Estimates of the additional reinforcement around the hiddencorbel products from Peikko and SB Produksjon AS has been done accordingto technical manuals for each product.The results of this study show that the use of the hidden connection types doesnot give any reduced cost considering reinforcement and labor cost. The mainpurpose of using these solutions is for the aesthetic design as well as the corbelis hidden and would not take any unnecessary space in the building.

  • 24.
    Thofelt, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Östlund, Börje
    Försök med levande filter vid vaernes flygplats, Stjördal, Norge: rapport från försök den 7 och 8 november 19961996Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Vestergård, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Utveckling av lägenhetsavskiljande vägg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and property sector uses a lot of natural resources and consumes large amounts of energy, which is a reason why slight improvements in construction and real estate sector can make a big difference. Demising walls have been constructed in the same manner for a long time and with a high proportion of material that is less good for the environment. The problem is that there is no environmentally better alternative today. The purpose of this study was to develop and propose solutions for a flat partition wall to be erected with IsoTimber. The aim of the work was to create a competitive demising wall that is environmentally better than current solutions so that the building industry can have a choice. The work has included design solutions to meet the sound- and fire requirements. This project is limited to dwellings with sound class C building class Br1 and activity class VK3. The method used in the project has examined the competing alternatives wood- and steel stud walls and features that are desirable in the new wall product. The results showed small differences between the competitors, at the same time the result demonstrated a range of areas for improvement. Based the improvement that was identified a target specification was defined that formed the basis for a concept generation. Two out of eight concepts is recommended. One is a concept with completely prefabricated walls lifted with help of a crane into place in a framework when a house is been built. The second concept that is recommended is finished walling approximately 2400 x 600 mm with a weight of about 60 kg is prefabricated in a factory, these can then be raised up in a frame that has been built up where the wall shall stand. The wall that is recommended is 58- 68 mm thicker than the compared walls and lacks in the current situation an accomplished fire test. The wall will have a competitive price if the total price of the materials and the construction of the wall is approximately 600 kr/m2. The walls can be reused and reduces the amount of waste compared to competing alternatives which represents a competitive advantage.

    Keywords: IsoTimber, Demising wall.

  • 26.
    Väppling, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Utvärdering av VA-arbetenas framdrift på Västra Eriksberg område 1: - en fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skanska Sverige AB in Skellefteå now conducts a new construction project that includes all the work of infrastructure in a region where 79 pieces of new plots in a previously unbroken area are to be created. Because of the fact that the project is carried out in a relatively fragile environment is there a framing of a question over the capacity including work with the water and sewage pipes, such as the work of excavation, pipe bed, piping, wells, backfill and the remaining backfill. The aim of this thesis is to create a basis for resource monitoring work with water and sewage pipes on Phase 1 of the project Västra Eriksberg and to create a basis on capacity at the operation in the type of terrain and under the prevailing conditions. The detailed activity in the works connected to the AMA codes have been paired, and timed as a joint activity. The work has been carried out as a case study and realized through daily observations and measurements over a period of time out on the construction site. In addition, the case study was based on interviews, personal communication with the production manager, skilled workers and machine operator. The results of the case study suggests that the operating capacity for work with excavation and piping including wells and backfilling of a project carried out in the kind of environment that exists in the project Västra Eriksberg differ somewhat, but not much from the general assembly times available on the market. The unit time in the pipe laying, including work on wells and backfilling performance achieved is an average of 0.273 hours per meter trench which means a propulsion of 3,7 meters per hour, comprising pipes for wastewater and fresh water. Unit of time for the work of excavation is on average 0,044 hours per m3, which means a capacity of 22.7 m3 per hour. To get a more accurate result showing on the operational capacity of the entire Phase 1, measurements would have had to be performed over a longer period.

  • 27.
    Åsell, Madelene
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Pettersson, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Olika systemlösningar vid utbyte eller förnyelse av enskilt avlopp: En jämförelse mellan biologisk och kemisk vattenrening2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden we nowadays have rules that determine how our individual sewage must be dimensioned considering out coming emissions. Nearly half of the 700 000 existing properties using individual sewage have a system that isn’t approved. In Sweden the individual sewage systems releases as much phosphorus as the communal wastewater treatment plants according to Havs- och vattenmyndigheten (Marine and Water Authority).

     

    The communal authority in Sweden has been entrusted to carry out extended control of the private sewage system in effort to inform the problems with what the insufficient of wastewater treatment entails and in pursuit of "sustainable development". In guidance for decisions about what applies to the individual property, the communal authority in Sweden has applied the manual by Naturvårdsverkets allmänna råd (NFS 2006:7) (Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines)

     

    The purpose of this report is to study various methods of purification of individual sewer systems. A comparison between a couple of different techniques in chemical and biological treatment is going to be studied. The issue we will addressed in this report are following: Which of biological- or chemical technology water purification is from a sustainability perspective, the best solution when replacing or renovation is taken place of an individual sewer systems;

     

    -        Which solution is most optimal where the normal level of protection required?

    -        Which solution is most optimal where the high level of protection required?

     

    This study has several methods and instrument used to achieve the high reliability of the collected data. Literature studies, surveys, interviews, correspondences and analysis of these are instruments that largely have been used in the implementation. The compilation of the results from the surveys is presented in a pie chart.

     

    In normal protection level, we believe that the infiltration is the most optimal solution.

    At the high level, we believe that the vertical flow constructed wetland in combination with a pond is the most optimal solution.

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