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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Optimering av interna trucktransporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurssnål produktion är en teori om hur produktionsplanering i ett företag kan förbättras, vilket syftar till att öka effektiviteten och skapa en bättre arbetssituation för medarbetarna i företaget. Examensarbetets övergripande syfte har varit att med stöd i denna teori ta fram ett optimerat och verklighetstroget truckkörschema för dagens interna transporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall. Målsättningen har varit att jämföra de interna transporterna med de behov som finns i företaget, att identifiera hur ofta transporter av tomma lastpallar sker samt att klar-göra om en dubbelpallshantering innebär tidsmässigt vinst. En kart-läggning av de interna transporterna och arbetsställenas behov av lastpallar har genomförts. Informationen från kartläggningen har implementerats i programmet Matlab, där en algoritm för beräkning av ett körschema har skapats som tar hänsyn till dagens tidshantering av lastpallar och sannolikheten att truckförarna lastar av och på lastpallar vid olika arbetsställen. Jämförelsen av arbetsställenas behov och truck-körningarna visar att behoven vid arbetsställena och dagens truckkör-ning stämmer ganska bra överens. Med stöd av kartläggningen har ett truckschema kunnat konstrueras för enkelpallshantering samt för dubbelpallshantering. Körschemana visar att det finns möjligheter till optimering av de interna transporterna. Den viktigaste slutsatsen har varit att kunna visa att truckförarnas trucktransporter kan både fören-klas och effektiviseras genom ett körschema, och det i sin tur kan leda till att arbetssituationen blir mer effektiv och mindre stressig.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Morgan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svennerlind, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Malmqvist, Inga
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    New Swedish forensic psychiatric facilities: visions and outcomes2013In: Facilities, ISSN 0263-2772, E-ISSN 1758-7131, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 24-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map significant features of the physical design of nine recently planned facilities for forensic psychiatric care in Sweden. The present paper is focused on differences in the physical design, static security adaptations, visions and goals for the projects, economy and steering processes.

    Design/methodology/approach – In June 2008, records concerning major forensic psychiatric construction projects, planned or carried out between 1970 and 2008, were requested from all 21 regions in Sweden. The documents were collected, organized, critically examined, and analyzed in their contexts. Extensive data have also been retrieved from the internet.

    Findings – In spite of the common national legislation governing forensic psychiatric care, the projects show great diversity in the physical design and, after 2006, increasing emphasis on static security. The collected material indicates different visions and goals and little coordination between them. It also suggests that the decisions rarely have been preceded by scientific studies or, as it appears, systematic needs assessments. There were also considerable variations in the interpretation of the legislation stipulating public access to official documentation and the time-frame allowed for such requests.

    Research limitations/implications – Limitations of the project especially relate to the incompleteness of the documents received. Originality/value – This mainly descriptive paper provides an overview of contemporary Swedish forensic psychiatric construction projects, planned for or realized after 2000. This paper points out structural and physical differences between these projects. The systematised documents are made available for research purposes within different disciplines.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Melander, Melander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Samordnad varudistribution: Jämförelse mellan två logistikmodeller med nuläget i Sundsvalls Stenstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the cities are becoming more crowded, the urban distribution has become a major logistical challenge. Some commonproblems in the inner cities arelimited accessibility and idling. Many of Sweden's municipalities are above the limit values for PM10limit set by the EU.Sundsvall is one of these municipalities and has the vision to create a sustainable city and region. Sundsvall LogistikparkAB is part of an EU project, SMARTSET, which is collaborationbetween several cities in Europe. SMARTSETSundsvall is about to develop a market-based sustainable model for city logistics. Itsobjective has been to compare and assess the potential of two business models forcoordinated goods distribution, with a micro terminal, in to Sundsvall Stenstad,with the current status. To achieve the purpose of the survey is the mapping of the current situation made with the help of interviews with shippers and identification of criteria for a multi-criteria analysis. In the result, the interviews compiled and formed the basis of the data used in the MCA. To get the values of the different criteria, the calculations are made and then the dependency between the different criteria illustrated in the scatter plots. It has been found that business model 1 and 2 is better than the current statusofthe majority of the criteria. The study's main purpose has been fulfilled when the MCA has shown that both the business modelsare profitable for shippers and reduces emissions in Sundsvall. The study has also shown that there are more factors than just the profitability and environmental impacts that affect an imple-mentation of any of these business models. To further develop this survey is required that more shippers interviewed and that the stores specifications are compiled. To get a project with a longer lifethan the contribution period required financing method identified.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Varmformade eller kallformade konstruktionsrör ur ett lönsamhetsperspektiv: Undersökning av ekonomisk differens i valet mellan VKR och KKR2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, hot formed rectangular hollow sections (HFRHS) can be 15-23 % more expensive than cold formed rectangular hollow sections (CFRHS) of the same section size. Although the price on CFRHS is lower, estimations reveals that   - from the total use of HFRHS and CFRHS in Swedish steel buildings - CFRHS is only utilized by less than 5 % compared to 95 % HFRHS. This study began by examining the differences between these two types of steel. The price difference between the two processed metal types was then calculated when both of them were subjected to a centric compressive force under the same conditions. The purpose was to compare prices and find out which one is the most economically feasible, offering a more profitable choice between HFRHS or CFRHS.

    The design buckling resistance of all the section sizes in Tibnor kon­­struktions­tabeller was calculated for every possible combination out of ten different lengths between 1 m and 10 m, ten different loadings between 100 kN and 1000 kN and two different support conditions being pinned at both ends and fixed at both ends. The sections sizes of CFRHS and HFRHS that withstood the loading and held the lowest prices were compared by calculating the price difference as per­centage increment or decrement between the two types of hollow sections.

    In 80 % of the cases, when pinned at both ends, CFRHS showed to be the most economically feasible alternative. When fixed at both ends the same number was 86 %. The average price difference was 10-11 %, showing an absolute deviation of approximately 8‑12 %.

    These findings conclude that using only CFRHS can result in savings of 10‑11 % from reduced costs of steel, compared to only using HFRHS. From the observed variation of the price differences another conclusion is drawn that there aren’t any tendencies showing HFRHS or CFRHS to be more economically feasible than the other in a specific interval of length or loading.

    The recommendation is to optimize and use the type of steel that is the most economically feasible under the current circumstances. If an optimization isn’t possible then the recommendation is to use CFRHS.

  • 5.
    Augustsson, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svenska Turistföreningens fjällstugor - Uppvärmning, ventilation och elförsörjning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    STF is constructing a single-storey house. The house is 279 m2, of which about a third arecommon areas with kitchen, living room, toilet, hygiene and drying room. It’s planned to be 10bedrooms with 24 beds. The assignment is to examine whether it is possible to meet up with thedemands of the indoor climate in terms of heating, ventilation and electricity needs where thepossibility of external power is not available. The report also present calculations and informationthat highlights the possible energy saving measures and their effect on energy consumption. Thisis to provide a basis for planning the first Stensdal cottage but also other structures ininaccessible environment where external power is not available. The research question in thisreport is: How can a house in the isolated mountains meet the requirements for heating andventilation and to what extent can the local electricity needs met up by solar and wind energy?The work is structured as a problem-solving case study with exploratory and descriptive design.The results section is divided into two parts. The first estimated the energy loss of the buildingbased on insulation, heating and ventilation systems. The second part studied differentpossibilities in order to ensure energy consumption by using solar cells, wind, wood andgenerator. When comparing the FTX and exhaust air ventilation the total heat loss is about onethirdlower with FTX ventilation. The design heat loss becomes more than a third lower for asystem with FTX ventilation. From the analysis of energy consumption, one can estimate thetotal power consumption of 184-325 W. When calculating on energy production a power of 350W was used to meet the need by some margin. In the calculation of one of the two methods ofcalculation used in this report requires 564 m2 of solar panels to meet demand year round withjust solar cells. To meet the demand from March to September requires 25m2 solar cells. Thesecond method of calculation gives that it is impossible to cover all needs without any kind ofbackup power, at the same time this calculation method does not require the same amount ofsolar cells but requires that you install batteries. There is much uncertainty in how the windconditions are at the site. Therefore, it has not been possible to explore the potential for windpower generation. It is possible to meet the electricity demand caused by heating and ventilationsystems, with most of photovoltaic energy. This is particularly true for the open period from lateFebruary to late September. It is impossible to guarantee a 100 per cent access to electricity foroperating systems without using any kind of backup system. If the system is in operation all yearround it may require up to ten times as great facility of solar cells while demands for energysupplied from the backup system increases.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    BIM: Förvaltning, inventering och användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modeling, BIM is a complex idea which has varying meaning depending on where in the building process it is used. There is no simple definition of how the working with BIM is applied and consists of many areas of activity.  

     

    This report is based upon the study of available literature and interview questions, which both have set the ground for the result and conclusions presented. These have aimed to investigate how digital information processing can be applied in the facility management for a building and furthermore, how inventory of an already built building can be improved by today’s technology.  By studying what´s already have been written on the subject and contacting people who works in the building consulting business or building facility management, a combination of available techniques is presented. The bottom-line is that BIM (Building Information Modeling) is a modern working method which can be used by all disciplines for applying information to a project, and which also can be used progressively into production, facility management, rebuilding and renovation, and finally deconstruction.

     

    Inventorying of an old building which lacks data can be recreated by the use of laser scanner technique and gives a reliable collection of data, which afterwards is processed in a CAD program. Studies have been made in order to find a way for localizing inbuilt material without making any permanent damage to the building construction.

     

  • 7.
    Bergwall, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lönsamhetsanalys för nybyggnad i passivhusutförande2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Östersund fire department is in need of a building where firemen and firewomen can gear and clothing after an exercise. Energy prices are expected torise, and with new technology and knowledge it is possible to build energy-efficient houses. The report therefore examines whether it would beeconomically viable for Östersund fire department to construct the building inpassive house design with respect to the costs during a 20 year period. Theconstruction proposed by Moelven has therefore been set against a revisedmodel with a passive customized envelope. Only walls, roofs, floors (slab),windows and doors have been replaced. Otherwise, the buildings are equal.Energy demand (kWh / m 2 per year) and the construction cost has beencalculated for both models, and set against each other in a 20 years perspective.For the energy calculations, some standard values and simplifications havebeen used when data has been difficult to access or does not exist. Whencalculating the total price for the two buildings the construction cost programBidcon was used. The finished structural members adapted to conform to thebuilding components carrying the energy calculation.The results showed that passive house has about halved the energy demandfor heating against Moelven's proposal. The estimated cost of the twobuildings did not differ so much, and the only reason that passive housingbecame more expensive, its greater area (because of its thick walls). Unit Hourson building parts in Bidcon deemed to disadvantage Moelven's proposals andpassive model should be more expensive than the calculated price.It should therefore be in Östersund fire department interest to construct thebuilding with a performance more like a passive house model, however a moreaccurate calculation should be made.

  • 8.
    Bodin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energisparande åtgärder för en villa från 1960-talet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to increase knowledge about reducing heating costs for an existing house from the 1960s. It also aims to highlight some possible measures that reduce energy use and to examine whether these measures are economically justified. To answer the research questions have literary studies conducted and information about the house were taken from drawings and technical specifications. Different types of calculations have been performed to calculate the building's energy needs. Measures that are calculated is reduction of indoor temperatures, switch to new windows and doors and isolation on the attic. By lowering the temperature in the house from 20°C to 19°C gives an annual saving of 5,3 %, which corresponds to SEK 1072. Switch windows is a major investment and it is not profitable to switch windows if need not exist. The most viable option for the house is to switch to 3-glass windows with U-value 1,1 and doors with U-value 1,0 that contribute to a savings of the annual cost of heating with SEK 4390. The repayment period is 34 years. The most cost-effective measure is to add isolation in the attic floor. Additional isolation with 25 cm creates a saving in heating costs by SEK 1254 per year and a repayment period of 12 and a half years. Implementing energy efficiency measures often involves an investment cost. However, it is not always the investment costs in energy efficiency measures that will be in focus, but the future savings of energy.

  • 9.
    Borgh, Christoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Kostnadsjämförelse av stomsystem: Beroende av spännvidder och materialval2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It built a lot in Sweden today with pillar- beam structures where large open spaces are in demand, this requires large spans of the materials used to handle the forces that affect the building. The most common materials today are glulam or steel or a combination of these, where the different material properties are combine to achieve the most advantageous properties for the structure. In this thesis, the cost of steel beams and glulam beams between 2-24 meters developed and studied to make a cost estimate of which material is the most cost-effective at each span. The calculations were performed at three different locations in Sweden, Kiruna, Östersund and Stockholm, where the beams were calculated as part of the roof construction with spans of 10-24 meters. Calculations were also performed as floorbeams with spans between 2-10 meters where the beams are subjected to three different useful loads to see if any price difference occurred between the materials. Of the results that occurred in the measurements of the study showed that glulam beams was the most cost-effective in approximately 57%, independent of an abbreviation or increase of the girder spans of the ration ranges from 2-24 meters. The different geographical locations in the country affected the beams through an increased or decreased cross-section of both materials which meant that the price difference between the beams remained around 57% there glulam beams where the more economical choice. Which leads to the conclusion that the glulam beams between the intervals 2-24 meters is the most cost-effective choice of material for beams in a pillar- beam frame compared to steel beams. The influence of loads or geographic location does not contribute to an economic change in material choice, but it contributes solely to the increase or decrease of the structural cross-section with increasing or decreasing load

  • 10.
    Brandén, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ombyggnad av liggtimmerstomme: Aktionsstudie av ombyggnad av ladugården på Nygården, Vemdalens Kyrkby 4:5.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need to use old outbuildings in its original use has decreased. The old houses, however, has qualities that are worthy of protection which should be borne in mind before they are teared down.

    This report is an action study of the barn on Nygården, Vemdalens Kyrkby 4; 5th. The project building is a lug building from the mid-1800s, currently used as garage and storage. The owners of the estate intend to tear down the barn to make space for a new guest house. The report treats the possibility to maintain the barn and rebuild it into a modern residence, within the framework of building preservation. The report examines benefits with rebuilding the barn instead of tearing it down and new produce.

    Different research methods are used. A visual inspection of the building is done in cooperation with a lug carpenter who gives his opinion on structural conditions. Based on the inspection, an interview with another carpenter and literature studies a proposal on measures, within the framework of building preservation, is presented. Profitability in terms of economy, ecology and quality is discussed and compared with demolition and new production.

    The conclusion is that the project building is suitable for renovation due to good quality, good condition and it has a construction suitable for change. The measures of change are relatively simple but time consuming. Qualitative, economic and ecological benefits to be find is among other thermal inertia, material consuming savings and reduction of waste.

  • 11.
    Brink, Rasmus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Effektivisering av dimensioneringsprocessen i FEM-design för pelardäck.: En jämförelse av stödarmering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the design work today, the use of calculation programs is obvious. There are a variety of

    programs based on different theories. One type of these programs are the FEM programs based

    on the finite element method which is an elasticity theory method. Because the FEM programs

    can handle complicated constructions, they are widely used. FEM is based on the elasticity

    theory and regular calculations on plastic theory, it is important to be aware of the differences

    that may arise between the different theories. It has been demonstrated before that FEM designs

    more reinforcement in concrete slabs in several cases compared to plastic theory. The problem

    is largely due to point supports for example columns. The study compares flat slab that are

    designed directly with FEM designs automatic design function against dimensioning using a

    developed method picked from existing literature, the comparison also includes a Eurocode 2

    flat slab example. This creates a method that will streamline the support momentum in flat

    slabs. But also create an understanding of how similar problems in similar constructions can be

    solved. The method manages how to redistribute torques and the areas in which it will be

    redistributed. To verify the method, the comparison of the flat slab construction is done. The

    result is clear and demonstrates a clear efficiency towards the program's own dimensioning

    function. The developed method also proves more effective compared to Eurocod's own

    dimensioning example.

  • 12.
    Burger, Marcel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Gröna tak, för- och nackdelar i relation till styrning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Green roofs are an alternative way to cover roofs. Their application has started to rise in Sweden, mainly in the south though, in the last 15 years.

     

    There are three different kinds of green roof: intensive, extensive and a combination of both, which are called semi-intensive. Extensive roofs, with sedum plants, are the ones that are applied most. This is because of the fact that these kind of roof need less care and that have a longer life span than conventional roofs, and even have bigger long term financial advantages.

     

    Today the application of green roofs happens mainly because of esthetical views but also because of some more functional aspects. It delays rainwater to come to ground level because of absorption and evaporation. This helps also to diminish so called “heating islands”.

    Other effects that are named are: improved isolation of the roof, improved air quality, positive effect on noise, but even the quality of water that runs down the roof changes. From an ecological point of view have green roofs even a positive effect on biological diversity.

     

    I think that the relation between green roofs and biological diversity is interesting because ít gives rise to the possibility to answer a diversity of “stage goals”.

     

    The theoretical part of this report will contain pro’s and con’s to the application of green roofs. Many of the effect of green roofs can be of importance when dealing with sustainability questions.

     

    Of the results a conclusion can be drawn that it is difficult to give a certain value to the different effects, because they depend on example the thickness and kinds of substrate and the plants used and where the roof is situated.

     

    To get enough information to be able to create a green roof that is adapted to different climatological regions, one needs all the variables, choice of roof types but even material to get a positive effect on the end results. This information can be used to create application directives for example. Besides that it will describe which effect a green roof has on an environmental leading system.

     

    I think as well that a steering in the application of green roofs needs to be dependent on the effects one wishes to achieve. Good directives can be a helpful way to accomplish this but need to have some foundation in decent scientific research adapted to Swedish circumstances. The law does not need to be changed, because the effect one wants to achieve is more related to regions, based on specific situations or desires. It is even possible to regulate green roofs in “city plans”

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Tenggren, Jonatan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    En studie om remissförslagen från Boverket gällande nära‐nollenergibyggnader2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the European Parliament and the Councils

    directive (2010/31/EU) all EU member states must tighten

    their energy consumption requirements for buildings to

    ensure a sustainable development and an energy-efficient

    union. The directive requires all member states to introduce

    directives so that all newly built constructions will be near‑zero energy‑buildings by the end of 2020.

    Boverket has developed directives (BFS 2017: xx BBR (A);

    BFS 2017: xx BBR (B); BFS 2017: xx BEN 2) to determine how

    energy consumption should be calculated and what

    requirements will apply to near‑zero energy‑buildings in

    Sweden.

    This report will analyse what these new directives mean for

    two standard wall system solutions from two suppliers of

    prefabricated solid wood walls. The wall systems are applied

    to a reference building where the ceiling, foundation,

    windows and doors are predetermined, the only parameter

    that varies is the wall systems.

    The wall systems analysed are Isotimber'ʹ wall Per‑Albin 2.0

    and Martinsons wall YV-16-01. Isotimber has a product

    consisting of solid woodblocks with milled slots for

    increased insulation (Isotimber, 2016). Martinsons

    manufactures cross‑laminated timber elements that makes

    form‑stable sheets of solid wood (Martinsons, u.å.a).

    In order to achieve results, hand calculations of U‑values,

    energy consumption and primary energy have been

    performed. Calculations are based on legal texts, formulas

    and standard values from the workplace as well as literature

    studies, for example energihushållning och värmeisolering

    (Elmroth 2015), byggnaden som system (Adel, E., & Elmroth,

    A. 2012) among others.

    The result shows that none of the wall systems will meet the

    new requirements for near‑zero energy buildings with this

    design on the reference building and with these wall

    systems.

  • 14.
    Chebil, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Att skapa trygga och tillgängliga boendemiljöer: Hur man med relativt små medel och insatser kan förbättra tillgängligheten i befintliga fastigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The existing housing stock in Sweden is standing in front of a big challenge and restoration is a must when we are not building in the same rate that our population increases. This report is aiming to enable older people and those with disability to live longer in their homes and also to facilitate those that do not have a disability to easier move in and about their own homes. This report highlights improvements from an availability perspective for a multi-family property from 1987 that is owned and administrated by HSB rental property and shows how they shall work to make a safe and available housing environment in their housing stock, so that they can fulfill the claims of highest rank in the inventory tool TIBB. The report is defined to investigate potential improvement and propose measures for a building Mimer 10, Hörnellgatan 18 that is owned by HSB in Skellefteå and also to investigate entry’s, common areas and the apartments floorplan.

    The report is based on a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods which complements each other well for this study. Two case studies have been implemented and discussion with expert in availability have occurred to establishment a proposal to ensure the validity.

    The author concluded a line of improvements that can be implemented in the property which resulted in a measure- and priority list. Above all it was about level balancing measures and to introduce automatic doors to common areas. In consolation with the employer HSB there was a proposal develop to convert the existing bicycles storehouse to an electric wheelchair and walker storehouse, illustrations for this have been created in the architect program ArchiCAD.

    In the investigated property the average age for the tenants is high and many would benefit from a more accessible living environment. To be an attractive landlord it is important to listen to the tenants´ needs and continually strive to raise the quality of the property. If the arrangements are carried out and developed like the proposal suggests, the property Mimer 10 will fulfil the highest level of availability according to the inventory tool TIBB. 

  • 15.
    Chryssanthou, Emanuel Chryssanthou
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Studie ifall en nybyggnad går att åtgärda med energisparande lösningar, jämförelse av olika isoleringsmaterial och med en investeringsbudget på 5-6 miljoner kronor.: Jämtlands räddningstjänst personalbyggnad2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jämtland’s rescue center has an investment budget of 5-6 million SEK. At present time an exercise house is being built in Furulund and together with that building Jämtland’s rescue center is planning to build a house for recovery and for relief of clothing that may have been exposed to pollution and contamination. The aim of this thesis is to investigate if a new building is possible to construct on Jämtland rescue exercise area. In essence, the focus of this work has been to design two new buildings proposed with two sub-options for each proposal. The first option has focused on applying the use of portable welding fume extractors and the second alternative without portable welding fume extractor and how it compensates to the specific energy use. Further proposals include energy-efficient solutions and comparisons between different insulation materials. In addition, calculations have been made including these alternatives with regard to construction costs. The work has been based on a qualitative and quantitative approach. Calculations of the new constructions have exceeded the budget with 1-1.4 million SEK excluding VAT. The proposals have been designed with 375 m2 and 394 m2 of cross floor area. A saving of 7-9 kWh / year has been calculated for the options without portable welding fume extractors. If there is low air pollution content in the premises, an airflow  that exceeds 0.35l/s m2 can be used in the building, but an average airflow of maximum 1l/s m2 can be used when the specify energy consumption is calculated according to building and planning, the national board of housing. The specific energy consumption for premises with increased exhaust flow can be increased by 110 (qmedel-0:35) during these circumstances. The building expenses can thus be reduced significantly in order to achieve the requirements of the specific energy consumption of the building for example by applying less insulation, however, this contributes to increased energy costs.

  • 16.
    Clausen, Anton
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jämförelse av metoder för stambyte: Skillnader mellan ”rum-i-rum”-metoden och ett traditionellt stambyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After a political decision, about 1 million residential buildings were built between year 1965 and 1975. These buildings nowadays go under the name of “miljonprogrammet” and they represent 25% of all residential stock available. The need for renovation for these buildings is impending and many property owners foresee big investments in projects like renovation work on the drain systems.

     

    When doing renovation work on the drain systems all old drainpipes are replaced with new pipes. This often causes a lot of damage on the bathroom and therefore these are included in the renovation project. The most common method for replacing the drain systems is called traditional renovation (“traditionellt stambyte”). In this method all drains and layers in the bathrooms are removed and replaced with new ones.

     

    The modular bathroom is another method for a renovation of the drain system but there is no wrecking or tearing down walls going on. The new bathroom is built up inside the old one including new drains. The space between the new and old has the function of a ventilated air gap and is connected to the existing ventilation system.

     

    This thesis are comparing the traditional way of doing a renovation on the drain system and the way of a modular bathroom renovation, regarding the criteria of quality, environmental impact and the situation for tenants. The differences between the methods will be identified and form the foundation of the comparison. A decision whether to choose one of the methods over the other can be made with knowledge from the results of the report.

     

    The comparison shows that the differences between the methods above all originates from the approach to how the projects runs. The traditional way takes off from the contractors point of view and the way a of modular bathroom renovation use the tenants as their center of attention. A point that proves this is that a modular bathroom renovation spends less time in the tenants apartments comparing to the traditional way. One benefit with the traditional method is the ability to customize due to the need for the project.

     

    The choice of which methods to use should consider the characteristics of the current set-up. If the tenants have the need of a quick and smooth process the way of a modular bathroom renovation has the advantage, the traditional method suits a more technically difficult project better.

  • 17.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings design2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund & A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 179-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of civilization, humans have built shelters to practice their social activities, while having protection against weather, wild animals, and other human beings. Over the course of time, vernacular dwellings have evolved to respond to climate challenges, available materials and cultural expectations in a given location. Such buildings include, e.g. the adobe house, the Inuit igloos in Greenland, and the open courtyard building design.Since the start of the postmodern architecture, in the middle of the 20th century, new technologies, new materials, and changes in societal structures have changed the way buildings have been designed and constructed. Modern lifestyle become more dependent on energy. For example Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) in buildings became widely used to improve indoor comfort. After the oil-supply crises in the middle of the 1970s, the connection between building design and the environment changed from just providing sufficient thermal comfort to promoting energy efficiency due to the awareness of the fact that natural resources are limited. That was the start of the sustainable architecture movement. It was during this time building regulations in many countries started to include aspects of energy efficiency. This chapter will discuss two aspects of building design and their effect on the overall energy efficiency of the building: the interior building design and the exterior building design.

  • 18.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 19.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy variations in apartment buildings due to different shape factors and relative size of common areas2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Large variations in specific final energy use in Swedish apartment buildings: Causes and solutions2012In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 49, p. 276-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible causes for variations in specific final energy use in new apartment buildings. The analysis is based on case studies of 22 new apartment buildings that were constructed as part of the ’Stockholm program for environmentally adapted buildings’. The buildings in the study were chosen because they share similar construction characteristics and similar energy systems but display unexpected large variations in specific energy use. Three causes were found to contribute to variations in monitored specific final energy use in the studied apartment buildings: (1) the time interval between the completion of construction work and the actual energy measurements, (2) the shape factor of the building and (3) the relative size of the common area. In addition, the buildings that participated in the Stockholm program failed to achieve the requirements for the specific final energy use, to a large extent, because of expectations based on the simulated values. The simulated specific final energy use predicted by the energy simulations were on average 19% lower than the monitored values, giving the impression that the buildings would fulfill the program’s energy requirements. The reasons for the low simulated values were determined to be large uncertainties in the input data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Measurements of heat transfer coefficient of external walls with different insulation materials2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diagnosis of buildings' thermal performance - a quantitative method using thermography under non-steady state heat flow2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 83, p. 320-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a quantitative method using thermography to measure the thermal performance of complete building envelope elements that are subjected to non-steady state heat flow. The method presumes that thermal properties of external walls, like conductivity, could still be obtained by a linear regression over values of independent measurements. And therefore could be used during fluctuating indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. The method is divided into two parts. First, the convection heat transfer coefficient is measured by heat flux meters (HFM) and thermography. And then, the overall heat transfer coefficient of a complete building element is measured by thermography to include all non-uniformities.

    In this study the thermal performance of a 140 mm thick laminated timber wall was measured. The wall was subjected to the outdoor weather conditions in Östersund, Sweden during January and February. The measurement values were found to have a large disparity as expected due to the rapid change in weather conditions. But still a linear regression with low confidence interval was obtained. The thermography results from a small uniform wall segment were validated with HFM measurements and 4% difference was found, which suggest that the two methods could be equally effective. Yet, thermography has the advantage of measuring surface temperature over large area of building element. The overall heat transfer coefficient of a large wall area was found to be 11% higher in comparison to the HFM measurements. This indicates that thermography could provide a more representative result as it captures areas of imperfections, point and linear thermal bridges.

  • 23.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO, Vastra Norrlandsgatan 10 B, Umea, SE 901 03, Sweden.
    The impact of the shape factor on final energy demand in residential buildings in nordic climates2012In: World Renewable Energy Forum, WREF 2012, Including World Renewable Energy Congress XII and Colorado Renewable Energy Society (CRES) Annual Conference, 2012, p. 4260-4264Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape factor of a building is the ratio between its envelope area and its volume. Buildings with a higher shape factor have a larger surface area in proportion to their volume, which results in larger heat losses in cold climates. This study analyzes the impact of the shape factor on the final energy demand by using five existing apartment buildings with different values of shape factor. Each building was simulated for twelve different scenarios: three thermal envelope scenarios and four climate zones. The differences in shape factor between the buildings were found to have a large impact and accounted for 10%-20% of their final energy demand. The impact of the shape factor was reduced with warmer climates and ceased with average outdoor temperature 11ºC-14ºC depending on the thermal envelope performance of the buildings.

  • 24.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå university.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Heated atrium in multi-story buildings: A design for better energy efficiency and social interactions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape factor of a building expresses the ratio between the building’s thermal envelope area and its volume, or alternatively to its useful floor area. Buildings with lower shape factors will have lower heat losses through the thermal envelope and lower specific final energy demand. The shape factor of building could be reduced by a compact building shape design, and by increasing the volume of the building. However, the requirement for indoor natural light put a limit on the size of the building and therefore may limit the value of the shape factor. One possible solution to address this aspect is designing building with a heated atrium.An atrium is a large enclosed space within a building, and may have a glazed roof. In a multi-story apartment building an atrium has the potential to increase the social interaction between the residents and, with the right design, at the same time reduce the heating demand of the building due to lower building shape factor. However, the use of atrium in residential buildings in Nordic countries has not yet gained popularity.In this paper the impact of the heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design on the specific final energy is investigated by comparing such building design to conventional design buildings with similar floor area. The Nydalahuset project, in city Umeå in the north of Sweden, which is a multi-story residential building with a heated atrium, is used as a case study to investigate the affect of the atrium on the social interaction among the building occupants.The results show that heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design is a better energy efficient design than the conventional buildings. Such buildings in cold climate could help to reduce the heat losses through the thermal envelope and facilitate to achieve the passive house criteria. Moreover, the Nydalahuset project suggests that the atrium design could improve the social interaction of occupants in residential buildings.

  • 25.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Sweden .
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO AB (publ), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden.

    The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 26.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svensson, Michelle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Adaption of the passive house concept in northern Sweden: a case study of performance2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the performance of a case study of low energy house built in Östersund (lat.63°N), Sweden. The building is a semi detached house for two families, with each apartment having afloor space of 160 m2 divided on two floors. The building was constructed during 2010 according tothe Swedish passive house principles with design that meet the requirements for Swedish passivehouses as defined by the Forum for energy efficiency buildings (FEBY) and the Swedish center forzero energy houses (SCNH). The house is connected to the district heating network, which is the mainheat source for domestic water heating, floor heating in the bathroom and water based pre‐heatercoil in the ventilation system. Additionally, a wood stove is installed in the living room for thermalcomfort and convenience of the residents. The two identical residential units in the building wereinhabited in the end of 2010 by families with different characteristics; a family with two youngchildren in one unit and a middle aged couple in the other.A one year energy measurement campaign started in May 2012 for both of the residential units. Themeasurements started after a period of adjustments of the building energy system and include spaceand domestic water heating (separate measurements), household electricity, the amount of fuelwood used in the stove, and indoor thermal conditions. The results show that it is possible to buildpassive houses in the Northern regions of Sweden. The specific final energy demand of the casestudy was 23% lower than the Swedish FEBY‐requirements. Differences were found between themonitored and calculated specific final energy demand. These differences depend to a large extanton the occupants’ behavior and household characteristics. The final energy demand for heating anddomestic water heating found to vary significantly between the two households.

  • 27.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krook, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atria: en design för hållbara bostäder i ett nordiskt klimat2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 47-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Krook, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Atrium in residential buildings – a design to enhance social sustainability in urban areas2017In: Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development: Design, sustainability and its impact on social community and cultural/creative development / [ed] Daniel Laven, Wilhelm Skoglund, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 153-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Danielsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Pettersson, Kewin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Bygglovsprocessen i Sverige & Norge: En jämförelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building permit process is a hot and controversial topic at the moment when the housing shortage in Sweden is very high. The building permit process in Sweden has room for improvements, a comparison between Sweden and Norway concerning certain parts of the building permit process have been carried out. Specifically, a comparison between the Municipality of Åre and municipality of Trondheim. The purpose of the report is that through a study comparing Åre and Trondheim municipality and its way of dealing with planning permission to see if there are any opportunities for improvement.

                                                             

    The report bases its results on interviews with planning officers in each municipality, as well as interviews with developers. This is to gain perspective and insight from both parts of the building permit process and generate a wide and specific result.

     

    The result shows concrete differences in legal texts and ways to deal with a building permit application. It turned out that Norway has more points in their process that is prosecuted in the planning and building law (PBL) than the Swedish Planning and Building law (PBL). From the results presented in this report conclusions were drawn. Conclusions as to Swedish building permit system would benefit from prosecuting a maximum processing length which the Norwegian system has. Service guarantees are nothing the Swedish system takes into account. Norway do have service guarantees because the Norwegian system has a law that gives the applicant compensation when the deadline is exceeded.

     

    Both countries have area-based cost of the building permit, where the costs of construction are presented. which emerged in the report, this could change as the area-based system are misleading cost of building permits when no account is taken of complexity of the project.

     

  • 30.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 31.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Building energy-efficiency standards in a life cycle primary energy perspective2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1589-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the life cycle primary energy use of a wood-frame apartment building designed to meet the current Swedish building code, the Swedish building code of 1994 or the passive house standard, and heated with district heat or electric resistance heating. The analysis includes the primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. We find that an electric heated building built to the current building code has greater life cycle primary energy use relative to a district heated building, although the standard for electric heating is more stringent. Also, the primary energy use for an electric heated building constructed to meet the passive house standard is substantially higher than for a district heated building built to the Swedish building code of 1994. The primary energy for material production constitutes 5% of the primary energy for production and space heating and ventilation of an electric heated building built to meet the 1994 code. The share of production energy increases as the energy-efficiency standard of the building improves and when efficient energy supply is used, and reaches 30% for a district heated passive house. This study shows the significance of a life cycle primary energy perspective and the choice of heating system in reducing energy use in the built environment.

  • 32.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 33.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

  • 34.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy implications of end-of-life options for building materials2008In: FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BUILDING ENERGY AND ENIVRONMENT, PROCEEDINGS VOLS 1-3, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 2025-2032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy flows associated with the materials comprising a building can be a significant part of the total energy used in a building's life cycle. Buildings have finite life spans, and the materials from demolished buildings can be either a burden that must be disposed, or a resource that can be used. In this paper we analyse the end-of-life energy impacts of concrete, steel and wood. End-of-life options considered include reuse; recycling; downcycling; energy recovery; and disposal in landfill. We follow the life cycles of the building materials from the acquisition of natural resources through to the end of the product's life cycle. We identify possibilities and constraints for integrating more effective end-of-life material processing options into existing industrial systems.

  • 35.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Impacts of end-use energy efficiency measures on life cycle primary energy use in an existing Swedish multi-story apartment building2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11 , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings2011In: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 38.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy perspective on retrofitting an existing building to passive house standard.2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use of an apartment building designed to the current Swedish building code or passive house standard.2010In: Passivhus Norden. Aalborg, Denmark, October 7- 8, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy implications of ventilation heat recovery in residential buildings2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1566-1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the impact of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) on the operation primary energy use in residential buildings. We calculate the operation primary energy use of a case-study apartment building built to conventional and passive house standard, both with and without VHR, and using different end-use heating systems including electric resistance heating, bedrock heat pump and district heating based on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR increases the electrical energy used for ventilation and reduces the heat energy used for space heating. Significantly greater primary energy savings is achieved when VHR is used in resistance heated buildings than in district heated buildings. For district heated buildings the primary energy savings are small. VHR systems can give substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit depends strongly on the type of heat supply system, and also on the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings. This study shows the importance of considering the interactions between heat supply systems and VHR systems to reduce primary energy use in buildings.

  • 41.
    Easwaranathan, Arvinken
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lönsamma och energieffektiviserande åtgärder för Botrygg AB:s befintliga bodar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 10 million tons of carbon   dioxide equivalents are released every year from construction processes   around Sweden. In the building industry, companies have become more and more   environmentally conscious in recent years. However, there are still a lot of   actions that can be taken to reduce the building industries' environmental   impact. One of them is to lower construction trailers` energy usage that are   used during productions.

     

    This project is being carried out in collaboration   with Botrygg AB, which is a company that works with planning, building and   managing buildings. A number of different realistic alternatives for Botrygg   AB's most used construction trailer WOODCON K0 is studied in the project to   see if it is possible to energy optimize them and make it profitable. These   alternatives include additional insulation of walls and change of front door.  

     

    This report is based on a study of the   chosen construction trailer and calculations of energy usage made with the   computer program VIP-energy. Simple cost analysis are done for all the   alternatives.

     

    The reason why Botrygg AB has not yet   invested any resources to lower existing construction trailers` energy usage   is because they have chosen to prioritize other issues. They also believe it   would be difficult to prove that investing in actions to lower existing   trailers` energy usage really could be profitable. However, the company   prioritizes it`s environmental impact highly and wants to continue working on   the issue to find realistic alternatives that can be applied on their   existing construction trailers.

     

    According to the results, it is clear that   it is possible to lower existing construction trailers energy usage without   violating any availability requirements or entailing any transportation   difficulties and at the same time be profitable. The alternative that would   provide the greatest energy saving would save the company 25 % of their total   energy consumption.

    The   report shows that it's not only about finding the solution that leads to most   energy saving, but to find the right balance between investment cost and   energy saving, so the solution can prove to be economically profitable for   the company.

  • 42.
    Edström, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Två olika yrken - ett gemensamt mål: En studie i relationen mellan arkitekten och konstruktören2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    There are indications that the collaboration between design engineers and architects aren’t good. Previous studies have been done on the subject and one of them looking back how the relationship looked at in the 20's and 60's. This report will look at how the collaboration looks today, is there a lack of cooperation between these two professions? Is there anything during the different educations that would make an increased understanding of the second professional role, made a recent collaboration was better? No people from the educations were interviewed because of the time limit of the report, but will give an overview of the two different educations. For the result has a qualitative research been done, it consisted of four interviews, two each from the professions. In the various interviews, it was revealed that there were no apparent conflict with the second sector, but mostly it was about the personal chemistry with the man whom they worked with. There was, however, vote for it during the education could be done to bridge the two educations and thus get a greater insight into what the second profession was all about. After comparing previous studies in the cooperation between architects and design engineers, sees great similarities to what this report were produced as a result. It is often that they worked with the same people several times and that mutual respect was formed and thus better cooperation has been experienced.

  • 43.
    Eklund, Staffan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Utveckling av hållbara och energieffektiva attefallshus2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are plans on constructing a new sort of house called attefall with high ambitions considering sustainability and energy efficiency for demonstration and testing purposes on campus Östersund, Mid Sweden University. Attefall is a type of house limited to 25 square meters that requires no building permit, as to recent decisions. Wall construction will consist of glulam timber from Glulam. For foundation and roof, a constructions system consisting mainly of foamglas made by Koljern, will be used.

     

    Literature studies within the subjects of sustainable building, energy systems and building regulations have been performed. As have calculations to determine the average heat transfer coefficient and specific energy usage for comparing with current building regulations. A model of the house was made to ensure chosen energy systems would fit within the limits of an attefall-house and still accommodate a home.

     

    This thesis examines the buildings thermal envelope in regards to current construction requirements. Manufacturing above building materials is quite environmentally friendly but the insulation properties of glulam bring difficulties when confronted with building requirements, however, log homes have a heat retaining ability which evens out temperature oscillation and contributes to lower the energy usage.

     

    The thesis also examines which renewable energy sources are suitable for this type of house. Hot water for heating and domestic water is generated with a system consisting of a solar hot water system, solar collectors and storage tank with integrated immersion heater, connected to a woodstove which heat air as well as water. A hybrid solution made up of a wind turbine and eight photovoltaic panels connected to the grid enabling selling excess production and buying when needed.

  • 44.
    Ekman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Lageroptimering av distributionslager: optimering av framtida centrallager hos Alltank AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Amitis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jämförelse av tre metoder vid reparation av betongdammar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this rapport/paper is to summarize and compare three different reparation methods, which can be used in repairing damaged concrete dams, which are one of the most important parts of electricity production in Sweden.

    Most of big dams in Sweden built between1900- 1960 are in a great need of restoration. Time, harsh winter conditions and constant presence of water have caused great damages to these dams.

    There are numerous restoration methods, which can be used in dam reconstruction.  However, choosing the right method plays a crucial role in terms of economy and quality for the power plant companies. Due to negatively impacting global warming, carbon dioxide emissions can also be another concern for power plant companies when selecting a reparation method.

    Sometimes determining and choosing the “right” method is rather difficult when facing different reparation methods.  When deciding which method to choose, comparisons are made in terms of economy, quality, and carbon dioxide emissions causing global warming. The methods compared in this rapport are

    • applying waterjet
    • mechanical chiseling, and
    • Chesterton filler. 

    Accordingly, some boundaries are set and some, but not all, factors are taken into account.  For example, winter expenses and transportation are not included in this rapport.

    The method which has been used in this study is both qualitative and quantitative. In the qualitative method, interviews, literature studies and experience of experts are gathered and used. The quantitative method used for calculation of costs and CO2 (e) emissions to the air.

    The study shows that in a minor spalled concrete damage, the waterjet method and Chesterton filler are appropriate with regards to quality.  Mechanical chiseling is the cheapest method, and the Chesterton filler method releases the least amount of carbon dioxide to the air of all methods.

    Hopefully, the comparison in this rapport can aid those who want to choose a reparation method based on the criterias for the outcome/method.

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Brandteknisk dimensionering av oskyddade träförband: En jämförelse mellan Eurocode 5 och alternativa metoder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Eriksson Nygren, Karl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energianvändande i bostadshus: En studie i byggnaders energibalans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Ewertzh, Jaqueline
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Alicia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Styrdokument för kontorsbyggnation ur ett ekologiskt hållbarhetsperspektiv: Aspekter och argument2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and real estate industry represents a significant part of Sweden's total impact on the environment and mainly affects the following national environmental objectives: reduced climate impact, a good built environment and a non-toxic environment. By establishing internal rules, companies within the industry can reduce their environmental impact. SMT (AB Sandvik Materials Technology), a part of the industrial group Sandvik AB, has set a target that during 2014 develop a guiding document with special consider to the environmental impact during construction of office buildings, that they establish at the Swedish regional capital Sandviken, for both internal and external tenants. This study therefore aims to clarify which environmental aspects that the construction and real estate sector mainly are responsible for, and therefore should be part of a guiding document for a company for establishing office buildings, and to present arguments regarding the use of such a document. The study is based on literature studies and personal contact with other companies, in the form of e-mail conversations and a telephone interview. The results of the study have revealed that companies have guiding documents describing their overall environmental work, but there are currently no documented standardized procedures for establishing buildings from the ecological sustainability perspective. A guiding document should originate from the Brundtland Commission's definition of sustainable development that states: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Sustainable development include three dimensions; ecological, economic and social sustainability, which depend on and influence each other. All together, the study showed that the primary environmental aspects that a guiding document for a company at least should take in consideration, based on the ecological sustainability, are: energy consumption, waste production, greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions. Suggestions for companies regarding the practical work with these environmental aspects are to focus on BREEAM and to use available product databases such as BASTA, SundaHus and Byggvarubedömningen as complementary tools. Arguments for the use of such a document is that an active environmental program can be used for marketing purposes, potentially provides reduced business costs, reach more customers through new business areas and create and maintain an attractive position due to the growing environmental awareness in the community.

  • 49.
    Frånberg, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fyra nyanser av: Arbetsmiljöarbete inom byggbranschen2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nyström, Ingrid
    CIT Industriell Energianalys, Göteborg, Sweden.
    DISTRICT HEATING AS PART OF THE ENERGY SYSTEM: AN ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE ON ‘PASSIVE HOUSES’ AND HEAT REPLACING ELECTRICITY USE2010In: Proceedings of 12th International Symposium onDistrict Heating and Cooling, September 5th –September 7th, 2010, Tallin University of Technology, Tallinn, ESTONIA, 2010, p. 202-205Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use for space heating, hot tap water and otherheat use at comparatively low temperature levelsrepresent a substantial part of the total energy use inSweden and countries with similar climate. It is thus ofimportance to meet this demand in a way generating assmall environmental impact as possible. However, it ispossible to create a system with higher environmentalimpacts with energy efficient buildings compared toless energy efficient buildings through choice of lessgood energy carriers. It is not enough that theindividual parts of a system are good and efficient togive a low environmental impact; the parts must beconnected into the system in a good way.From environmental perspective energy efficientbuildings and district heating don‘t oppose each other– good parts connected in a good system will give anoptimal. The results from the study of the three items ofhousehold equipment show possibilities for districtheating to be an alternative with good environmentalperformance, but not under all heat generationregimes.

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