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  • 1.
    Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Temporal variation in the drift of plant litter and propagules in a small boreal river2002In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 47, no 9, 1674-1684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Rivers are linear ecosystems across landscapes with an effective transport of organisms, sediment and organic matter. Dispersal is studied mostly during single events and for single species, and there is little knowledge on how the drift of plant litter and propagules varies within and between years for entire communities. 2. We used floating traps for collecting waterborne plant litter and propagules in a small boreal river over 2 years. We installed the traps at four different locations along the river, and emptied them at least once a week during the ice-free season. We analysed propagule content by sorting and identifying species and through germination tests on bare soil. 3. In total, we recorded at least 54 taxa in the samples, and the highest density recorded in one sample was 5000 propagules per 100 g litter (dry weight). Large temporal variations in litter and propagule transport were revealed, both within and between years. 4. The longitudinal pattern was consistent between years, with an increasing mass of litter and number of propagule taxa downstream. The results highlight the importance of the temporal and longitudinal dimensions in river management.

  • 2. Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, M. E.
    Effects of river fragmentation on plant dispersal and riparian flora2000In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 16, no 1, 83-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the effects of river fragmentation by dams on hydrochory (i.e. plant dispersal by water) and on plant distribution by comparing two adjacent rivers in northern Sweden, one free-flowing and the other regulated. We collected stranded drift material from both rivers in order to quantify the drift material and its species content. We also estimated the floristic continuity along the two rivers by comparing the drift flora with the riparian flora further upstream. The drift amount deposited on the riverbank, its species richness and its contribution to the species pool were higher in the free-flowing than in the regulated river. The floristic continuity was also higher in the free-flowing than in the regulated river.

  • 3.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Fac Forest Sci, S-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Protecting Forest Areas for Biodiversity in Sweden 1991-2010: the Policy Implementation Process and Outcomes on the Ground2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, Vol. 45, no 5, 1111-1133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest and environmental policies imply that forests should be managed so that all naturally occurring species are maintained in viable populations. This requires maintenance of functional networks of representative natural forest and cultural woodland habitats. We first review the policy implementation process regarding protected areas in Sweden 1991-2010, how ecological knowledge was used to formulate interim short-term and strategic long-term biodiversity conservation goals, and the development of a hierarchical spatial planning approach. Second, we present data about the amount of formally protected and voluntarily set aside forest stands, and evaluate how much remains in terms of additional forest protection, conservation management and habitat restoration to achieve forest and environmental policy objectives in the long-term. Third, a case study in central Sweden was made to estimate the functionality of old Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous forest habitats, as well as cultural woodland, in different forest regions. Finally, we assess operational biodiversity conservation planning processes. We conclude that Swedish policy pronouncements capture the contemporary knowledge about biodiversity and conservation planning well. However, the existing area of protected and set-aside forests is presently too small and with too poor connectivity. To bridge this gap, spatial planning, management and restoration of habitat, as well as collaboration among forestand conservation planners need to be improved.

  • 4.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Törnblom, Johan
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Uppföljning av 1997 års bristanalys för bevarande av biologisk mångfald olika skogsmiljöer i Sveriges naturregioner: Vad har hänt på tio år?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hur mycket är nog för att bevara arterna?2010In: Fakta Skog, ISSN 1400-7789, no 12, 1-4 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 7. Aune, Karin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Moen, Jon
    Isolation and edge effects among woodland key habitats in Sweden: making fragmentation into forest policy?2005In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 124, no 1, 89-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of natural forests is a major threat to forest biodiversity. In areas with a long history of forestry, the remaining patches of old forests constitute only a minor part of the landscape. In such situations small stands may be valuable and important for conservation. However, as they may suffer from strong edge effects and isolation, their value may be lower than anticipated. In Sweden a national inventory of woodland key habitats (WKHs) has identified about 1% of the forest landscape as sites where red-listed species occur or may occur. Most are small (national median 1.4 ha) and isolated stands within an intensively managed landscape. The present analyses calculate WKH core area based on a range of depths of edge influence, and isolation based on both distance to nearest WKH and a weighted isolation measure that includes all neighboring WKHs and protected forest. These analyses are done on the WKHs in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden and include almost 5000 stands. The actual core area in the WKHs is about 30% given a 50 m edge influence. The degree of isolation is species dependent but the results indicate that only species with high dispersal abilities may effectively utilize the network of WKHs. For species with effective dispersal distances of less than 2 km the network is probably insufficient. The results emphasize the need to create buffer zones, to increase reserve areas and to manage the matrix so that species dispersal is promoted. This likely includes a necessity to aggregate biodiversity efforts on the landscape scale.

  • 8. Barsoum, N
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lakes as potential barriers to gene flow in the hydrochorus plant species Angelica archangelica L. subsp. archangelicaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Assessing the extinction vulnerability of wood-inhabiting fungal species in fragmented northern Swedish boreal forests2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 141, no 12, 3029-3039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of old-growth forests and greatly reduced amounts of coarse dead wood in managed forests threat the persistence of many saproxylic species in boreal Fennoscandia. Individual old-growth forest remnants may lose species over time as they pay off their extinction debt. We tested this by comparing the observed site occupancy of individual wood-inhabiting fungal species in isolated old-growth stands (i.e. woodland key habitats; WKHs) with statistical predictions of their occupancy assuming potential extinction debt had already been paid off. The occupancy of species was analysed in two sets of WKHs differing in time since isolation (i.e. recent and old isolates).

    Few species occurred more frequently than expected in WKHs. However, patterns across species and across all WKHs masked important differences among species in their risk of facing future extinction. The site occupancy decreased significantly between recent and old isolates for a group of annual, red-listed specialist fungal species, suggesting that an extinction debt in WKHs may exist among specific species confined to coarse dead wood and old-growth forest habitat. Generalist species that also occur in the surrounding matrix showed no negative trends, or actually increased in site occupancy, making future extinctions less likely. Thus, continuing loss of threatened species are likely if not preservation of WKHs are combined with other conservation efforts in managed forest landscapes. Natural forest landscapes may serve as important references when aiming to identify species in risk of future extinction but more detailed knowledge about the biology of the most vulnerable species is also required.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden .
    Predictability of plant and fungal species richness of old-growth boreal forest islands2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 6, 857-866 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fragmentation and deterioration of old-growth forest habitat by modern forestry have become a major threat to species diversity in Fennoscandia. In order to develop a conservation strategy for the remaining diversity it is essential to identify the existing diversity and to develop appropriate conservation and monitoring programs. For these purposes indicators of conservation value for administrative prioritization are required. This study examines the predictability of plant and fungal species richness on two spatial scales on 46 isolated old-growth forest islands (0.17-12 ha) in a forest-wetland mosaic. We explore (1) to what extent area, isolation and stand structure variables can explain the variation in species richness and (2) if richness patterns of individual species groups correlate. Isolation showed no relation to species richness. Area explained 50-70% of the variation in total species richness and was positively related to the density of crustose lichens and Red-list species in island interiors. Stand structure variables explained 28-66% of the residual variation in total species richness after controlling for island size, and 15-73% of the variation in density of species in island interiors. The highest predictability of species richness was found among substrate-specific fungi and Red-list species. Different stand structure variables were found to explain richness in the different species groups, and only among a few species groups species richness correlated. Thus, species richness of one single species group is unlikely to be a good indicator for total biodiversity. The results show that measurements of stand size and stand structure variables may be a strong complementary tool. and sometimes a substitute to extensive species inventories when one aims to estimate and monitor plant and fungal species diversity in old-growth Picea abies forests.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU Uppsala.
    O'Hara, Robert
    Dept of Mathematics and Statistics, Helsinki University.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Quantifying habitat requirements of tree-living species in fragmented boreal forests with Bayesian methods2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, no 5, 1127-1137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative conservation objectives require detailed consideration of the habitat requirements of target species. Tree-living bryophytes, lichens, and fungi are a critical and declining biodiversity component of boreal forests. To understand their requirements, Bayesian methods were used to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of individual species and habitat factors at the tree and the stand scale in a naturally fragmented boreal forest landscape. The importance of unexplained between-stand variation in occurrence of species was estimated, and the ability of derived models to predict species' occurrence was tested. The occurrence of species was affected by quality of individual trees. Furthermore, the relationships between occurrence of species at the tree level and size and shape of stands indicated edge effects, implying that some species were restricted to interior habitats of large, regular stands. Yet for the habitat factors studied, requirements of many species appeared similar. Species occurrence also varied between stands; most of the seemingly suitable trees in some stands were unoccupied. The models captured most variation in species occurrence at tree level. They also successfully accounted for between-stand variation in species occurrence, thus providing realistic simulations of stand-level occupancy of species. Important unexplained between-stand variation in species occurrence warns against a simplified view that only local habitat factors influence species' occurrence. Apparently, similar stands will host populations of different sizes due to historical, spatial, and stochastic factors. Thus, habitat suitability cannot be assessed simply by population sizes, and stands lacking a species may still provide suitable habitat and merit protection.

     

  • 12.
    Bernes, C.
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, K.
    Metsähallitus Parks and Wildlife Finland, C/o UEF, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, Finland .
    Lõhmus, A.
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, Estonia .
    Macdonald, E.
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada .
    Müller, J.
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Freyunger Str. 2, Grafenau, Germany .
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic map2015In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, no 1, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The biodiversity of forests set aside from forestry is often considered best preserved by non-intervention. In many protected forests, however, remaining biodiversity values are legacies of past disturbances, e.g. recurring fires, grazing or small-scale felling. These forests may need active management to keep the characteristics that were the reason for setting them aside. Such management can be particularly relevant where lost ecological values need to be restored. In this review, we identified studies on a variety of interventions that could be useful for conserving or restoring any aspect of forest biodiversity in boreal and temperate regions. Since the review is based on Swedish initiatives, we have focused on forest types that are represented in Sweden, but such forests exist in many parts of the world. The wide scope of the review means that the set of studies is quite heterogeneous. As a first step towards a more complete synthesis, therefore, we have compiled a systematic map. Such a map gives an overview of the evidence base by providing a database with descriptions of relevant studies, but it does not synthesise reported results. Methods: Searches for literature were made using online publication databases, search engines, specialist websites and literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Finnish, French, German, Russian and Swedish. We searched not only for studies of interventions in actual forest set-asides, but also for appropriate evidence from commercially managed forests, since some practices applied there may be useful for conservation or restoration purposes too. Identified articles were screened for relevance using criteria set out in an a priori protocol. Descriptions of included studies are available in an Excel file, and also in an interactive GIS application that can be accessed at an external website. Results: Our searches identified nearly 17,000 articles. The 798 articles that remained after screening for relevance described 812 individual studies. Almost two-thirds of the included studies were conducted in North America, whereas most of the rest were performed in Europe. Of the European studies, 58 % were conducted in Finland or Sweden. The interventions most commonly studied were partial harvesting, prescribed burning, thinning, and grazing or exclusion from grazing. The outcomes most frequently reported were effects of interventions on trees, other vascular plants, dead wood, vertical stand structure and birds. Outcome metrics included e.g. abundance, richness of species (or genera), diversity indices, and community composition based on ordinations. Conclusions: This systematic map identifies a wealth of evidence on the impact of active management practices that could be utilised to conserve or restore biodiversity in forest set-asides. As such it should be of value to e.g. conservation managers, researchers and policymakers. Moreover, since the map also highlights important knowledge gaps, it could inspire new primary research on topics that have so far not been well covered. Finally, it provides a foundation for systematic reviews on specific subtopics. Based on our map of the evidence, we identified four subtopics that are sufficiently covered by existing studies to allow full systematic reviewing, potentially including meta-analysis. © 2015 Bernes et al.

  • 13.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland.
    Asko, Lõhmus
    Tartu University, Estonia.
    McDonald, Ellen
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic review protocol2014In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 3, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The traditional approach to limiting impacts of forestry on biodiversity is to set aside forest areas of particular conservation interest, either as formally protected reserves or on a voluntary basis. Many set-asides are left more or less untouched, but some of them have a history of disturbances such as wildfires, forest grazing, coppicing or small-scale felling. Such areas may gradually lose the qualities that were to be safeguarded unless the disturbances are re-introduced (e.g. by burning) or replaced with alternatives (e.g. gap-felling). Active management of forest set-asides may be particularly relevant in areas where the biota has been impoverished by intensive and large-scale harvesting. Here, biodiversity may not be able to recover adequately without restoration measures such as gap-felling or creation of dead wood.

    In recent years, interest in active management of forest set-asides has increased, but opinions differ among conservationists on how such management should be balanced against non-intervention. The topic of the proposed systematic review has therefore met approval among stakeholders in Sweden, where it is currently an issue of high concern.

    Methods

    The review will examine primary field studies of how various forms of active management have affected biodiversity in boreal or temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration. The primary focus will be on forest types represented in Sweden. In some cases, useful insights about management options may also be provided by studies of interventions in commercially managed forests. Non-intervention or alternative forms of active management will be used as comparators. Relevant outcomes include assemblage diversity (species richness, diversity indices), abundance of different functional or taxonomic groups of organisms, population viability of target species, and indicators of forest biodiversity such as forest structure and amounts of dead wood.

    The relevant scientific literature may turn out to be very heterogeneous, however. Numerous combinations of management forms and biodiversity outcomes can be conceived, and it remains to be seen whether any such combination is covered by sufficiently many studies to allow a meaningful meta-analysis. Nonetheless, it should be feasible to achieve a useful narrative synthesis of the available evidence.

  • 14.
    Brumelis, Guntis
    et al.
    Univ Latvia, Fac Biol, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kouki, Jari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Joensuu, Finland.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Shorohova, Ekaterina
    St Petersburg State Forest Acad, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Forest Naturalness in Northern Europe: Perspectives on Processes, Structures and Species Diversity2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, Vol. 45, no 5, 807-821 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saving the remaining natural forests in northern Europe has been one of the main goals to halt the ongoing decline of forest biodiversity. To facilitate the recognition, mapping and efficient conservation of natural forests, there is an urgent need for a general formulation, based on ecological patterns and processes, of the concept of "forest naturalness". However, complexity, structural idiosyncracy and dynamical features of unmanaged forest ecosystems at various spatio-temporal scales pose major challenges for such a formulation. The definitions hitherto used for the concept of forestnaturalness can be fruitfully grouped into three dimensions: 1) structure-based concepts of natural forest, 2) species-based concepts of natural forest and 3) process-based concepts of natural forest. We propose that explicit and simultaneous consideration of all these three dimensions of naturalness can better cope with the natural variability of forest states and also aid in developing strategies for forest conservation and management in different situations. To become operational, criteria and indicators of forest naturalness need to integrate the three dimensions by combining species (e.g. red-listed-, indicator- and umbrella species) with stand and landscape level structural features that are indicative of disturbance and succession processes.

  • 15.
    Bång, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Genetic variation and gene flow in riparian populations of Filipendula ulmaria2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Control of plant species diversity in riparian corridors: Konferens OIKOS 20022002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    previous study has shown that plant communities differ floristically between impoundments but remain similar within impoundments in a regulated river. The same pattern did not occur among plant species in a free-flowing river which instead showed a continuous change in species composition from the headwaters to the coast. This strongly suggests that the dispersal of plants is obstructed when dams are built on rivers. The present project will specifically study whether dams also affect the genetic diversity among and between populations of plant species. Filipendula ulmaria will be used as a first test species. A second question is whether tributaries have any impact on the distribution of genetic diversity of plant species within impoundments. A third question deals with the impact of seed and pollen dispersal on the genetic diversity among and between plant species populations. The project combines field sampling, field experiments and laboratory methods such as isoenzymes, microsatellites and other DNA-methods.

  • 17.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of pollination distance on reproductive success in Filipendula ulmariaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Equal seed set and germination rate over distance and indication of self incompatibility in artificial crosses of Filipendula ulmariaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jägbrant, Veronica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Spatial genetic structure of a common riparian plant species, Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in northern SwedenManuscript (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jägbrant, Veronica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Differences in spatial genetic structure of riparian Filipendula ulmaria between an within river catchments in northern SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The potential role of tributaries as seed sources to an impoundment in northern Sweden: a field experiment with seed mimics2007In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 23, no 10, 1049-1057 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation and flow regulation of rivers by large dams are known to obstruct the longitudinal dispersal of waterborne plant propagules between impoundments, and to affect plant community composition. However, even several decades after a dam has been built, impoundments may still have a relatively species-rich riparian flora. We hypothesized that free-flowing tributaries act as the major gene pools for such impoundments, thus alleviating the fragmenting effect large dams have on the main channel. The importance of tributaries as seed sources was tested by releasing wooden seed mimics in three different-sized (0.22-6.93 m3 s-1) tributaries of an impoundment in the Ume River in northern Sweden. In each tributary seed mimics were released, during the spring flood peak, from three points approximately 1, 2 and 3 km upstream the outlet in the impoundment. The importance of a tributary as a seed source increased with tributary size. Of the 9000 released seed mimics 1.5 % reached the impoundment; 1.2 % of the 9000 originated from the largest tributary and 0.3 % from the middle-sized one. The smallest tributary retained all its mimics.

  • 22.
    Bång, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the role of tributaries as seed sources for a run-of-river impoundment: a field experiment: Konferens SISORL 20042004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reservoirs in impounded rivers are blocked by dams, implying that plant seeds, especially waterborne ones, have trouble dispersing between reservoirs. We examined whether the tributaries have an important role in the dispersal of seeds to a specific reservoir. We did this by releasing small, coloured wooden cubes in three tributaries of the Stensele reservoir in northern Sweden, one small, one middle-sized and one large-sized. This work was carried out in spring during major flood. At the day of cube release, we counted the number of cubes that dispersed from the tributaries out into the reservoir. In summer, we collected the cubes that had stranded on the banks of the tributaries to learn how far they had spread within each stream. Our examinations showed that a big stream disperses most seeds the longest distance. The smaller the stream, the shorter the distance the seeds were spread, and the fewer the seeds that reached the reservoir. We concluded that large tributaries have an important role in dispersing plants to reservoirs of impounded rivers.

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi2014In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, Vol. 11, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some boreal wood fungi that are associated with forest fire or open dry habitats have an increased resistance to heat in comparison to species associated with a less specific distribution or species found in mesic forests. We hypothesize that extreme temperature-stress experienced during fires will favor species adapted to heat and, ultimately, the composition of species inhabiting logs in such habitats will change. Competitiveness after temperature stress was examined in three fire-associated species – Dichomitus squalens, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Phlebiopsis gigantea – and three non fire-associated species – Ischnoderma benzoinum, Phellinus pini and Fomitopsis pinicola. There was a difference between the fire-associated species and the non fire-associated species with respect to competitive strength after heat stress. All fire-associated species had an advantage after heat treatment, colonizing a larger volume of wood than any non-fire-associated competitor. Our findings suggest that increased heat tolerance of mycelia can exert a competitive balance shift after forest fire. It shows that a system governed by forest fire will be dominance controlled under certain conditions. Furthermore, from a management perspective, during a prescribed burning, certain species already present in the ecosystem will be favored if the fire is not allowed to totally consume the substrates.

  • 24. Dahlberg, Anders
    et al.
    Hysing, Erik
    Olsson, Jan
    Kruys, Nicholas
    Silfvering, Göran
    Niemälä, Jari
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vedlevande arters ekologi: kunskaper för skötsel av död ved2005In: Död ved i levande skogar: hur mycket behövs och hur kan målet nås?, Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket , 2005, 110- p.Chapter in book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Betydelsen av död ved i skogen för biologisk mångfald är väl dokumenterad. Sveriges riksdag har fastställt 15 miljömål och varje mål är uppdelat i flera delmål. I ett av dessa mål, Levande skogar, konstateras att kvantiteten av hård död ved måste öka med åtminstone 40 procent i hela landet och betydligt mer i områden, där biologisk mångfald är speciellt hotad. Men än så länge finns inget detaljerat långsiktigt mål. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka: 1. Vilken kvalitet och kvantitet av död ved behövs i skogen för att bevara mångfalden? 2. Var i landskapet är det viktigast att öka mängden död ved? 3. Hur når vi målet? Arbetet har baserats på litteraturöversikter och frågeformulär till markägare, avverkningsentreprenörer och tjänstemän inom skogsnäringen. Olika scenarier baserade på litteraturgranskningen framställdes via datorsimulationer, där mängden och spridningen av död ved varierade med en beräknad ökningstakt. Utifrån dessa studier kan vi dra följande slutsatser: 1. Somliga arter är specialiserade och kräver ett rikligt utbud av död ved (50 m3/ha eller mer). Dessa arter kan endast bevaras i skyddade områden. 2. Brukade skogar utanför skyddade områden med 20 m3 död ved/ha tycks vara högkvalitativa habitat för många arter. 3. I områden dominerade av skog bör sådana habitat täcka mellan 10 och 30 procent av landskapet. 4. Dessa områden bör lokaliseras i anslutning till skyddade områden och områden med sällsynta arter. 5. Om den här strategin antas, kommer medelvärdet för hela Sverige vara 10 m3 död ved/ha. 6. För att kunna nå det målet 2030 måste mängden död ved öka med 40 procent varje årtionde (vilket innebär en exponentiell ökning). 7. Men ännu viktigare än att nå ett visst medelvärde för hela Sverige är, att så snabbt som möjligt öka förekomsten av död ved i anslutning till områden med hotade arter. 8. Det gäller att så snabbt som möjligt identifiera dessa hotade områden/ biotoper och för det ändamålet behöver regionala bristanalyser tas fram. 9. Men död ved behövs även utanför speciellt rika områden, som en resurs för kommande generationer samt som spridningskorridor mellan olika “hot-spots”. Där kan mängden död ved vara mindre och ökningsgraden lägre. 10. Förutom ökningen av död ved är det viktigt med en större variation av olika kvaliteter samt en kontinuerlig tillförsel. 11. Att öka mängden död ved snabbt i hotade områden (hot-spots) enbart med hjälp av frivilliga åtgärder, kommer troligen att bli svårt. Därför kan olika nya slags politiska åtgärder vara nödvändiga (såsom ekonomisk kompensation). 12. För att definiera målet mer i detalj, behövs mer kunskap om den kritiska tröskeln, spridningsmöjligheter, habitat och substratanspråk samt populationsbiologi för några arter.

  • 25.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Function and dynamics of woody debris in boreal forest streams2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work in this thesis deals with (1) the effects of woody debris on stream channel morphology and retention of organic material, and (2) the dynamics of woody debris and its relation to riparian forest history and composition. The studied stream reaches are situated in mature, productive forests in the boreal zone of Sweden. Wood variables were important predictors of the frequency of debris dams, pool area, the proportion of pools formed by wood, and variation in the bankfull channel width. Pools formed by woody debris were mainly created by damming and had larger surface areas and residual depths than pools formed by other agents. Stream reaches intersecting old-growth forest (with minor influence of forest management) had coarser and longer woody debris pieces, greater amounts of wood, more debris dams, and wood-formed pools compared to streams surrounded by forests influenced by selective logging. The influence of past forest management on the quality and quantity of woody debris in streams were analyzed by using dendrochrnological methods. Selective loggings and absence of forest fires after 1831 resulted in lower input rates and a gradual replacement of pine by sruce over time. Residence times in stream channels of woody debris (>10 cm in basal diameter) were long and the oldest dated pieces of pine and spruce were over 300 and 100 years, respectively. Dynamics of woody debris were explored by comparing wood volumes and characteristics between stream channels and their riparianforests and between old growth and managed sites. Wood volumes recorded in the stream channels exceeded, but were related to, the volumes found in the riparian forests. Limited input of woody debris by bank cutting and absence of slope processes suggest that recruitment processes of woody debri to stream channels are similar as in riparian forests and slow decay in channels results in greater volumes. The retentiveness of organic material in stream channels was examined by using release and capture experiments in multiple reaces during varying discharges using different sizes of leaf mimics. Sixty eight percent of the variation in retention was explained by a multiple regression model including discharge and leaf mimic siz. Between 44 and 80% of the variation in retention among reaches was explained by channel constraint, gravel coverage, and woody debris variables as the most important. Estimates from a partial least squares (PLS) model suggest an increase in mean transport distances by 22 to 53% in managed forest streams compared to old growth conditions and in a low wood scenario, mean transport distances increased by 38 to 99% with larger increases for higher discharges and larger particle sizes. To regain more pristine conditions of stream channels, management and restoration are needed to increase the amount of woody debris that recreates lost channel structures and increaes the retention of organic material.

  • 26.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of Woody Debris on Channel Structure in Old Growth and Managed Forest Streams in Central Sweden2004In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 33, no 3, 376-384 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anecdotal information suggests that woody debris have had an important channel-forming role in Swedish streams and rivers, but there are few data to support this view. We identified 10 streams within near-natural and 10 streams within managed forest landscapes in central Sweden, and quantified their channel characteristics and content of woody debris. All pieces of woody debris greater than 0.5 m in length and greater than 0.05 m in base diameter were included. The near-natural forests were situated in reserves protected from forest cutting, whereas the managed forests had previously faced intensive logging in the area adjacent to the stream, The two sets of streams did not differ in general abiotic characteristics such as width, slope, or boulder cover, but the number of wood pieces was twice as high and the wood volume almost four times as high in the near-natural streams. This difference resulted in a higher frequency of debris dams in the near-natural streams. Although the total pool area did not differ between the two sets of streams, the wood-formed pools were larger and deeper, and potentially ecologically more important than other pools. In contrast to what has been believed so far, woody debris can be a channel-forming agent also in steeper streams with boulder beds. In a step-wise multiple regression analysis, pool area was positively and most strongly related to the quantity of woody debris, whereas channel gradient and wood volume were negatively related. The frequency of debris dams increased with the number of pieces of woody debris, but was not affected by other variables. The management implications of this study are that the wood quantity in streams in managed forests would need to be increased if management of streams will target more pristine conditions.

  • 27.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    The dynamics of coarse woody debris in boreal Swedish forests are similar between stream channels and adjacent riparian forests2006In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 36, no 5, 1139-1148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although numerous studies have focused on the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD) in boreal Fennoscandian forests, information on CWD in streams remains limited. To achieve a better understanding of CWD dynamics in streams we compared amounts and characteristics of CWD between streams and adjacent riparian forests in old-growth and managed forest sites, respectively. We also identified distances to the sources of CWD and evaluated these in relation to the lateral zonation of riparian trees. CWD volumes found in the stream channels were related to, but exceeded, the volumes found in the adjacent forest. In-channel volumes separated by species were better correlated with terrestrial volumes of CWD than with volumes of living trees. Tree species appeared to be zoned across the riparian zone, with slightly higher abundances of deciduous trees and lower abundances of Scots pine trees close to the stream. Similar to upland forests, riparian forests were dominated by coniferous tree species, mainly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). These findings suggest large similarities in CWD input between streams and riparian forests and substantially slower decomposition rates in stream channels compared with those in riparian forest. The results provide an improved basis for creating reliable models of CWD supply and maintenance in streams based on knowledge of forest development and CWD dynamics in the terrestrial environment. Site productivity could potentially be used to predict CWD volumes in stream channels under pristine conditions.

  • 28. de Jong, Johnny
    et al.
    Dahlberg, A
    Almstedt, M
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hysing, E
    Silverling, G
    Mer död ved i skogen: en förutsättning för tusentals arters överlevnad2004In: Fauna och flora, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 99, no 2, 36-41 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Dellasala, D.A.
    et al.
    Geos Institute, 84-4th St., Ashland, OR 97420, United States.
    Fitzgerald, J
    1017 O St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20001, United States.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    McNeely, J
    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 28 Rue Mauverney, 1196 Gland, Switzerland.
    Dovie, B
    School of Animal Plant and Environmental Sciences, Wits University, Wits 2050, South Africa.
    Dieterich, M
    Institute for Landscape and Vegetation Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Majluf, P
    Center for Environmental Sustainability, Cayetano Heredia University, Armendáriz 445, Lima 18, Peru.
    Nemtzov, S
    Israel Nature and Parks Authority, 3 Am Ve'Olamo Street, Jerusalem 95463, Israel.
    Nevin, O
    National School of Forestry, University of Cumbria, Penrith, CA11 0AH, United Kingdom.
    Parsons, E
    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States.
    Watson, J
    University of Queensland, Ecology Centre, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Priority Actions for Sustainable Forest Management in the International Year of Forests2012In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 26, no 3, 572-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Dynesius, Mats
    et al.
    Jansson, Roland
    Johansson, Mats E
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Intercontinental similarities in riparian-plant diversity and sensitivity to river regulation.2004In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 14, no 1, 173-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked whether assemblages of species with separate evolutionary histories differed in their response to similar human interventions. We assessed this by comparing the response of riparian plant communities to river regulation on two different continents. We compared free-flowing and regulated rivers between boreal parts of North America (Alberta and British Columbia) and Europe (Sweden), using a standardized Sampling protocol and the same field staff on both continents. Although the two regions shared few species, both riparian plant-species diversity along free-flowing rivers and the response to different kinds of flow regulation were similar between the continents. The number of riparian-plant species and their amount of cover differed among types of water-level regime, but the continental affiliation of a river-margin site did not statistically explain any of the variation. Within continents, the local flora of the regulated river-margin sites was largely similar in species composition to the free-flowing ones, but the sites along storage reservoirs were more species-poor. The similarity in the response to regulation between the continents suggests that general guidelines for rehabilitation of degraded boreal rivers are. a realistic goal.The number of species and genera, plant cover, and species numbers in most trait groups (classified according to growth form and life span) were similar between free-flowing river margins in Europe and North America. Moreover, the regional native species pools of northern Sweden and Alberta were similar in size and composition of species groups, despite the fact that only 27% of the species in Alberta were found in northern Sweden. This is presumably because the floras share a common Tertiary origin and because the regions have had largely similar late-Tertiary and Quaternary histories. The most pronounced difference between the continents was that we found no exotic species on the 183 Swedish river margin sites, whereas 9% of the species found in all 24 North American plots taken together were exotics. All North American exotics found have occurred in Europe since prehistoric times, and the difference in exotic richness most likely reflects a difference in the number of species humans have transferred from one continent to another, rather than a difference in invasibility between the regions.

  • 31.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood2016In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 92, no 6, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests.

  • 32.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Université de Moncton, Canada.
    The importance of large-tree retention for the persistence of old-growth epiphytic bryophyte Neckera pennata in selection harvest systems2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 372, 143-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial harvesting methods are generally more similar to the natural dynamics of broad-leaved forests than clear cutting. However, their effects on biodiversity are still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of selection cutting on the occurrence of a large epiphytic bryophyte, Neckera pennata, in a northern hardwood forest of New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight forest stands were selected, repre- senting two contrasting forest management practices: 5–9 years old, first-entry selection cuts and untreated stands that had been subjected to low-intensity single-tree cutting at least 35 years earlier. Within each stand, we quantified the presence–absence of N. pennata on 36 trees and measured selected forest stand variables. Although N. pennata had persisted in post-harvest stands, its frequency of occur- rence on maple trees was only 7% there, compared to 39% in untreated stands. The density of large- diameter sugar maple trees and crown cover were the most important factors predicting the frequency of N. pennata at the stand level. Tree diameter was also a strong predictor of N. pennata’s presence at the tree level and the occupancy of large-diameter maples was almost twice as high in untreated stands as in selection cuts. However, the occupancy of large-diameter maples relative to smaller maple trees was much higher in selection cuts, possibly due to dispersal limitations resulting from reduced connectivity of large-diameter host trees. Taken together, our findings suggest that (1) large trees from older seral stages are a prerequisite for the long-term persistence of N. pennata in managed forests and that (2) they are therefore particularly important for managers to retain in selection cuts. Further, since our results indi- cate that reduced crown cover in selection cuts has a negative effect on N. pennata, the benefit of retaining large host trees would probably increase if buffered within retention patches of maturing trees. Finally, since host tree diameter clearly is a very important factor for the presence of N. pennata, any extension of the harvest rotation would be beneficial.

  • 33.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Mårten
    Dept of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Wood-disc traps provide a robust method for studying spore dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes2003In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, Vol. 95, no 3, 553-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-disk traps provide a robust method for studying spore dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes -- Edman and Gustafsson 95 (3): 553 -- Mycologia <!-- function startTarget(windowname,wid,hei) { var dotpos = windowname.indexOf("."); if (dotpos > -1) { var tempwn = windowname.substring(0,dotpos) + windowname.substring(dotpos + 1, windowname.length); windowname = tempwn; } var sizestring = 'width=' + wid + ',height=' + hei; window.open('',windowname,'scrollbars,resizable,' + sizestring + '\''); } // -->

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    Spore traps consisting of disks containing monokaryotic mycelia as bait were tested to find a robust, long-time sampling method for studying dispersal of wood-decaying basidiomycetes. In total, 288 disks, 48 for each of six fungal species, were exposed 2 wk at 12 sites in northern Sweden. Both common and rare fungi were used, and the longest distance to a potential dispersal source exceeded 3 km. After 3–16 wk of incubation in the laboratory, the disks were investigated for spore hits. These were detectable both microscopically, by the presence of hyphal clamps, and macroscopically, by mycelial incompatibility zones. Spore traps resisted rain and freezing temperatures well, and spore hits from all species were found at all 12 sites. We argue that lengthy sampling makes it possible to detect low rates of spore deposition, aiding in the study of long-distance dispersal and dispersal of rare species. In addition, because several spore hits can be recognized in the same trap, spore deposition of wood-decaying fungi can be characterized with quantitative data.

  • 34.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-living fungi in an old-growth spruce forest2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 5, 609-620 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since many wood-living forest species are influenced by the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD), information about the spatial pattern of CWD under natural conditions is essential to understand species distributions. In this study we examined the spatial pattern of downed logs and wood-decaying fungi in an old-growth boreal Picea abies forest in northwestern Sweden that is governed by gap-phase dynamics. The spatial pattern of wood-decaying fungi was studied to draw conclusions about species dispersal abilities. A total of 684 logs with a diameter 10 cm were mapped and analysed with Ripley's K-function. The distribution of all logs taken together displayed a significant aggregated pattern up to 45 m. The different decay stages also deviated from random expectations. Fairly fresh logs and logs in the middle decay stage were clumped up to about 25 and 35 m respectively, and late decayed logs aggregated up to 95 m. Logs with diameters from 10-29 cm were aggregated up to 25 m, whereas logs ≥30 cm diameter were randomly distributed. The result suggests that gap-dynamics do have an impact on the spatial pattern of the CWD, creating fine-scale clumping. The random distribution of large logs may result from the slightly regular spacing of large living trees. The spatial patterns of 16 species (n 20) of wood-decaying fungi were analysed with Ripley's K-function. Three patterns were aggregated, for Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Coniophora olivacea and Vesiculomyces citrinus. These results indicate that the distribution of most species at the stand level is generally not influenced by dispersal limitations.

  • 35.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fungi and wind strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth spruce forest2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 2, 482-490 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a key habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. To ensure the long-term survival of such species, forest management regimes must include measures that promote dead wood dynamics similar to those of natural forests. Thus, information on CWD dynamics under natural conditions is required, including data pertaining to the underlying agents of disturbance. This study examines modes of mortality, decay rates, and temporal patterns in the availability of Picea abies logs in a Swedish old-growth forest affected by internal, small-scale disturbance. All 684 logs in a 6.6-ha plot were mapped and classified into one of six decay classes. Logs in the early stages of decay were examined for the presence of heart-rot fungi. Six years later all logs were re-inventoried, including newly formed logs. Matrix models based on the transition rates between decay classes showed that it took about 60 years for 90% of the logs to decay beyond class 6 (a deformed trunk with soft wood). Large logs (≥26 cm) decayed 40% more slowly than small logs (≤25 cm). The initial volume of logs was 37.6 m3/ha but increased to 44.8 m 3/ha after six years. In addition, there was a large shift in the decay-class distribution. The volume of logs in early and late decay classes increased by 71% and 45%, respectively, while the volume of logs in the intermediate decay classes decreased by 32%. The fluctuations appear to result from pulses in mortality, driven by a combination of strong winds and the heart-rot fungus, Phellinus chrysoloma, which was present in more than 30% of all logs at an early stage of decay. These results show that large temporal fluctuations in dead wood also occur in the absence of large-scale disturbance, and that heart-rot fungi are important factors driving the overall dynamics of dead wood. Since many wood-inhabiting species are naturally rare and have very specific substrate demands, such temporal variability in dead wood availability may have effects on biodiversity and should be taken into account when designing small, protected forest areas.

  • 36. Fleischmann, E
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sjögren-Gulve, Per
    Focal species modeling for biodiversity conservation2000In: The use of population viability analyses in conservation planning, Copenhagen: Munksgaard , 2000, 85-99 p.Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 37.
    Fransson, Petra
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Norström, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Umeå Univ, Dept Chem, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bent, Elizabeth
    Univ Guelph, Sch Environm Sci, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Ectomycorrhizal exudates and pre-exposure to elevated CO2 affects soil bacterial growth and community structure2016In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 20, 211-224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi produce low molecular weight organic compounds, supporting diverse microbial communities. To link mycorrhizal root exudation directly to bacterial responses, we used Scots pine exudates with (Suillus variegatus and Piloderma fallax) and without mycorrhiza as substrata for forest soil bacteria. Bacterial growth and vitality was monitored, and community composition determined using TRFLP, cloning and sequencing. We investigated if the amount of organic acids in exudates explained bacterial growth, and whether bacterial communities were influenced by pre-exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. We demonstrated functional differences in bacterial growth rates related to CO2. There was a shift in the bacterial community (e.g. Burkholderia sp. and gamma-proteobacteria) toward organisms better able to rapidly utilize exudates when pine microcosms were pre-exposed to elevated CO2. Soil bacteria from all treatments tended to grow more abundantly and rapidly in exudates from Pilo derma -colonized seedlings, suggesting that the organic acids and/or unidentified compounds present supported greater growth.

  • 38.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Demographics and disturbance history of a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest2008In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 19, no 6, 789-798 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: To what extent do tree growth, mortality, and long-term disturbance patterns affect stand structure and composition of an old-growth Picea abies forest?Location: Boreal Sweden.Methods: We linked data from three 50 m × 50 m permanent plots established in 1986 with dendrochronology data to evaluate tree growth and mortality over an 18-year period and to describe a several-hundred-year disturbance history for this forest type.Results: Averaged over all diameters, P. abies trees had an annual mortality rate of 0.60%; however, diameter had a striking effect on both growth and mortality, with trees of intermediate diameters (ca. 20–30 cm) showing faster growth and lower mortality. Their increased vigor gave rise to a diameter distribution resembling the ‘rotated sigmoid’ (not reverse-J) proposed for such conditions, and it led to a deficit of snags of intermediate diameters. Slow-growing trees had an increased likelihood of dying. Although recruitment occurred in most decades over the past 400 years, two prominent recruitment peaks occurred (mid 1700s and 1800s), neither of which appeared to cause a shift in tree species composition. The lack of fire evidence suggests that fire was not responsible for these recruitment peaks.Conclusions: Taken together, these results depict a rather impassive system, where canopy trees die slowly over decades. Field observations suggest that fungal infections, mediated by wind, account for much of the mortality during these periods of relative quiescence. However, these periods are at times punctuated by moderate-severity disturbances that foster abundant recruitment.

     

  • 39.
    Fraver, Shawn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ringvall, Anna
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Refining volume estimates of down woody debris2007In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, no 13, 627-633 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Down woody debris (DWD) plays a vital role in forest ecosystem structure and function. Although volume is likely the most common metric used to characterize DWD, an evaluation of the formulae used for volume estimation on individual DWD pieces has received little attention. We determined actual volume of 155 diverse DWD pieces (types, species, lengths, and diameters) by detailed field measurements. By comparing the actual and calculated volumes from six commonly used formulae, we assessed their bias, precision, and accuracy. Based on observed DWD forms, we developed a new formula, namely the “conic-paraboloid”, which was included in the assessment. Among the formulae that require length and two end diameter measurements, the conic-paraboloid had the lowest bias, highest precision, and hence greatest accuracy. Newton’s and the centroid formulae had higher accuracy yet require more field measurements. Smalian’s, conical frustum, and average-of-ends formulae had poor performance relative to the others. Accuracy of all formulae decreased with increasing piece length. Thus, partitioning pieces into two, three, and four sections for additional measurement improved accuracy. As decay advances, pieces become progressively more elliptical in cross section. Using the cross-sectional area derived from only the long axis of the ellipse leads to substantial volume overestimates for well-decayed DWD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 40.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergy and sustainability2016In: Society's steering systems – a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund, A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, 1, 113-122 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Gylle, A Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nygård, Charlotta A
    Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland.
    Ekelund, Nils GA
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Desiccation and salinity effects on marine and brackhish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae).2009In: Phycologia, ISSN 0031-8884, E-ISSN 2330-2968, Vol. 48, no 3, 156-164 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus L. from the Norwegian Sea (34 psu, marine ecotype) and Bothnian Sea (5 psu, brackish ecotype) have been compared with respect to the ability to withstand desiccation at different temperatures (0, 10, and 20°C). The aim was also to investigate the importance of salinity and light for the availably energy reserves, osmotic adjustment, and pigment content. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) values revealed that the marine ecotype was more able to resist desiccation. The brackish algae showed a decrease in Fv/Fm as a response to desiccation at all temperatures, but the decrease was most pronounced at 20°C. The brackish ecotype recovered from desiccation within 5 h only when treated at 0°C. When the two ecotypes were treated at different levels of salinity in darkness and light, the results suggested that both salinity and irradiance are main factors in the differences in mannitol content between the two ecotypes. Chlorophyll (Chl) measurements showed 25% higher Chl α and 60% higher Chl c in the brackish ecotype in comparison to the marine ecotype. Darkness had a more pronounced effect on the Chl content than the salinity and initiated an increase in the amount of Chl, especially Chl c in the brackish ecotype.

  • 44.
    Halme, P.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Allen, K. A.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Auniņš, A.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia .
    Bradshaw, R. H. W.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Brumelis, G.
    Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia .
    Čada, V.
    Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic .
    Clear, J. L.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hannon, G.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom .
    Hyvärinen, E.
    Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services, Finland.
    Ikauniece, S.
    Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Daugavpils University, Daugavpils, Latvia .
    Iršenaite, R.
    Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, K.
    Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services, Finland.
    Kareksela, S.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Komonen, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kotiaho, J. S.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kouki, J.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Kuuluvainen, T.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Mazziotta, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mönkkönen, M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nyholm, K.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Oldén, A.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Shorohova, E.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute Metla, Vantaa, Finland .
    Strange, N.
    Forest and Landscape, Centre for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Toivanen, T.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Vanha-Majamaa, I.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute Metla, Vantaa, Finland .
    Wallenius, T.
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Ylisirniö, A. -L
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Finland .
    Zin, E.
    Forest Research Institute (IBL), European Centre for Natural Forests, Białowieza, Poland.
    Challenges of ecological restoration: Lessons from forests in northern Europe2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 167, 248-256 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology of the target ecosystem should be established with the need for restoration carefully assessed and the outcome properly monitored. Finally, we identify the most important challenges that need to be solved in order to carry out efficient restoration with powerful and long-term positive impacts on biodiversity: coping with unpredictability, maintaining connectivity in time and space, assessment of functionality, management of conflicting interests and social restrictions and ensuring adequate funding. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 45.
    Hedenström, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Resveratrol, piceatannol, and isorhapontigenin from Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking wastewater as inhibitors on the growth of nine species of wood-decaying fungi2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 3, 617-629 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diethyl ether extract obtained from solvent-solvent extraction of Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water, a byproduct from debarking of logs in the pulp and paper industry, was tested for inhibition of growth on agar plates of nine species of wood-decaying fungi: Antrodia sinuosa, Antrodia xantha, Coniophora puteana, Fomitopsis pinicola, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Heterobasidion parviporum, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Serpula himantioides, and Serpula lacrymans. One fraction of the extract showed excellent antifungal activity for a majority of the species, with complete inhibition of growth for A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium. The major constituents of the most active fraction were identified as the hydroxystilbenes resveratrol, isorhapontigenin (synonymous with methyl piceatannol), and piceatannol (synonymous with astringenin). The active compounds were isolated or synthesized and used individually for dose-response studies. It was found that isorhapontigenin and piceatannol inhibited all growth of A. sinuosa, A. xantha, and G. sepiarium in 0.35 % weight concentration. The hydroxystilbenes were the three most abundant substances in the debarking water and can be obtained as a mixture or in enriched forms. From some extraction steps of the raw debarking water, it would be possible to obtain the hydroxystilbenes in quantities that might be of commercial interest as efficient natural fungicides.

  • 46.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Changing ploidy levels in artificial crossings in Potentilla argenteaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Holm, Svante
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bång, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High gene flow and differences in pollination pattern in a paternity analysis of a small riparian population of Filipendula ulmariaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Holm, Svante
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bång, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paternity analysis in Filipendula ulmaria indicates high level of gene flow between populations, using AFLPManuscript (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Holm, Svante
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, D
    Nordstrand, A
    The gentic structure of Fresh water pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera); influenced by recent human activity?Manuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, 4-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

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