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  • 1.
    Falk, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vetterli, Adrien
    Huner, N.P.A.
    Synergistic effects of salinity and temperature in an extremophilic Antarctic alga (Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO 241). Photosynt. Res. 91: 298-2992007In: Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Photosynthesis, Glasgow, 2007: Published in Photosynthesis Research, vol 91: 298-299, 2007, p. 298-299Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gylle, A Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Physiological adaptations in two ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans with focus on salinity2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The in origin intertidal marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. grow permanently sublittoral in the brackish Bothnian Sea, side by side with the recently discovered F. radicans L. Bergström et L. Kautsky. Environmental conditions like salinity, light and temperature are clearly different between F. vesiculosus growth sites in the Bothnian Sea (4-5 practical salinity units, psu; part of the Baltic Sea) and the tidal Norwegian Sea (34-35 psu; part of the Atlantic Ocean). The general aims of this thesis were to compare physiological aspects between the marine ecotype and the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus as well as between the two Bothnian Sea species F. vesiculosus and F. radicans.

    The result in the study indicates a higher number of water soluble organic compounds in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish ecotype. These compounds are suggested to be compatible solutes and be due to an intertidal and sublittoral adaptation, respectively; where the intertidal ecotype needs the compounds as a protection from oxygen radicals produced during high irradiation at low tide. The sublittoral ecotype might have lost the ability to synthesize these compound/compounds due to its habitat adaptation. The mannitol content is also higher in the marine ecotype compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and this is suggested to be due to both higher level of irradiance and higher salinity at the growth site.

    77 K fluorescence emission spectra and immunoblotting of D1 and PsaA proteins indicate that both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus as well as F. radicans have an uneven ratio of photosystem II/photosystem I (PSII/PSI) with an overweight of PSI. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus however, indicates a larger light-harvesting antenna of PSII compared to the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. Distinct differences in 77 K fluorescence emission spectra between the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans confirm that this is a reliable method to use to separate these species.

    The marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus has a higher photosynthetic maximum (Pmax) compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans whereas both the brackish species have similar Pmax. A reason for higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans is the greater relative amount of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The reason for higher Pmax in marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compare to the brackish ecotype however is not due to the relative amount of Rubisco and further studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco is recommended. Treatments of the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus in higher salinity than the Bothnian Sea natural water indicate that the most favourable salinity for high Pmax is 10 psu, followed by 20 psu. One part of the explanation to a high Pmax in 10 psu is a greater relative amount of PsaA protein in algae treated in 10 psu. The reason for greater amount of PsaA might be that the algae need to produce more ATP, and are able to have a higher flow of cyclic electron transport around PSI to serve a higher rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco. However, studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco in algae treated in similar salinities as in present study are recommended to confirm this theory.

     

  • 3.
    Gylle, A. Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nygård, Charlotta A.
    Cty Adm, Dept Environm, S-87186 Harnosand, Sweden .
    Svan, Carina I.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pocock, Tessa
    Heliospectra AB, S-50630 Boras, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Nils G. A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photosynthesis in relation to D1, PsaA and Rubisco in marine and brackish water ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae)2013In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 700, no 1, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate photosynthetic differences between the marine, Norwegian Sea ecotype and the brackish, Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans and to see whether photosynthetic differences could be connected with the relative amounts of D1 protein (PSII), PsaA (PSI) protein and/or Rubisco. For this purpose, we tested if a higher photosynthetic maximum (P (max)) in the Atlantic Ocean ecotype of F. vesiculosus relative to the Baltic Sea ecotype, and an increase of the P (max) in Baltic Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus at higher salinity, could be due to an increase in the relative amounts of Rubisco. The proteins have been evaluated on a relative basis. Immunoblot signals showed that the amount of Rubisco was higher in both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus than in F. radicans, but no differences could be detected between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus. The results suggest an uneven photosystem protein stoichiometry in Fucus, with more of the PSI protein PsaA relative to the PSII protein D1. The difference in P (max) between the two ecotypes of F. vesiculosus might be related to the difficulties for the algae to adapt to the environment in Bothnian Sea.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tedebrand, Jan-Olof
    Några botaniska utflyktsmål i Medelpad2010In: Medelpads flora / [ed] Lidberg, R. & Lindström, H., Uppsala: SBF-förlaget , 2010, p. 634-663Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Lönnell, Niklas
    et al.
    Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Fate of the Missing Spores - Patterns of Realized Dispersal beyond the Closest Vicinity of a Sporulating Moss2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. e41987-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that many species with small diaspores can disperse far during extended temporal scales (many years). However, studies on short temporal scales usually only cover short distances (in, e.g., bryophytes up to 15 m). By using a novel experimental design, studying the realized dispersal, we extend this range by almost two orders of magnitude. We recorded establishment of the fast-growing moss Discelium nudum on introduced suitable substrates, placed around a translocated, sporulating mother colony. Around 2,000 pots with acidic clay were placed at different distances between 5 m and 600 m, in four directions, on a raised bog, with increased pot numbers with distance. The experiment was set up in April-May and the realized dispersal (number of colonized pots) was recorded in September. Close to the mother colony (up to 10 m), the mean colonization rates (ratio of colonized pots) exceeded 50%. At distances between 10 and 50 m colonization dropped sharply, but beyond 50 m the mean colonization rates stabilized and hardly changed (1-3%). The estimated density of spores causing establishments at the further distances (2-6 spores/m(2)) was realistic when compared to the estimated spore output from the central colonies. Our study supports calculations from earlier studies, limited to short distances, that a majority of the spores disperse beyond the nearest vicinity of a source. The even colonization pattern at further distances raises interesting questions about under what conditions spores are transported and deposited. However, it is clear that regular establishment is likely at the km-scale for this and many other species with similar spore output and dispersal mechanism.

  • 6.
    Moles, A. T.
    et al.
    Univ New S Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia .
    Peco, B.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Fac Ciencias, Dept Interuniv Ecol, Terr Ecol Grp, E-28049 Madrid, Spain .
    Wallis, I. R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia .
    Foley, W. J.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia .
    Poore, A. G. B.
    Univ New S Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia .
    Seabloom, E. W.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, St Paul, MN 55108 USA .
    Vesk, P. A.
    Univ Melbourne, Sch Bot, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia .
    Bisigato, A. J.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Ctr Nacl Patagon, RA-9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina .
    Cella-Pizarro, L.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Ctr Nacl Patagon, RA-9120 Puerto Madryn, Argentina .
    Clark, C. J.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, MA 02540 USA .
    Cohen, P. S.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA .
    Cornwell, W. K.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Ecol Sci, Dept Syst Ecol, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Edwards, W.
    James Cook Univ, Sch Marine & Trop Biol, Cairns, Qld, Australia .
    Ejrnæs, R.
    Univ Aarhus, Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-8420 Ronde, Denmark .
    Gonzales-Ojeda, T.
    Univ Nacl San Antonio Abad Cusco, Fac Ciencias Forestales & Medio Ambiente, Madre De Dios, Peru .
    Graae, B. J.
    Umea Univ, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Abisko Naturvetenskapliga Stn, S-98107 Abisko, Sweden .
    Hay, G.
    James Cook Univ,Univ Adelaide, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia .
    Lumbwe, F. C.
    Univ Zambia, Dept Biol Sci, Lusaka 10101, Zambia .
    Magaña-Rodríguez, B.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Biol Sci, Wellington, New Zealand .
    Moore, B. D.
    James Cook Univ, Sch Marine & Trop Biol, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia .
    Peri, P. L.
    Univ Nacl Patagonia Austral, INTA, CONICET, RA-9400 Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina .
    Poulsen, J. R.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, MA 02540 USA .
    Stegen, J. C.
    Pacific NW Natl Lab, Div Biol Sci, Richland, WA 99352 USA .
    Veldtman, R.
    Univ Stellenbosch, Dept Bot & Zool, Ctr Invas Biol, ZA-7602 Matieland, South Africa .
    von Zeipel, Hugo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Andrew, N. R.
    Univ New England, Ctr Behav & Physiol Ecol, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia .
    Boulter, S. L.
    Griffith Univ, Griffith Sch Environm, Environm Futures Ctr, Nathan, Qld 4111, Australia .
    Borer, E. T.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Ecol Evolut & Behav, St Paul, MN 55108 USA .
    Cornelissen, J. H. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Inst Ecol Sci, Dept Syst Ecol, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Farji-Brener, A. G.
    INIBIOMA CONICET, CRUB UNC, Lab Ecotono, RA-8400 San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina .
    Degabriel, J. L.
    James Cook Univ, Sch Marine & Trop Biol, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia .
    Jurado, E.
    Univ Nuevo Leon, Fac Ciencias Forestales, Linares 67700, Mexico .
    Kyhn, L. A.
    Aarhus Univ, Natl Environm Res Inst, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark .
    Low, B.
    Low Ecol Serv, Alice Springs, NT 0871, Australia .
    Mulder, C. P. H.
    Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99775 USA .
    Reardon-Smith, K.
    Univ So Queensland, Australian Ctr Sustainable Catchments, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia .
    Rodríguez-Velázquez, J.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Ctr Invest Ecosistemas, Morelia 58190, Michoacan, Mexico .
    De Fortier, A.
    Univ Zululand, Dept Zool, ZA-3886 Kwa Dlangezwa, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa .
    Zheng, Z.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Xishuangbanna Trop Bot Garden, Mengla 666303, Yunnan, Peoples R China .
    Blendinger, P. G.
    Univ Nacl Tucuman, CONICET, RA-4107 Yerba Buena, Tucuman, Argentina .
    Enquist, B. J.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA .
    Facelli, J. M.
    NTNU, Dept Biol, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway .
    Knight, T.
    Washington Univ, Dept Biol, St Louis, MO 63105 USA .
    Majer, J. D.
    Curtin Univ Technol, Curtin Inst Biodivers & Climate, Perth, WA 6845, Australia .
    Martínez-Ramos, M.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Ctr Invest Ecosistemas, Morelia 58190, Michoacan, Mexico .
    Mcquillan, P.
    Univ Tasmania, Sch Geog & Environm Studies, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia .
    Hui, F. K. C.
    Univ New S Wales, Sch Math & Stat, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia .
    Correlations between physical and chemical defences in plants: Tradeoffs, syndromes, or just many different ways to skin a herbivorous cat?2013In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 198, no 1, p. 252-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most plant species have a range of traits that deter herbivores. However, understanding of how different defences are related to one another is surprisingly weak. Many authors argue that defence traits trade off against one another, while others argue that they form coordinated defence syndromes. We collected a dataset of unprecedented taxonomic and geographic scope (261 species spanning 80 families, from 75 sites across the globe) to investigate relationships among four chemical and six physical defences. Five of the 45 pairwise correlations between defence traits were significant and three of these were tradeoffs. The relationship between species' overall chemical and physical defence levels was marginally nonsignificant (P = 0.08), and remained nonsignificant after accounting for phylogeny, growth form and abundance. Neither categorical principal component analysis (PCA) nor hierarchical cluster analysis supported the idea that species displayed defence syndromes. Our results do not support arguments for tradeoffs or for coordinated defence syndromes. Rather, plants display a range of combinations of defence traits. We suggest this lack of consistent defence syndromes may be adaptive, resulting from selective pressure to deploy a different combination of defences to coexisting species.

  • 7.
    Pocock, Tessa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Vetterli, Adrien
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Falk, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in the Antarctic extremophile Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. UWO 2412011In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 1169-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life in extreme environments poses unique challenges to photosynthetic organisms. The ability for an extremophilic green alga and its genetic and mesophilic equivalent to acclimate to changes in their environment was examined to determine the extent of their phenotypic plasticities. The Antarctic extremophile Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. UWO 241 (UWO) was isolated from an ice-covered lake in Antarctica, whereas its mesophilic counterpart C. raudensis Ettl. SAG 49.72 (SAG) was isolated from a meadow pool in the Czech Republic. The effects of changes in temperature and salinity on growth, morphology, and photochemistry were examined in the two strains. Differential acclimative responses were observed in UWO which include a wider salinity range for growth, and broader temperature- and salt-induced fluctuations in Fv/Fm, relative to SAG. Furthermore, the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, measured as 1–qP, was modulated in the extremophile whereas this was not observed in the mesophile. Interestingly, it is shown for the first time that SAG is similar to UWO in that it is unable to undergo state transitions. The different natural histories of these two strains exert different evolutionary pressures and, consequently, different abilities for acclimation, an important component of phenotypic plasticity. In contrast to SAG, UWO relied on a redox sensing and signalling system under the growth conditions used in this study. It is proposed that growth and adaptation of UWO under a stressful and extreme environment poises this extremophile for better success under changing environmental conditions.

  • 8.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Genetisk variation hos fjällkvanne, Angelica archangelica ssp. archangelica, med avseende på två enzymsystem samt grobarhet hos 19 populationer på Färöarna2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver två komplementära studier (Isozymstudie för två enzymsystem, pgm och gpi, samt en studie av grobarhet) av Fjällkvanne, Angelica archangelica ssp. archangelica, med frön insamlade på Färöarna under september 2000. Insamlingen utfördes från 19 populationer och från 2<N<27 individer. Isozymstudien, N=55, 15 pop., visade på två alleler för båda enzymsystemen. De båda enzymsystemen föreföll även vara kopplade då frekvenserna för pgm-2 och gpi-1 tydligt följdes åt. På Färöarnas västra sida kunde en hög andel av allel A1 observeras för båda enzymsystemen och i söder kunde en hög andel av allel A2 observeras. Ingen signifikans kunde ses för att Färöarna skulle vara ett genetiskt isolat och således måste frön migrera till öarna, troligtvis över Nordsjön. De insamlade fröna uppvisade även en diversitet med avseende på grobarhet, där grobarheten var signifikant lägre än tidigare studier. Grobarheten uppvisade en högre grobarhet (v0=0,19) för de västliga populationerna samt en låg grobarhet (v0=0,034) för de populationer som nås av frön från söder. Vi kan därför göra antagandet att Färöarnas population får genetiskt material från väster (eg. Island och Grönland) samt från söder (eg. Storbritannien). Studier av material från dessa länder skulle tydligare visa på möjliga spridningsvägar.    

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