miun.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 511
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1. Anderbrant, O
    et al.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pheromone mating disruption of the pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer.: Is the size of the area important?2002In: IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, ISSN 1027-3115, Vol. 25, no 9, 111-116 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of mating disruption in relation to the area treated is discussed

  • 2. Anderbrant, O
    et al.
    Löfqvist, E
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Development of mating disruption for control of pine sawfly populations1995In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, Vol. 74, no 1, 83-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Anderbrant, O
    et al.
    Löfqvist, J
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Baldassari, N
    Baronio, P
    Kolmakova, G
    Lyons, B
    Naito, T
    Odinokov, V
    Simandl, J
    Suptashvili, A
    Tai, A
    Tourianov, R
    Geographic Variation in the Field Response of Male Pine Sawflies Neodiprion sertifer, to Different Pheromone Stereoisomers and Esters2000In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, E-ISSN 1570-7458, Vol. 95, no 3, 229-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Anderbrant, O
    et al.
    Löfqvist, J
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wassgren, A.-B.
    Bergström, G
    Bengtsson, M
    Magnusson, G
    Field Response Of The Pine Sawfly Neodiprion-Sertifer To The Pheromone (2s,3s,7s)-Diprionyl Acetate And Its Stereoisomers1992In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, Vol. 62, no 2, 169-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Anderbrant, Olle
    et al.
    Löfqvist, J
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mating disruption of the Pine Sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Dipionidae): Effects on Pheromone Trap Catch, Sex Ratio, Population Density and Tree Damage1995In: Behavior, population dynamics, and control of forest insects: Proceedings of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations Joint conference, February 1994, 1995, 415-427 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Anderbrant, Olle
    et al.
    Östrand, Fredrik
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Wassgren, Ann-Britt
    Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne
    Geri, Claude
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Release of sex pheromone and its precursors in the pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hym., Diprionidae)2005In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 15, no 3, 147-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first identification of a sex pheromone of a pine sawfly (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) dates back almost thirty years. Since then, female-produced pheromones of over twenty diprionid species have been investigated by solvent extraction followed by separation and identification. However, no study has shown what the females actually release. Collection of airborne compounds using absorbtion on charcoal filter as well as solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis employing gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed an unusual system in Diprion pini, in which the pheromone precursor alcohol, 3,7-dimethyl-2-tridecanol, is released together with acetic, propionic, butyric and isobutyric acids. The corresponding acetate, propionate and butyrate esters of 3,7-dimethyl-2-tridecanol were also found in the samples. All esters were electrophysiologically active, and the propionate and isobutyrate were attractive in trapping experiments. Based on these and earlier reported results, it seems that at least in part of its range, the pheromone response of D. pini is not very specific with regard to the functional group, as long as this is an ester.

     

     

  • 7.
    Andersson, E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Temporal variation in the drift of plant litter and propagules in a small boreal river2002In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 47, no 9, 1674-1684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Rivers are linear ecosystems across landscapes with an effective transport of organisms, sediment and organic matter. Dispersal is studied mostly during single events and for single species, and there is little knowledge on how the drift of plant litter and propagules varies within and between years for entire communities. 2. We used floating traps for collecting waterborne plant litter and propagules in a small boreal river over 2 years. We installed the traps at four different locations along the river, and emptied them at least once a week during the ice-free season. We analysed propagule content by sorting and identifying species and through germination tests on bare soil. 3. In total, we recorded at least 54 taxa in the samples, and the highest density recorded in one sample was 5000 propagules per 100 g litter (dry weight). Large temporal variations in litter and propagule transport were revealed, both within and between years. 4. The longitudinal pattern was consistent between years, with an increasing mass of litter and number of propagule taxa downstream. The results highlight the importance of the temporal and longitudinal dimensions in river management.

  • 8. Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, M. E.
    Effects of river fragmentation on plant dispersal and riparian flora2000In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 16, no 1, 83-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the effects of river fragmentation by dams on hydrochory (i.e. plant dispersal by water) and on plant distribution by comparing two adjacent rivers in northern Sweden, one free-flowing and the other regulated. We collected stranded drift material from both rivers in order to quantify the drift material and its species content. We also estimated the floristic continuity along the two rivers by comparing the drift flora with the riparian flora further upstream. The drift amount deposited on the riverbank, its species richness and its contribution to the species pool were higher in the free-flowing than in the regulated river. The floristic continuity was also higher in the free-flowing than in the regulated river.

  • 9. Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, M. E.
    Plant dispersal in boreal rivers and its relation to the diversity of riparian flora2000In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 27, no 5, 1095-1106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The paper has four major objectives: (1) to determine whether diaspore mimics accurately represent dispersal dynamics of real diaspores in a free-flowing river; (2) to estimate distance travelled and reasons for stranding of floating diaspores along a free-flowing river; (3) to test if species composition and seedling recruitment vary with the ability of the riverbank to trap waterborne drift; and (4) to compare diaspore dispersal in a free-flowing river with that in a regulated river where current velocity has been reduced. Location The field work was conducted in two 7th-order boreal rivers in northern Sweden, the free-flowing Vindel River and the regulated Ume River. Methods We performed a series of dispersal experiments. We tested the usefulness wooden cubes of diaspore mimics for performing dispersal experiments by releasing cubes and achenes of Helianthus annuus and compare their dispersal patterns in the free-flowing Vindel River. We used the cubes to identify 50-m long sections along the river with different trapping capacity, i.e. the number of stranded diaspore mimics within a 50-m section. We then related the number of stranded diaspore mimics to the vascular plant flora, the proportions of species with long or short floating times (i.e. more than or less than 2 days, respectively), the number of seedlings, and to environmental variables within the sections. We also released wooden cubes in a run-of-river impoundment to determine the dispersal capacity of diaspores in a regulated river. Results The cubes were useful as diaspore mimics. They dispersed similarly to achenes of H. annuus. The stranding pattern of diaspore mimics was significantly associated with water current. Species richness of vascular plants per 50-m section increased with the number of stranded mimics. Seedling recruitment, and the proportions of species with short-floating and long-floating diaspores, did not vary with the number of stranded mimics. The ability of a river to transport diaspores downstream was strongly reduced by impoundment. Main conclusions We conclude that patterns of species richness of riparian vegetation is in part determined by the ability of the riverbank to trap waterborne diaspores, but differences in floating ability among species did not affect the species composition along free-flowing rivers.

  • 10. Andersson, J
    et al.
    Biasoletto-Tjellström, G
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reduced pulmonary oxygen uptake during apnea in resting humans: European Underwater and Baromedical Society (EUBS) meeting Copenhagen2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linér, Mats
    Fredsted, Anne
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to apneas with and without face immersion in exercising humans2004In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 96, no 3, 1005-1010 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the diving response on alveolar gas exchange was investigated in 15 subjects. During steady-state exercise (80 W) on a cycle ergometer, the subjects performed 40-s apneas in air and 40-s apneas with face immersion in cold (10degreesC) water. Heart rate decreased and blood pressure increased during apneas, and the responses were augmented by face immersion. Oxygen uptake from the lungs decreased during apnea in air (-22% compared with eupneic control) and was further reduced during apnea with face immersion (-25% compared with eupneic control). The plasma lactate concentration increased from control (11%) after apnea in air and even more after apnea with face immersion (20%), suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism during apneas. The lung oxygen store was depleted more slowly during apnea with face immersion because of the augmented diving response, probably including a decrease in cardiac output. Venous oxygen stores were probably reduced by the cardiovascular responses. The turnover times of these gas stores would have been prolonged, reducing their effect on the oxygen uptake in the lungs. Thus the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect.

  • 12. Andersson, Johan P A
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Repeated apneas do not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response in the short term2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 105, no 4, 569-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term training of breath-hold diving reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), an index of the CO(2) sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether also short-term apnea training (repeating apneas with short intervals) reduces the HCVR, thereby being one contributing factor explaining the progressively increasing breath-holding time (BHT) with repetition of apneas. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed a series of five maximal-duration apneas with face immersion and two measurements of the HCVR, using the Read rebreathing method. The BHT increased by 43% during the series of apneas (P < 0.001). However, the slope of the HCVR test was not affected by the series of apneas, being 2.52 (SD 1.27) and 2.24 (SD 1.14) l min(-1) mmHg(-1) in the control test and in the test performed within 2 min after the last apnea of the series, respectively (NS). Thus, a change in the HCVR cannot explain the observed short-term training effect on BHT.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Biasoletto-Tjellströma, Gustaf
    Schagatay, Erika K.A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Pulmonary gas exchange is reduced by the cardiovascular diving response in resting humans2008In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 160, no 3, 320-324 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diving response reduces the pulmonary O2 uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 ◦C). Duration of apneas were predetermined to be identical in both conditions (average: 145 s) and based on individual maximal capacity (average: 184 s). Compared to apnea in air, an augmented diving response was elicited by apnea with face immersion. The O2 uptake from the lungs was reduced compared to the resting eupneic control (4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), during apnea in air (3.6 ml min−1 kg−1) and even more so during apnea with face immersion (3.4 ml min−1 kg -1). We conclude that the cardiovascular djustments of the diving response reduces pulmonary gas exchange in resting humans, allowing longer apneas by preserving the lungs’ O2 store for use by vital organs.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Physiology, Lund University.
    Linér, Mats H.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Rünow, Elisabeth
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers2002In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 93, no 3, 882-886 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C) on the diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during dynamic exercise. Eight trained breath-hold divers performed steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W. During exercise, each subject performed 30-s apneas in air and 30-s apneas with face immersion. The heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation decreased and blood pressure increased during the apneas. Compared with apneas in air, apneas with face immersion augmented the heart rate reduction from 21 to 33% (P < 0.001) and the blood pressure increase from 34 to 42% (P < 0.05). The reduction in arterial oxygen saturation from eupneic control was 6.8% during apneas in air and 5.2% during apneas with face immersion (P < 0.05). The results indicate that augmentation of the diving response slows down the depletion of the lung oxygen store, possibly associated with a larger reduction in peripheral venous oxygen stores and increased anaerobiosis. This mechanism delays the fall in alveolar and arterial Po2 and, thereby, the development of hypoxia in vital organs. Accordingly, we conclude that the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect during exercise.

  • 15. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans.1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, 21-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of the human diving response, defined as bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow, on arterial hemoglobin desaturation. We induced a diving response of different magnitudes by using apnea in air and apnea with face immersion. Each of21 subjects performed five apneas in air and five apneas with face immersion in 10°C water. Periods of apnea in both conditions were of the same duration in any individual subject (average: 126.4 s) and the order of air and water was equally distributed among subjects. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, arterial blood pressure, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation during apneas, and end-tidal fractions of CO2 after apneas were recorded with non-invasive methods. The bradycardia and capillary blood flow reduction during apnea in air (7.8 and 37.7% change from control, respectively) were significantly potentiated by face immersion (13.6 and 55.9%, respectively). Arterial hemoglobin desaturated more during apnea in air (2.7%) compared to during apnea with face immersion (1.4%). We conclude that the potentiation of the human diving response with face immersion in cold water leads to a smaller decrease in arterial hemoglobin saturation, which may reflect an oxygen-conserving effect

  • 16. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and apneic time in humans. 1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, 13-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare apneic time with the human diving response, defined as heart rate (HR) reduction and reduced skin blood flow, in groups with varying degrees of breath-hold diving experience. Apneic time and HR reduction at apneas in air and apneas with face immersion in cold water were thus recorded in nine groups. Skin capillary blood flow was recorded in six of the groups. All subjects received the same information on maximizing apneic duration, and no information about their progress during the apneas. The longest apneas and the most pronounced cardiovascular adjustments were found in the young, trained divers. It was found that apneic time was significantly correlated to HR reduction among the nine groups (r = 0.94, P < 0.001), and to skin capillary blood flow reduction among the six groups where the parameter was measured (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The correlation between HR reduction and skin capillary blood flow reduction was also significant (r = 0.85, P < 0.05). When the difference in HR reduction and apneic time between apneas in air and apneas with face immersion were compared in the nine groups, it was found that all groups reacted with a more pronounced HR reduction during apneas with face immersion. All groups without prior breath-hold diving experience were found to perform shorter apneas with face immersion than apneas in air, or apneas of the same duration in both conditions, which has been reported in other studies. However, in all groups with diving experience, the apneic time was prolonged during apneas with face immersion. The results of this study suggest an oxygen-conserving effect of the diving response in trained apneic divers

  • 17. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response1997In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 77, no 1/2, 19-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, and fractions of end-expiratory CO 2 and O 2 were measured. The length of the simulated dives was the shortest at 60% of VC, probably because at this level the build up of alveolar CO 2 was fastest. Apnoeas with face immersion at 100% of VC gave a marked drop in arterial pressure during the initial 20?s, probably due to high intrathoracic pressure mechanically reducing venous return. The diving response was most pronounced at 60% of VC. We concluded that at the two larger lung volumes both mechanical factors and input from pulmonary stretch receptors influenced the bradycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in a non-linear relationship between the breath-hold lung volume and magnitude of the diving response in the near-VC range. Furthermore, the involuntary breathing movements that appeared during the struggle phase of the apnoeas were too small to affect the diving response

  • 18. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gislén, Anna
    Holm, Boris
    Cardiovascular responses to cold water immersions of the forearm and face, and their relationship to apnoea2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 83, no 6, 566-572 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apnoea as well as cold stimulation of the face or the extremities elicits marked cardiovascular reflexes in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether forearm immersion in cold water has any effect on the cardiovascular responses to face immersion and apnoea. We recorded cardiovascular responses to cold-water immersions of the forearm and face in 19 (part I) and 23 subjects (part II). The experimental protocol was divided in two parts, each part containing four tests: I1, forearm immersion during eupnoea; I2, face immersion during eupnoea; I3, forearm and face immersion during eupnoea; I4, face immersion during apnoea; II1, apnoea without immersion; II2, forearm immersion during apnoea; II3, face immersion during apnoea; and II4, forearm and face immersion during apnoea. The water temperature was 9–11 °C. Cold-water immersion of either the forearm or face was enough to elicit the most pronounced thermoregulatory vasoconstriction during both eupnoea and apnoea. During eupnoea, heart rate responses to forearm immersion (3% increase) and face immersion (9% decrease) were additive during concurrent stimulation (3% decrease). During apnoea, the heart rate responses were not affected by the forearm immersion. The oxygen-conserving diving response seems to dominate over thermoregulatory responses in the threat of asphyxia. During breathing, however, the diving response serves no purpose and does not set thermoregulatory adjustments aside

  • 19.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sch Forest Management, Fac Forest Sci, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, Fac Forest Sci, S-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Protecting Forest Areas for Biodiversity in Sweden 1991-2010: the Policy Implementation Process and Outcomes on the Ground2011In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 45, no 5, 1111-1133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest and environmental policies imply that forests should be managed so that all naturally occurring species are maintained in viable populations. This requires maintenance of functional networks of representative natural forest and cultural woodland habitats. We first review the policy implementation process regarding protected areas in Sweden 1991-2010, how ecological knowledge was used to formulate interim short-term and strategic long-term biodiversity conservation goals, and the development of a hierarchical spatial planning approach. Second, we present data about the amount of formally protected and voluntarily set aside forest stands, and evaluate how much remains in terms of additional forest protection, conservation management and habitat restoration to achieve forest and environmental policy objectives in the long-term. Third, a case study in central Sweden was made to estimate the functionality of old Scots pine, Norway spruce and deciduous forest habitats, as well as cultural woodland, in different forest regions. Finally, we assess operational biodiversity conservation planning processes. We conclude that Swedish policy pronouncements capture the contemporary knowledge about biodiversity and conservation planning well. However, the existing area of protected and set-aside forests is presently too small and with too poor connectivity. To bridge this gap, spatial planning, management and restoration of habitat, as well as collaboration among forestand conservation planners need to be improved.

  • 20.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Törnblom, Johan
    SLU, Skinnskatteberg.
    Uppföljning av 1997 års bristanalys för bevarande av biologisk mångfald olika skogsmiljöer i Sveriges naturregioner: Vad har hänt på tio år?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hur mycket är nog för att bevara arterna?2010In: Fakta Skog, ISSN 1400-7789, no 12, 1-4 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Aronsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vedaska från biobränslen: resurs eller avfall?2004In: Finlands Natur, ISSN 0356-4509, Vol. 63, no 1, 15-17 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    Aronsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Biological effects of Wood Ash Application.2004In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 33, no 5, 1595-1605 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board of Forestry recommends recycling of wood ash for two main reasons: 1) to avoid depletion of essential soil nutrients, and 2) to reduce the harmful effects of acidification of surface waters. There is no doubt that recycling of wood ash to boreal forests will become a major industry in the near future. Much research is conducted regarding the effects of wood ash application on forest growth. Present studies show that, generally speaking, forest growth can be increased on wood ash-ameliorated peatland rich in nitrogen. On mineral soils, however, no change or even decreased growth has been reported. The effects on ground vegetation are not very clear, as well as the effects on fungi, soil microbes and soil decomposing animals. The discrepancies between different studies are for the most part explained by abiotic factors such as variation in fertility among sites, different degrees of stabilization and wood ash dosage used, and different time scales among different studies. The lack of knowledge in the field of aquatic ecosystems and their response to ash application is an important issue for future research. The few studies conducted have mainly considered changes in water chemistry. The biotoxic effects of ash application can roughly be divided into two categories: primary and secondary. Among the primary effects is toxicity deriving from compounds in the wood ash and cadmium is probably the worst among these. The secondary effects of wood ash are generally due to its alkaline capacity and a release of ions into the soil and soil water, and finally, watercourses and lakes. The present review aims to summarize current knowledge in the topic of wood ash application to boreal forest and aquatic ecosystems, and the different effects derived from these actions. ABBREVIATIONS: WAA, Wood ash application; MT, metric tonnes

  • 25.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of wood ash on freshwater organisms and aquatic forest ecosystems2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood ash application (WAA) has been recommended mainly for two reasons; i) to avoid depletion of minerals in the soil due to whole tree harvest in the forestry and ii) to mitigate harmful effects of acidification of soil and surface waters. In conclusion, the effects on terrestrial ecosystems and, especially, tree growth, can be attributed to the properties of the ash, the dose applied and the specific site at which the ash is applied. The research conducted on the effects of WAA on limnological ecosystems is very limited, and the major purpose of the present thesis was to gain knowledge of the effects of wood ash to different freshwater organisms, and the more comprehensive, limnological effects of WAA in the first stream in Bispgården, Sweden.

    Effects of wood ash solutions on the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis Klebs, the amphipod Gammarus pulex L., and the moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. were investigated under laboratory conditions. Common in all three species was the decline in performance (growth/velocity/respiration/oxygen evolution) when the concentration of wood ash exceeded 5 g/l and no adjustment of pH was done (alkaline solution). In contrast, different movement parameters (motility, upwards swimming and velocity) in E. gracilis (neutral conditions), and increased growth of F. antipyretica with increased concentrations of wood ash indicated that nutrients in the ash was bioavailable for these organisms. There was no evidence of toxic effects on the organisms from metals or other compounds as a result from exposure to wood ash solutions in the present studies.

    The field study was conducted in a forest area close to Bispgården, about 100 km NW from Sundsvall, Sweden. The catchment area (50 ha) of the stream Fanbergsbäcken was treated with wood ash in September of 2004 (3,000 kg/ha;selfhardened crush-ash). In general, both biological (diatoms) and chemical (pH, alkalinity, and aluminum (Al) measurements) indicators have shown no significant effect on acidification parameters from the addition of wood ash. There was, however, evidence of an increased pH during spring flood, accompanied with a decrease in the frequency of low pH values (<5.6) during spring flood. In addition to this, alkalinity was significantly higher in the period 2005-2006, compared to that of 2003. High concentrations of toxic forms of Al repeatedly occured in the stream Fanbergsbäcken, and the WAA did not affect the frequencies of high concentrations of toxic Al forms (<50 μg/l). Both the moss F. antipyretica and the leaves from Alnus incana displayed increased potassium (K) concentrations, although other nutrients did not increase from WAA. In conclusion, no evidence of WAA being effective in restoring or improving the ecological status of freshwater environments has been established, either in the literature or in the present field study. On the other hand, there were no indications of harmful effects due to WAA, either. However, we still do not know the effects of wood ash on several organisms (predominantly invertebrates) inhabiting small ponds and other, temporary or permanent, freshwater ecosystems. In the context of WAA, these environments and organisms have not attended any attention in the research published to date, and future studies are strongly encouraged.

  • 26.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects on growth, photosynthesis and pigments of the freshwater moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. after exposure to wood ash solution2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 372, no 1, 236-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of wood ash from biofuel sources to the forest has been suggested as a source of nutrients for trees and for restoration of acidified soils and surface waters. Studies on the effects of wood ash on aquatic organisms and ecosystems are, however, few. This study investigated the effects of wood ash (0.1 - 10 g l-1) on the freshwater moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., which has previously been shown to be a sensitive test organism for assessing environmental pollution. After nine weeks of treatment with wood ash, a significant effect of enhanced stem growth was observed at the higher concentrations (1 � 10 g l-1). The concentration of wood ash was also correlated to the growth of secondary branches. Photosynthesis (oxygen evolution after 4 h of exposure to wood ash) was significantly lower in the alkaline treatments (no pH adjustment) compared to the treatments with neutral wood ash solutions (pH adjusted to 7.5). Furthermore, photosynthesis in the alkaline wood ash treatments was significantly lower compared to the control. The ratio between the optical density value before and after acidification (OD665/665a) was higher for all wood ash concentrations compared to the control. The OD665/665a values ranged from 1.52 to 1.61 and there was a difference, however not significant, between the alkaline and the neutral treatment at 10 g l-1 wood ash. This study clearly demonstrated that wood ash may be beneficial for F. antipyretica at moderate concentrations (0.5 - 5 g l-1), particularly when sudden increase in pH is avoided.

  • 27.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects on Motile Factors and Cell Growth of Euglena gracilis After Exposure to Wood Ash Solution: Assessment of Toxicity, Nutrient Availability and pH-Dependency2005In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, Vol. 162, no 1-4, 353-368 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood ash application (WAA) to the forest has been suggested as a resource of nutrients for trees and for restoration of acidified soils and surface waters. However, studies of the effects of WAA on aquatic systems are few. This study investigated the effects of wood ash (1-25 g L-1) on the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis, which has been proved to be a sensitive test organism for assessing environmental change. Long-term (7 days) growth studies and short-term (direct, 24 and 48 h) studies of different motile factors, using the automatic biological test system Ecotox, were conducted. The results show no indication of biotoxic effects due to wood ash (adjusted to neutral) treatments. However, when no adjustments of pH in wood ash solutions were made, inhibitory effects on motile factors and cell growth were observed at higher concentrations of wood ash (10-25 g L-1) due to high pH (> 8). In tests with pH adjusted to neutral, enhanced motility was observed. These results indicate that high concentration of WAA could affect freshwater environments.

  • 28.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Limnological effects on a first order stream after Wood Ash Application to a boreal forest catchment in Bispgården, Sweden2008In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 255, no 1, 245-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, whole tree harvest is common practice, possibly leading to the depletion of mineral nutrients. Furthermore, the increased use of forestry residues for heat production has caused an increasingly growing amount of by-product consisting of wood ash. Therefore, the Swedish Forest Agency has recommended wood ash application (WAA) to replace the mineral nutrients removed by whole tree harvesting, as well as a means to mitigate the acidification of boreal forests and surface waters. In a multidisciplinary study during 2003-2006 in Bispgarden (Sweden), we have investigated the limnological effects on a first order stream after WAA (conducted in 2004; 3000 kg ha-1) to a 50-ha forested catchment. In general, no significant effects on an annual basis were found for acidification parameters, such as pH, alkalinity and toxic forms of aluminum (Al). There was, however, evidence of an increased pH during the spring flood, accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the frequency of low pH-values (<5.6). Moreover, alkalinity increased in the years 2005 and 2006 compared to that of 2003, although the increase in 2006 was not statistically different from that in 2005 or 2003. High concentrations of Al repeatedly occurred in the stream, and the WAA did not affect the frequencies of high concentrations of toxic Al forms (>50 μg 1-1). The benthic diatom community did not change as a result of the wood ash treatment and the diatom-based index IPS (Indice de PulluoSensibilité) indicated no nutrient enrichment or organic pollution of the stream water. There were, however, indices of elevated concentrations of potassium (K) in the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica and in leaves from Alder (Alnus incana). We conclude that wood ash treatment of a forested catchment with the dose and form of ash applied in this study did not modify the freshwater ecosystem of a first order stream.

  • 29.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Respiration measurements can assess the fitness of Gammarus pulex (L.) after exposure to different contaminants: experiments with wood ash, cadmium and aluminum2005In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 164, no 4, 479-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood ash application has been suggested as a means to mitigate acidification of surface waters. However little is known about the effects of wood ash to freshwater organisms. A Clark-type oxygen electrode was used to investigate the effects of wood ash, cadmium and aluminum on the respiration of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.). Harmful effects following wood ash addition were primarily found to be explained by elevated pH. At high concentrations (> 1 g/l) of wood ash the respiration of G. pulex decreased when no adjustment of pH was made, a response that was negatively correlated to the elevated pH (r = -0.43). An ion-related response was also detected in the pH-adjusted (pH 7) tests, although it was not statistically significant. Cadmium proved to be sublethal in the range of 0.2-0.4mg/l in a 24-h exposure. Mortality was 100% at 0.5 and 1.0mg Cd/l. No effects were detected after exposure to Al, due to the high pH (pH 7-8) of the solutions and the subsequently low concentrations of labile monomeric Al. We demonstrate that the method described in this paper could be a useful probe for the detection of sublethal concentrations of contaminants in freshwater ecosystems.

  • 30. Aune, Karin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Moen, Jon
    Isolation and edge effects among woodland key habitats in Sweden: making fragmentation into forest policy?2005In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 124, no 1, 89-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of natural forests is a major threat to forest biodiversity. In areas with a long history of forestry, the remaining patches of old forests constitute only a minor part of the landscape. In such situations small stands may be valuable and important for conservation. However, as they may suffer from strong edge effects and isolation, their value may be lower than anticipated. In Sweden a national inventory of woodland key habitats (WKHs) has identified about 1% of the forest landscape as sites where red-listed species occur or may occur. Most are small (national median 1.4 ha) and isolated stands within an intensively managed landscape. The present analyses calculate WKH core area based on a range of depths of edge influence, and isolation based on both distance to nearest WKH and a weighted isolation measure that includes all neighboring WKHs and protected forest. These analyses are done on the WKHs in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden and include almost 5000 stands. The actual core area in the WKHs is about 30% given a 50 m edge influence. The degree of isolation is species dependent but the results indicate that only species with high dispersal abilities may effectively utilize the network of WKHs. For species with effective dispersal distances of less than 2 km the network is probably insufficient. The results emphasize the need to create buffer zones, to increase reserve areas and to manage the matrix so that species dispersal is promoted. This likely includes a necessity to aggregate biodiversity efforts on the landscape scale.

  • 31. Barsoum, N
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lakes as potential barriers to gene flow in the hydrochorus plant species Angelica archangelica L. subsp. archangelicaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Beckman, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Naturen som mötesplats2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33. Berg, S.
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Högskolan i Östersund.
    Analysis of airborne organic lead1984In: Biological effects of organolead compounds, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press , 1984, 278- p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Berggren, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the Collembola Folsomia candida: toxicodynamics and effects of organic matter content2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Toxicity of pesticides to non-target organisms determines their impact on natural environments. And to find pesticides with a new, target-specific mode of action, which are safe to farmers and organisms in the surrounding environment, is important when developing new pesticides.In this study, toxicity of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole to the Collembola Folsomia candida was investigated, showing that the test animals were adversely affected by the compound. Toxicity was tested in two experiments; a reproduction test in four soils with different organic matter content, following the OECD Guideline 232, and a toxicodynamic test where mortality, mobility, reproduction and morphological changes were recorded.The reproduction test showed a lower toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in the high-organic soils compared to the low-organic. When organic matter content increased two times, the difference between the lowest and the highest EC50 and EC10 values was a factor of 5.3 and 8.4, respectively. pH did not seem to significantly affect toxicity, and organic matter content did not seem to affect the total number of juveniles produced.The toxicodynamic test showed a fast mode of action on mobility of F. candida, but not on mortality. Mobility decreased at the highest treatments of chlorantraniliprole already one day after the animals were introduced to the test vessels, but significant mortality was still not seen after almost three weeks. Reproduction was also adversely affected with a decline in the total number of juveniles produced at the higher treatments. The animals at the higher treatments also showed a possible compound induced reproduction stress, with faster egg laying. Morphological changes, such as affected antennas, increased steadily over time.Chlorantraniliprole shows high toxicity to some non-target organisms but is, with its new mode of action, still important in the development of more environmentally safe pesticides.

  • 35.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edman, Mattias
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Temporal variation of wood-fungi diversity in boreal old-growth forests: Implications for monitoring2005In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 15, no 3, 970-982 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring programs that supply reliable and sufficient information on numbers and types of organisms are essential for following changes in biodiversity. In boreal Fennoscandia, forest-dwelling species are threatened in managed forest landscapes and, thus, are of particular concern for conservation strategies. Wood fungi represent key ecological components in the boreal forest that are sensitive to forestry and widely used as indicators in large-scale forest inventories for identifying valuable forest habitats. Knowledge of their natural dynamics is required for designing monitoring programs to assess the adequacy of conservation strategies. We studied the occurrence of corticoids (Corticiaceae) and polypores (Polyporaceae) over time at different spatial scales in unexploited boreal old-growth forests. Data from 70 downed logs followed during an eight-year period showed that the lifespan of fruit bodies of most species was shorter than four years. Even perennial species followed this pattern, although fruit bodies of some species (e.g., Phellinus spp.) remained vital throughout the eight years studied. Both species richness and species composition on individual logs changed markedly over the eight years due to deterministic succession of species paralleling the wood decay. By contrast, data from the stand scale, i.e., seven 0.1-ha plots, showed that species richness and species composition of polypores did not undergo any major changes during a six-year period. A majority of all recorded polypore species (80%) were already present at the first inventory. However, although species richness remained constant at the stand scale, corticoid species composition differed between years, reflecting their short-lived, annual fruit bodies. This study suggests that monitoring should be performed at stand scale and focus on species with durable fruit bodies, e.g., polypores. This will provide data that can be used both to detect future changes in biodiversity in old-growth spruce forests and to evaluate conservation strategies.

  • 36.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Assessing the extinction vulnerability of wood-inhabiting fungal species in fragmented northern Swedish boreal forests2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 141, no 12, 3029-3039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of old-growth forests and greatly reduced amounts of coarse dead wood in managed forests threat the persistence of many saproxylic species in boreal Fennoscandia. Individual old-growth forest remnants may lose species over time as they pay off their extinction debt. We tested this by comparing the observed site occupancy of individual wood-inhabiting fungal species in isolated old-growth stands (i.e. woodland key habitats; WKHs) with statistical predictions of their occupancy assuming potential extinction debt had already been paid off. The occupancy of species was analysed in two sets of WKHs differing in time since isolation (i.e. recent and old isolates).

    Few species occurred more frequently than expected in WKHs. However, patterns across species and across all WKHs masked important differences among species in their risk of facing future extinction. The site occupancy decreased significantly between recent and old isolates for a group of annual, red-listed specialist fungal species, suggesting that an extinction debt in WKHs may exist among specific species confined to coarse dead wood and old-growth forest habitat. Generalist species that also occur in the surrounding matrix showed no negative trends, or actually increased in site occupancy, making future extinctions less likely. Thus, continuing loss of threatened species are likely if not preservation of WKHs are combined with other conservation efforts in managed forest landscapes. Natural forest landscapes may serve as important references when aiming to identify species in risk of future extinction but more detailed knowledge about the biology of the most vulnerable species is also required.

  • 37.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nested plant and fungal communities: the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests2003In: Biological conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, Vol. 112, no 3, 319-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the distribution of rare species is crucial for species conservation in fragmented habitats. Species communities often exhibit nestedness, i.e. species in species-poor sites comprise a subset of richer ones. Thus, rare species are confined to species-rich sites. We evaluate whether plant and fungal communities in 46 old-growth spruce forest patches (0.17–12 ha) exhibit nestedness. The question whether a single large patch or several small patches capture most species (i.e. the SLOSS-issue) is evaluated in combination with species saturation analyses. All species groups exhibited significant nestedness. Area was generally related to nestedness, i.e. rare species were over-represented in the largest patches. Species saturation analysis indicated that large patches accumulated more Red-list species in patch interiors than small patches. Thus, rare and Red-list species were best captured in large patches. However, nestedness also emerged in equal sized sample plots, i.e. rare species were over-represented in high quality habitats. Thus, small habitats of high quality should not be neglected in a conservation perspective.

  • 38.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden .
    Predictability of plant and fungal species richness of old-growth boreal forest islands2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, no 6, 857-866 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fragmentation and deterioration of old-growth forest habitat by modern forestry have become a major threat to species diversity in Fennoscandia. In order to develop a conservation strategy for the remaining diversity it is essential to identify the existing diversity and to develop appropriate conservation and monitoring programs. For these purposes indicators of conservation value for administrative prioritization are required. This study examines the predictability of plant and fungal species richness on two spatial scales on 46 isolated old-growth forest islands (0.17-12 ha) in a forest-wetland mosaic. We explore (1) to what extent area, isolation and stand structure variables can explain the variation in species richness and (2) if richness patterns of individual species groups correlate. Isolation showed no relation to species richness. Area explained 50-70% of the variation in total species richness and was positively related to the density of crustose lichens and Red-list species in island interiors. Stand structure variables explained 28-66% of the residual variation in total species richness after controlling for island size, and 15-73% of the variation in density of species in island interiors. The highest predictability of species richness was found among substrate-specific fungi and Red-list species. Different stand structure variables were found to explain richness in the different species groups, and only among a few species groups species richness correlated. Thus, species richness of one single species group is unlikely to be a good indicator for total biodiversity. The results show that measurements of stand size and stand structure variables may be a strong complementary tool. and sometimes a substitute to extensive species inventories when one aims to estimate and monitor plant and fungal species diversity in old-growth Picea abies forests.

  • 39.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Verifying an extinction debt in north Swedish boreal forests2005In: Conservation biology, ISSN 0888-8892, Vol. 19, no 2, 338-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats results in small species populations that face increased risk of extinction. A time delay may be involved in the regional extinction of species, and the number of species that eventually may go extinct in the future is called the "extinction debt." In boreal Sweden, we examined whether the number of epiphytic crustose lichens and wood-inhabiting fungi in old-growth forest remnants diverges from species richness levels in forest patches that have been naturally isolated for millennia. An excess of species in forest remnants could indicate the presence of an extinction debt. Observed species richness in 32 old-growth forest remnants (also called woodland key habitats [WKHs]) was compared with predicted species richness. To predict species richness we used regression models based on data from 46 isolated old-growth forest patches in a forest-wetland matrix. The reference landscape is ancient and assumed to reflect the conditions of insular floras in dynamic equilibrium. Stand factors constituted predictive variables in the models. The observed number of lichen species was higher than expected (i.e., an extinction debt among lichens may exist). By contrast, there was no significant difference between observed and expected species richness among wood-inhabiting fungi. The species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi has adjusted to the changes in forest and landscape structure more rapidly than the species richness of lichens. Differences in substrate dynamics between epiphytes on living trees and species growing on decaying logs might explain the difference between species groups. The results also indicate that population densities of red-listed species were low, which may result in continuing extinctions of red-listed species. The importance of WKHs might be overvalued because species may be lost if conservation efforts consider only protection and preservation of WKHs.

  • 40.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology, SLU Uppsala.
    O'Hara, Robert
    Dept of Mathematics and Statistics, Helsinki University.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Quantifying habitat requirements of tree-living species in fragmented boreal forests with Bayesian methods2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, no 5, 1127-1137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative conservation objectives require detailed consideration of the habitat requirements of target species. Tree-living bryophytes, lichens, and fungi are a critical and declining biodiversity component of boreal forests. To understand their requirements, Bayesian methods were used to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of individual species and habitat factors at the tree and the stand scale in a naturally fragmented boreal forest landscape. The importance of unexplained between-stand variation in occurrence of species was estimated, and the ability of derived models to predict species' occurrence was tested. The occurrence of species was affected by quality of individual trees. Furthermore, the relationships between occurrence of species at the tree level and size and shape of stands indicated edge effects, implying that some species were restricted to interior habitats of large, regular stands. Yet for the habitat factors studied, requirements of many species appeared similar. Species occurrence also varied between stands; most of the seemingly suitable trees in some stands were unoccupied. The models captured most variation in species occurrence at tree level. They also successfully accounted for between-stand variation in species occurrence, thus providing realistic simulations of stand-level occupancy of species. Important unexplained between-stand variation in species occurrence warns against a simplified view that only local habitat factors influence species' occurrence. Apparently, similar stands will host populations of different sizes due to historical, spatial, and stochastic factors. Thus, habitat suitability cannot be assessed simply by population sizes, and stands lacking a species may still provide suitable habitat and merit protection.

     

  • 41.
    Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ryvarden, Leif
    Botany Department, University of Oslo, Blinderu, Oslo, Norway.
    Oligoporus norrlandicus nov sp2000In: Cryptogamie Mycologie, ISSN 0181-1584, E-ISSN 1776-100X, Vol. 21, no 3, 145-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligoporus norrlandicus is described as new and compared with similar white resupinate species.

  • 42.
    Berglund, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Är ute inne?: 15-åriga elevers uppfattningar om uteskola2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43. Bergström, G
    et al.
    Wassgren, A.-B.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hefetz, Abraham
    Simon, Dan
    Ohlsson, T
    Löfqvist, J
    Species specific, Two-Component, Volatile Signals in two Sympatric Ant-lion Species: Synclysis baetica and Acanthaclisis occitanica (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae1992In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, Vol. 17, no 7, 1177-1188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Wassgren, A.-B.
    Anderbrant, O
    Fägerhag, Jonas
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Högberg, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Geri, C
    Auger, M. A.
    Varama, M
    Hansson, B. S.
    Löfqvist, J
    Sex pheromone of the pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae): Chemical identification, synthesis and biological activity1995In: Experientia, ISSN 0014-4754, Vol. 51, no 4, 370-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Bernes, C.
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, K.
    Metsähallitus Parks and Wildlife Finland, C/o UEF, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, Finland .
    Lõhmus, A.
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, Estonia .
    Macdonald, E.
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada .
    Müller, J.
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Freyunger Str. 2, Grafenau, Germany .
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in boreal and temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic map2015In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, no 1, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The biodiversity of forests set aside from forestry is often considered best preserved by non-intervention. In many protected forests, however, remaining biodiversity values are legacies of past disturbances, e.g. recurring fires, grazing or small-scale felling. These forests may need active management to keep the characteristics that were the reason for setting them aside. Such management can be particularly relevant where lost ecological values need to be restored. In this review, we identified studies on a variety of interventions that could be useful for conserving or restoring any aspect of forest biodiversity in boreal and temperate regions. Since the review is based on Swedish initiatives, we have focused on forest types that are represented in Sweden, but such forests exist in many parts of the world. The wide scope of the review means that the set of studies is quite heterogeneous. As a first step towards a more complete synthesis, therefore, we have compiled a systematic map. Such a map gives an overview of the evidence base by providing a database with descriptions of relevant studies, but it does not synthesise reported results. Methods: Searches for literature were made using online publication databases, search engines, specialist websites and literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Finnish, French, German, Russian and Swedish. We searched not only for studies of interventions in actual forest set-asides, but also for appropriate evidence from commercially managed forests, since some practices applied there may be useful for conservation or restoration purposes too. Identified articles were screened for relevance using criteria set out in an a priori protocol. Descriptions of included studies are available in an Excel file, and also in an interactive GIS application that can be accessed at an external website. Results: Our searches identified nearly 17,000 articles. The 798 articles that remained after screening for relevance described 812 individual studies. Almost two-thirds of the included studies were conducted in North America, whereas most of the rest were performed in Europe. Of the European studies, 58 % were conducted in Finland or Sweden. The interventions most commonly studied were partial harvesting, prescribed burning, thinning, and grazing or exclusion from grazing. The outcomes most frequently reported were effects of interventions on trees, other vascular plants, dead wood, vertical stand structure and birds. Outcome metrics included e.g. abundance, richness of species (or genera), diversity indices, and community composition based on ordinations. Conclusions: This systematic map identifies a wealth of evidence on the impact of active management practices that could be utilised to conserve or restore biodiversity in forest set-asides. As such it should be of value to e.g. conservation managers, researchers and policymakers. Moreover, since the map also highlights important knowledge gaps, it could inspire new primary research on topics that have so far not been well covered. Finally, it provides a foundation for systematic reviews on specific subtopics. Based on our map of the evidence, we identified four subtopics that are sufficiently covered by existing studies to allow full systematic reviewing, potentially including meta-analysis. © 2015 Bernes et al.

  • 46.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland.
    Asko, Lõhmus
    Tartu University, Estonia.
    McDonald, Ellen
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What is the impact of active management on biodiversity in forests set aside for conservation or restoration?: A systematic review protocol2014In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 3, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The traditional approach to limiting impacts of forestry on biodiversity is to set aside forest areas of particular conservation interest, either as formally protected reserves or on a voluntary basis. Many set-asides are left more or less untouched, but some of them have a history of disturbances such as wildfires, forest grazing, coppicing or small-scale felling. Such areas may gradually lose the qualities that were to be safeguarded unless the disturbances are re-introduced (e.g. by burning) or replaced with alternatives (e.g. gap-felling). Active management of forest set-asides may be particularly relevant in areas where the biota has been impoverished by intensive and large-scale harvesting. Here, biodiversity may not be able to recover adequately without restoration measures such as gap-felling or creation of dead wood.

    In recent years, interest in active management of forest set-asides has increased, but opinions differ among conservationists on how such management should be balanced against non-intervention. The topic of the proposed systematic review has therefore met approval among stakeholders in Sweden, where it is currently an issue of high concern.

    Methods

    The review will examine primary field studies of how various forms of active management have affected biodiversity in boreal or temperate forests set aside for conservation or restoration. The primary focus will be on forest types represented in Sweden. In some cases, useful insights about management options may also be provided by studies of interventions in commercially managed forests. Non-intervention or alternative forms of active management will be used as comparators. Relevant outcomes include assemblage diversity (species richness, diversity indices), abundance of different functional or taxonomic groups of organisms, population viability of target species, and indicators of forest biodiversity such as forest structure and amounts of dead wood.

    The relevant scientific literature may turn out to be very heterogeneous, however. Numerous combinations of management forms and biodiversity outcomes can be conceived, and it remains to be seen whether any such combination is covered by sufficiently many studies to allow a meaningful meta-analysis. Nonetheless, it should be feasible to achieve a useful narrative synthesis of the available evidence.

  • 47.
    Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Mistra Council for Evidence-Based Environmental Management, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Junninen, Kaisa
    Metsähallitus Parks and Wildlife Finland, Joensuu, Finland; School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland .
    Lõhmus, Asko
    Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, Estonia.
    Macdonald, Ellen
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Müller, Jörg
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Freyunger Str. 2, Grafenau, Germany.
    Sandström, Jennie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    What are the impacts of manipulating grazing and browsing by ungulates on plants and invertebrates in temperate and boreal forests?: A systematic review protocol2016In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 5, no 1, 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Livestock grazing and 'overabundance' of large wild herbivores in forested areas have long been perceived as conflicting with the aims of both silviculture and forest conservation; however, certain kinds of herbivory can help to maintain habitat values in forest ecosystems. Management of grazing/browsing in protected forests can, therefore, be a critical tool for biodiversity conservation. However, it is not clear what impacts of wild ungulates or livestock are tolerable or desirable in forests set aside for conservation or restoration. The primary aim of the proposed systematic review is to clarify how the diversity of plants and invertebrates is affected by manipulation of the grazing/browsing pressure by livestock or wild ungulates. The ultimate purpose of the review is to investigate whether such manipulation is useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity in forest set-asides. Methods: The review will examine primary field studies of how fencing or other kinds of manipulation of the grazing/browsing pressure by livestock or wild ungulates affects plants or invertebrates. We will consider studies made in boreal or temperate forests anywhere in the world, incorporating investigations made not only in protected areas but also in stands under commercial management. Non-intervention or alternative levels of grazing pressure will be used as comparators. Relevant outcomes include abundance, diversity and composition of plants and invertebrates, tree regeneration, and performance of focal/target species. Relevant studies will mainly be selected from a recent systematic map of the evidence on biodiversity impacts of active management in forest set-asides. A search update will be made with a subset of the search terms used for the systematic map. Searches for additional literature will be made in bibliographies of existing reviews. Relevant studies will be subject to critical appraisal and categorised as having high, medium or low susceptibility to bias. Studies with high susceptibility to bias will be excluded from the review. Useful outcomes and data on interventions and other potential effect modifiers will be extracted from included articles. A narrative synthesis will describe the quality and findings of all studies in the review. Where studies report similar outcomes, meta-analysis will be performed.

  • 48. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Nyberg, L
    Stähli, Manfred
    Lindström, G
    Mellander, Per-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikael
    Tjäle och avrinning från boreal skogsmark - en studie inom Vindelns Försöksparker.2000Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A comparison between elite and well trained cross-country skiers in physiological response to variations in intensity during prolonged exercise2008In: 13th Annual Congress of the European College of Sports Science, Cologne: Sportools , 2008, 522- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Introduction: Cross-country ski racing includes continual variations in intensity due to terrain and tactics {Mygind et al 1994; Norman et al 1989). Consequently, the recovery between periods with higher intensity might affect the outcome of the race. Both blood metabolites and respiratory variables are used for standard performance evaluations for endurance athletes, although there is a lack information if respiratory variables respond similar to blood lactate and acid/base values during prolonged variable exercise. Therefore, the aims with the present study were to 1) evaluate whether respiratory variables are associated with blood lactate and acid/base variables, 2) how/if these variables might predict physical performance and 3) whether a calculated heart rate-oxygen uptake (HR-VO2) relationship is valid during variable intensity exercise. Methods: 12 cross-country skiers classified as elite (E, n=6) and formerly well-trained (FWT, n=6) performed two roller ski tests. 1) An incremental test to establish maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximum heart rate (HRmax) and lactate threshold (LT). Submaximal and maximal VO2 and HR during the incremental test were used for calculating the individual HR-VO2 linear relationship and 2) a 48-min long variable intensity protocol (VIP) at alternating exercise intensities, 90% (HI90) and 70% (MI70) of VO2max. Cardio-respiratory variables and venous blood samples were continuously collected throughout the VIP. Comparisons between E and FWT were performed using a two-tailed unpaired Student’s t-test and a ANCOVA analysis was used to determine which physiological variable best could prognosticate time to exhaustion (TTE). A simple linear regression was used to establish the relationship between HR and VO2. Results: Blood lactate concentrations [La] were higher and base excess [BE] lower for FWT from the first MI70 (P<0.05). FWT had augmented RER during all HI90 and an elevated VE/VO2 during the second and third HI90 in comparison to E (P<0.05). The expected HR were higher during the MI70 exercise intensities regardless of group affiliation (P<0.05). The blood [La] response predicted time to exhaustion earlier than respiratory variables (P<0.05). Discussion: Blood lactate and acid/base fluctuations were not reflected by RER and the ventilatory equivalents. Furthermore, blood lactate is to prefer, in comparison to ventilatory variables, to study performance related recovery processes during endurance exercise with variations in intensity. The expected HR-VO2 relationship was not valid during VIP.

     

  • 50.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Performance predicting factors in prolonged exhausting exercise of varying intensity2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 99, no 4, 423-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several endurance sports, e.g. road cycling, have a varying intensity profile during competition. At present, few laboratory tests take this intensity profile into consideration. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic value of heart rate (HR), lactate (La−1), potassium (K+), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) performance at an exhausting cycling exercise with varying intensity. Eight national level cyclists performed two cycle tests each on a cycle ergometer: (1) a incremental test to establish VO2max, maximum power (W max), and lactate threshold (VO2LT), and (2) a variable intensity protocol (VIP). Exercise intensity for the VIP was based upon the VO2max obtained during the incremental test. The VIP consisted of six high intense (HI) workloads at 90% of VO2max for 3 min each, interspersed by five middle intense (MI) workloads at 70% of VO2max for 6 min each. VO2 and HR were continuously measured throughout the tests. Venous blood samples were taken before, during, and after the test. Increases in HR, La-, K+, and RER were observed when workload changed from MI to HI workload (P < 0.05). Potassium and RER decreased after transition from HI to MI workloads (P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between time to exhaustion and decrease in La- concentration during the first MI (r = −0.714; P = 0.047). Furthermore, time to exhaustion correlated with VO2LT calculated from the ramp test (r = 0.738; P = 0.037). Our results suggest that the magnitude of decrease of La−1 between the first HI workload and the consecutive MI workload could predict performance during prolonged exercise with variable intensity

1234567 1 - 50 of 511
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf