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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2.
    Abedi, Shiva Masoumeh
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Considering a sustainable approach tonitrogen removal of waste waterin south-west Iran2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution of the drinking water environment has long been thought to be a primary cause of diseases. According to environmental research, there is a global water quality crisis. From an environmental stand point, eutrophication or accumulation of nitrates in wastewater are expected to cause high ammonium, low pH and increased nitrate concentrations [Koren et al. 2000] which are a critical form of nitrogen that needs our attention. This study considers the case of eutrophication in south-west Iran. This region is located in the Khuzestan province and consists of two basins (Karun and Dez) which can be seen as susceptible to the effect of eutrophication. This paper analyses the environmental pollution impact, economic, and social approaches of two waste water treatment plants. The case study focuses on a waste water treatment plant operated by activated sludge in Iran and the reference study is technology combined Sharon-Anammox treatment in Netherlands. The environmental impact assessment of these Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been analyzed by a Triple Bottom Line method. The hypothesis is to prove a general and specific outlook of the lowest environmental emissions, the lowest costs and creation of better welfare. The other method applied in this study is the barriers of transferring technology. The results show that the combined Sharon-Anammox method is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact based on the methods applied in this study.In this study, the generally considered barriers are problems of methods of transferring combined Sharon-Anammox technology to Iran and the possible obstacles that may be encountered in the transfer of technology to Iran. The result of this study is estimated with respect to an evaluation of political, environmental, economic, social, and technological capacity. The result is that most potential problems are political and economic in nature, which may be because these two issues are so closely related to each other. In this case, lack of management is a problem in the institution of policy, and could affect the economic situation. In fact each of the barriers could be overlapped and affect each other. Regarding all barriers and problems that are in the process of transferring technology, Iran as a developing country would be able to receive technologies.

  • 3.
    Adams, M L
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hawke, D J
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Nilsson, Nils
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Powell, K J
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    The relationship between soil solution pH and Al3+ concentrations in a range of South Island (New Zealand) soils2000Ingår i: Australian Journal of Soil Research, ISSN 0004-9573, E-ISSN 1446-568X, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 141-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of Al3+ were calculated in soil solutions from concentrations of the monomeric ‘reactive Al’ species ([Al3+] + [Al(OH)2+] + [Al(OH)2+] + [AlF2+]) obtained using a recently reported flow injection analysis (FIA) chelating resin technique. Soil solution samples came from 7 sites encompassing a range of New Zealand soils (Brown, Gley, Pallic, Podzol, and Recent Soils) and vegetation types (pasture, shrub lands, and indigenous and exotic forest). Previously published data from a further 7 sites, obtained using a rapid (7 s) FIA technique, were transformed to give compatible results. The resultant data (n = 85) covered the pH range 2.7–7.6, and showed a single curvilinear relationship for log [Al3+] v. soil solution pH, regardless of vegetation or soil type. At pH >5.6, the data had a slope of –2.98 and fell between the amorphous Al(OH)3 and gibbsite solubility lines. At pH <5.0, the data had a slope of –0.46; further, the soil solutions were under-saturated with respect to both minerals. These results are interpreted as indicating control of Al solubility by Al(OH)3(s) (at pH >5.6) and soil organic matter (at pH <5.0), respectively. This interpretation is supported by data from a pH-dependent Al–fulvic acid binding curve, for which calculated values of [Al3+] follow the same curvilinear relationship determined from the soil solution samples.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Diverting human urine from outhouses into agriculture in Nicaragua: for sanitation, fertilizer and recycling purposes2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Human urine is a   valuable resource which has good potential to be used as a fertilizer all   over the world. In the developing countries sanitation and food security are   both issues that need urgent attention.    A urine separation toilet can be constructed with minimal investment   in the Nicaraguan context, and the usage of the urine as a fertilizer can   help establish higher yields and is a good alternative to chemical   fertilizers. This field experiment is trying this in practice in the context   of rural Nicaragua, to determine the effect of urine on two plants on. For   this study, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the Chaya (Cnidoscolus   aconitifolius) was selected and the results confirm that urine has potential   as a fertilizer in the Nicaragua context. The common bean yield was twice as   large after urine fertilization and the Chaya reacted positively to urine   fertilization. For urine separation purposes, two different separators were   constructed on the site to showcase the benefits with separating the urine   from the faeces, creating lower latrine volume and better sanitation in the   outhouse. The risks associated with human urine are low if the urine is   separated securely to avoid crosscontamination from faeces. If a   safety-barrier system is adopted, the overall risks with using urine as a   fertilizer are negligible. The spreading potential of urine separation and   fertilization in rural Nicaragua is high, but more experiments and   demonstrations are needed to reach adopters of the technology.  

  • 5.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010Ingår i: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, s. 827-835Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 6.
    Alfred, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Byggstenar för en hållbar by: En fallstudie på föreningen Permakultur Stjärnsund2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns många definitioner och tankar kring vad hållbarhet är men ett huvudtema för många moderna och accepterade synsätt är idéen om att naturen utgör ramen för människans sociala och ekonomiska utveckling. Det är ändå inte klart hur ett hållbart liv inom naturens ramar ska levas rent praktiskt. Syftet med denna studie är därför att bidra till förståelsen för hur hållbara levnadssätt ska främjas. För att göra det söker denna rapport efter byggstenar i skapandet av hållbara byar.

    Detta gjordes genom en fallstudie på föreningen Permakultur Stjärnsund, en organisation som fått uppmärksamhet för sin alternativa levnadsstil. Fallstudien genomfördes med hjälp av fyra intervjuer av personer inom föreningen. För stödjande av fallstudien genomfördes också studier av vad tidigare undersökningar på hållbara byar fått fram. I tillägg lades ett jämförande ramverk av synsätt för begreppet hållbarhet till.

    Denna studie har kommit fram till att hållbara byar värderar ett liv närmare naturen och den sociala gemenskapen högre än konsumerande och ägande av saker. Anti-konsumtionstänket är en protest mot det nuvarande samhället. Detta tankesätt stöds av hållbarhetssynsätten. De menar att man ska använda sig av de naturliga resurserna med försiktighet. Det sociala kapitalet är den absolut viktigaste delen av bylivet. Utan en stark gemenskap och ömsesidighet så kan man inte börja arbetet med att leva inom naturens gränser. Detta är en prioritering som går tvärtemot vad synsätten menar är viktigast där naturen placeras som grunden för det sociala. Både på bynivå och bland synsätten finns en tydlig regel om att leva inom ekosystemens ramar. Detta är den tydligaste likheten mellan hållbara byar och synsätten. I stort sätt så finns det dock inte så självklara liknelser. Det finns en form av oliktänkande mellan synsätten och byarna. Det är helt enkelt en brist på förståelse och här behövs bättre kommunikation mellan det praktiska utövandet och samhällets styrsystem.

  • 7.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 8.
    Andoh-Appiah, Benjamin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    ComparativeExamination Of The Impacts Of Electricity Generation With Both Photovoltaic AndConventional Energies On Climate Change. The Case Of Mutanda Eco-CommunityCentre. (MECC)2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on how Mutanda Eco-Community   Centre (MECC) in the south western part of Uganda can harness the solar   energy at their disposal using photovoltaic as compared to the using of   conventional energies in producing the needed electricity at the centre and   the impacts on climate change. Since the centre is used in education on   climate change mitigation and adaptation measures, it is expected that   anything the centre does or uses with regards to energy ought to come from   renewable sources such as wind, solar, thermal and biomass. Electricity has   been a great challenge because there is no access to the national electricity   grid. Since there is much abundance of solar irradiation in the entire   country, solar poses as a potential sustainable energy since it is a   renewable energy and has the greatest environmental benefits. The objective   is in two categories: to determine how feasible the photovoltaic technology   is in Kisoro and its application at MECC and to analyse the effects on   climate change with comparison with non-renewable sources of energy. To   determine the above, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used.   Results from the studies through the use of simulation method (PVGIS-5)   indicate that Kisoro, where the centre is located, has solar irradiation to   harness due to Uganda´s geographical location on the equator. Findings   revealed there are feasible governmental and private policies, market for PVs   systems, enough players in the Sector and the willingness of the people to   adopt and use solar energy, and its markets economic studies do reveal to be   the indicators for the feasibility of the technology in Kisoro. Corrections   of a few bottlenecks will increase the adoption rate of the photovoltaic   systems. An investment of 85,000, 000 UGX will aid a financial benefit of   4,569.40 UGX per each kWh of electricity generated with 3.1years of Energy   Payback Time and will prevent environmental pollution when compared with   non-renewable energy. Climatic effects are minimal as compared to the other   sources of energy. This greenhouse gases emission comes during the production   of the PVs, modules and systems. The usage of solar technology possesses a   lot of advantages. It is an unlimited source of energy; its maximum usage   reduces carbon dioxide emissions. International conflicts of ownership of   source of conventional energies are reduced and solar power creates energy   security and dependency.

  • 9.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    ARTHUR, FRANK
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    CARBONDIOXIDE FLUXES FROM A CONTROLLED BOREAL RIVER2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    River, lakes and   streams account for more carbon dioxide emissions than all other freshwater   reservoirs together. However, there is still lack of knowledge of the   physical processes that control the efficiency of the air-water exchange of   CO2 in these aquatic systems. In the more turbulent water sections   of a river, the gas transfer is thought to be governed by the river’s   morphology such as bottom topography, slope and stream flow. Whiles for wider   sections of the river, the gas transfer could potentially be influenced by   atmospheric forcing (e.g. Wind speed). The main purpose of this project is to   study the fluxes of carbon dioxide and how (wind speed and stream discharge)   influence the CO2 fluxes in the river. In this study, direct and   continuous measurements of CO2 emission was conducted for the   first time in a controlled boreal river in Kattstrupeforsen (Sweden) from   18th April to 10th May 2018. A unique measurement setup which combines eddy   covariance techniques, general meteorology and in situ water variables (for   high accuracy emission measurements) was used. The results show that   in the late winter, an   upward directed CO2 fluxes measured in the river was approximately   2.2 μmol m−2 s−1. This value agrees with many other small and   large rivers where CO2 fluxes has been studied. The river can be   said to serve as source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the day due to   the dominant upward fluxes recorded during the daytime. The results also show   that carbon dioxide fluxes increase with increasing wind speed notably at   wind speed above 2 m s-1. There   was no relation between CO2 fluxes and stream discharge. This   indicates that wind speed could be one principal factor for air- river gas   exchange. The findings in this work on river gas exchange will provide   a basis for a regional estimate and be applicable for many river systems on a   global scale.

     

  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]2012Ingår i: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden., 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 12.
    askelund, sara
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Problems and improvements in reindeer’s habitat2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 13.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 14.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the challenges towards Feed-in Tariff law instrument in order to promote renewable energy in Iran. The targets of the study were chosen among authorities and investors in the field of wind energy. Wind power was selected as the case study because of its more popularity among investors. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the study and semi-structured interviews served as the method. Although there were a few studies done with the focus on renewable energy challenges in Iran, however, none of them focused on the challenges through Feed-in Tariff law. The results show that the law's long administrative process, lack of communication between authorities and investors, and rather low remuneration rate are the barriers to promote renewable energy in Iran. Furthermore, lack of financial assistance and imposed political and economical sanctions against Iran play an important role in this regard.

  • 15.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Linking ecological and economical progress at micro level by Nature-Economy (SDR) model.2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Bergkvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Jonsson, Elisie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Carbon Sequestration Potential f Agroforestry Systems For Phytoremediation In Chinandega, Nicaragua2018Ingår i: Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World / [ed] William Hogland, 2018, s. 211-211Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased to earlier unrecorded levels, causing global climate change that increases GMT and threaten ecosystems and livelihoods. IPCC report suggest that agroforestry offers considerable carbon sequestration (c seq.) potential, especially for developing countries. The purpose of this study is to estimate the c seq. potential in different agroforestry systems suitable in Chinandega, Nicaragua - a deforested region where the ground is polluted by toxaphene and other POP:s. Three scenarios where studied; Shading system using Tectona grandis and Pogostemon cablin; Alley cropping using Erythrina poeppigiana and Ricinus communis and Silvopasture using Cordia alliodora and Brachiaria ruziziensis, the last scenario being divided into two subscenarios; unmanaged (grazed) and managed (harvested) grass. Calculations were performed using the modelling program CO2FIX v. 3.2, with a runtime of 100 years and assuming deforested area with no previous land use. Results show a significantly higher c seq. potential in Shading system (168/217 MgC/ha). Alley cropping yields 71 MgC/ha and Silvopasture results in 80/84 MgC/ha unmanaged and 65/70 MgC/ha managed. The higher number includes products from harvest. All scenarios show fluctuations over time due to thinning and harvesting practices. Phytoremediation potential of POPs has been shown in Ricinus communis and grass species. Soil c seq. is especially important to consider in longterm scenarios as this c seq. can be sustained over longer time. The inclusion of crop residue, the effect of grazing animals or changes in density of trees and crops and environmental fate of the toxic compounds need further assessment before considering large scale applications. Agroforestry practices could contribute to several benefits, including climate change mitigation and phytoremediation.

  • 17. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18. Berndes, Göran
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Cintas Sanchez, Olivia
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Sustainable biofuels: critical review of current views and case studies using extended systems analysis providing new perspectives and positive examples2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Blomberg, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Hållbart lärande i Varbergs kommun2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte – Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur undervisningen för hållbar utveckling ser ut för fem grundskolor i Varbergs kommun. Förhoppningsvis ska studiens resultat kunna hjälpa skolor i framtiden att se över sin undervisning gällande hållbar utveckling och på vis kunna bidra för en ljusare framtid.

    Metod – Den genomförda studien bygger på en kvalitativ metod och baseras på semi-strukturerade intervjuer av sju stycken lärare på fem kommunala grundskolor i Varbergs kommun. Intervjuerna har bestått av åtta stycken frågor där författaren utgått från granskning av skolverkets läroplan samt aktuella undervisningsmetoder gällande hållbar utveckling.

    Resultat – Samtliga lärare för studien uttrycker kompetensbrist, tidsbrist samt brist av stöd från skolverket och Varbergskommun i sin undervisning när det gäller undervisningen av hållbar utveckling. Utifrån insamlade intervjuer konstaterades det att undervisning för hållbar utveckling hos berörda lärare för studien sker till största del genom miljöundervisning, speciellt i yngre åldrar. Där ligger fokus på lärdom om miljön i närområdet, materials egenskaper och förändring samt källsortering.

    Slutsats– Av studien kan författaren dra slutsatsen att lärarna behöver mer resurser för att kunna följa läroplanens mål för hållbar utveckling. Det räcker inte att som lärare utföra sina avsedda timmar med givna läroböcker för att nå läroplanens mål. För att kunna nå målen för hållbar utveckling måste lärare finna eget material som inspirerar elever och möter de kunskapskrav som idag är bärande i lärandet.

  • 20.
    Boily, J F
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nilsson, Nils
    Umeå Universitet.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå Universitet.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå Universitet.
    Benzenecarboxylate surface complexation at the goethite (alpha-FeOOH)/water interface: I. A mechanistic description of pyromellitate surface complexes from the combined evidence of infrared spectroscopy, potentiometry, adsorption data, and surface complexation modeling2000Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 16, nr 13, s. 5719-5729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation combining IR spectroscopy, potentiometric titrations, and adsorption experiments was carried out to study pyromellitate (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate) sorption at the goethite (α-FeOOH)/water interface. The IR spectra show evidence of outer-sphere complexation throughout the pH range from 3 to 9. Below pH 6 additional IR spectroscopic features appear, which are tentatively assigned to inner-sphere complexes. A normalized IR peak area plot for each peak indicative of inner- and of outer-sphere complexes as a function of pH provided a semiquantitative surface speciation scheme. This scheme was successfully reproduced using surface complexation theory with a multisite complexation model calibrated on potentiometric titration and on adsorption data. The surface speciation was described with a binuclear outer-sphere complex on the {110} plane of goethite and a mononuclear inner-sphere complex on the {001} plane. Furthermore, as the IR spectra also indicated partial protonation of pyromellitate complexes at low pH, a partially protonated outer-sphere species on the {110} plane was included in the model.

  • 21.
    Bois, Ida
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Miljömärkning av små logiverksamheter: Varför och varför inte?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turistnäringen växer vilket innebär en ökad miljöpåverkan och resursåtgång. Samtidigt är en välmående miljö en viktig faktor för många aktörer inom branschen. Många logiverksamheter vill dock visa att de tar sitt ansvar genom att aktivt försöka minska sin miljöpåverkan. Som hjälp för att visa upp detta engagemang finns idag en rad olika miljömärkningar.

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på motiven bakom att små logiverksamheter i Sverige väljer att miljömärka sig respektive att inte göra det, samt att få en djupare förståelse för dessa motiv. Studien tar också upp vilka möjligheter till miljömärkning som finns och vad de innebär.

    Studien är baserad på kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer och litteraturstudier. Respondenterna i studien är 6 st små logiverksamheter. Ett bed & breakfast, två hotell, ett vandrarhem och två pensionat. Tre av verksamheterna innehar miljömärkning. De tre andra har ingen miljömärkning, men två av dessa kommunicerar aktivt sitt miljöarbete. Miljömärkningar som fokuseras på i studien är Svanen, Green Key, EU-blomman och Naturens Bästa.

    Studien visar att en miljömärkning fungerar både som ett marknadsföringsverktyg och miljöledningssystem för logiverksamheter. Fördelar i marknadsföring, bättre koll på miljöarbetet, nya idéer och personligt engagemang har kommit fram i studien som motiv till att miljömärka.

    Motiv till att inte miljömärka är enligt studien tidsåtgång, stor kostnad och okunskap om möjligheterna till miljömärkning. Det har även framkommit att miljömärkningarna inte alltid är anpassade för mindre logiverksamheter.

    Respondenterna i studien anser att en miljömärkning har inneburit eller skulle innebära en liten eller obefintlig minskning av deras logiverksamheters miljöpåverkan.

    Ingen slutsats har dragits angående miljömärkningars effekt på logiverksamheters miljöpåverkan. 

  • 22.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för ekoteknik- och hållbart byggande.
    How can Ecosystem Services be implemented in local Climate Adaptation?: A case study of Arjeplog2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services are essential for human climate adaptation. As climate change is a direct driver of change for ecosystem service provisioning, it is of importance to care for our ecosystems to be able to cope with future challenges. Local governance has a central role in climate adaptation due to its responsibility in physical planning. To be able to plan for changes driven by climate change, a flexible, adaptive strategy is necessary. Ecosystem-based Adaptation, EbA, can provide this flexibility to an overall adaptation strategy. In this case study, the potential of EbA to help Nature-based Tourism, NbT, to adapt to a changing climate was spatially mapped to be a useful part of the basis for local physical planning. The mapping includes areas of biodiversity, water infrastructure and features that provide resilience to climate change. The results show that there are areas with potential for EbA that can address adverse effects of climate change for the NbT. These spatial mapped areas provide an instant overview of the key areas to consider when planning for climate adaptation. These mapped areas are also combined with a qualitative assessment of the potential for EbA. By providing decision-makers with information on where and how ecosystem services can assist local climate adaptation, decisions that support both the future of humanity and ecosystems are enabled. However, to reach enforcement of EbA, the knowledge has to be included in binding documents such as detail plans.

  • 23.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Samband mellan ekosystemtjänster - Synliggörande av påverkan från gruvverksamheten i Mertainen.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvverksamhet i Mertainen påverkar miljön ur flera perspektiv, här har ett försök till bedömning av påverkan på ekosystemtjänster utförts.

    En identifiering och värdering av ekosystemtjänster kan synliggöra värdet av de ekosystemtjänster som påverkas av verksamheten, och hur de i sin tur kan driva ytterligare påverkan på andra ekosystemtjänster.

    Studien använde Naturvårdsverkets Guide för värdering av ekosystemtjänster, för en metodisk identifiering och värdering av ekosystemtjänster där värderingen utfördes både kvantitativt och kvalitativt.

    Identifieringen visade på samband mellan ekosystemtjänster, vilka samanställda synliggjorde feedback loops. Resultatet visar både hur ekosystemtjänster kan påverka varandra samt att hänsyn behöver tas gällande möjliga hot mot ekosystemtjänster lokalt, regionalt och globalt.

    Trots att fler studier är nödvändiga för större säkerhet i resultat kan en identifiering och värdering av ekosystemtjänster bidra till ett systemperspektiv av verksamhetens påverkan på ekosystemet.

  • 24.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015Ingår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, s. 95-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 25.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 26.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Aquaponic systems: Potentials on a northern latitude2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaponics is a food production method that combines hydroponic and aquaculture to form a system that, through symbiosis, re-circulates all the water and nutrients – and thereby negates any discharge of eutrophied or contaminated residuals – in order to grow terrestrial plants and aquatic life. To study the possibilities of aquaponics at northern latitude, a small scale aquaponic system was constructed in Jämtland, a county in the Mid Sweden region (latitude 63°) and studied while running over a nine month period, August 2012 to April 2013.

    The fish species grown in the fish tank was a species of trout prominent in local lake and stream fauna. The plants in the growbed were a mixture of different flora with herbs as a dominating part. Water from a local groundwater well was used. At start, appropriate nitrogen level in the system was achieved by adding ammonia. The values of nitrate, nitrite, pH, carbonate and total hardness were analyzed in repeatedly measured samples. The values stabilized quickly and stayed stable over the duration of the experiment. Heavy metals were analyzed at one point in time and showed no levels causing reason for alarm. Electric energy use for pumps and lighting was measured to reach close to 40 kWh per month.

    The trout growth was monitored and found to be comparable with (equal or slightly higher than in) the conventional aquaculture where the fish were originally obtained, when comparing with the same species and same brood. Among flora three herbs were the species thriving best, Oregano, Rosemary and Thyme. They kept growing throughout the winter with Oregano never ceasing to bloom. The total mass of produced vegetables and herbs were fairly low, since the herbs grew best. Results indicate that present aquaculture systems (fish only) could potentially be converted or adjusted into aquaponic systems (recirculating and purifying the water through a growbed) and thereby decrease potential risks of fresh water pollution from fish farming, especially regarding excessive nutrients.

    From the results in this study it seems aquaponic systems on northern latitudes are more favorable if focusing on fish growth, with herbs or vegetables as added benefit, and not focusing on maximizing vegetable growth. Continued studies would do well to investigate optimization parameters through, for instance, mass balance calculations and to identify optimal mixtures of plants over the year.

  • 28.
    Carlsson, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Environmental Crime Intelligence: The need for a locally and regionally oriented intelligence system on the field of environmental crime2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns researching the need for an environmental crime intelligence system at regional and local level geared specifically for environmental crimes within the Swedish Police as well as the need for such a combined operation towards e.g. supervisory authorities.

    The study views the current situation of environmental crime and environmental damage in part being caused due to an environmental legal implementation deficit. The study explains and defines the need as well as initiates a theoretical systematic design for an Environmental Crime Intelligence which could help reduce the deficit and so help reduce environmental damage. An Environmental Intelligence which in operation from the national level down through the organization would be linking police, prosecutors and county administrations. Authorities – who are assumed to enable, simplify, and standardize discoveries, obligations, investigations and prosecution – would be better interlinked and processed for an improved view and control in the field of environmental crime.

    This study shows the need to rethink and reevaluate the current state of environmental crime prevention process in terms of priorities and chronological regard. It has shown to verify the theory of legal implementation deficiency. Besides this, the study has also shown a way to reduce that deficiency. With this in mind it has been made visible how the need for an Environmental Intelligence system on a local and regional level would with all probability do very well by current anthropogenic systems.

    The study finds the presence of an Environmental Intelligence a consistently desired, preferred, alternative from the perspectives of the authorities mentioned above. Many of the findings points straight towards a similarity – principally in prioritization and procedures – through the intent and purpose of research for reducing environmental crime on an international level. This is viewed as a suitable segment of the methodological foundation.

  • 29.
    Chandolias, Pavlos
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Diesel from wood biomass: Screening LCA of a proposed KDV-plant in Jämtland, Sweden2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    KDV-processen använder katalytisk depolymerisering för att omvandla biomassa till dieselolja. Miljöprestanda för KDV-diesel från en föreslagen KDV-anläggning i Jämtland län, Sverige, har studerats med livscykelanalys (LCA) metodik. Studiens funktionella enhet var en liter av KDV-diesel och de studerade miljöpåverkanskategorierna var Klimatpåverkan (GWP), Övergödning (EP) och Försurning (AP). Skogsbruket påverkade signifikant livscykelprestanda för KDV-dieselproduktion från trädbiomassa i de tre studerade miljöpåverkanskategorierna. Kontrasterad mot konventionell dieselolja bidrog KDV-diesel betydligt mindre till GWP eftersom det inte finns några utsläpp av fossil koldioxid (CO2) under användningsfasen, men bidrog samtidigt mer till EP och AP på grund av något högre utsläpp i produktionsfasen. Denna slutsats gäller för fem olika elförsörjning scenarier för produktion av KDV-diesel som studerats. Varje scenario använde olika typ av elproduktion: vindkraft; vattenkraft; kärnkraft; kolkraft; samt att använda en del av den producerade KDV-diesel för egen elproduktion. En annan scenarioanalys studerade alternativ användning av trädbiomassan och antog att samma mängd träbiomassa användes för att generera bio-elektricitet istället för KDV-diesel. Scenarioanalysen visade att utfallet för ifall träbiomassan borde användas för produktion av KDV-diesel eller bio-electricitet beror på typen av elproduktion som används för KDV-diesels livscykel.

  • 30.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Peters, Gregory
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, s. 345-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental im-pacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing designare of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabellingschemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This studyinvestigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving thegarment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and con-trasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the materialwas analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currentlyonly marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For amore sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in thedesign process regarding sustainability of theirfinished products. Such a change is only possible if thedesigners can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 31.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The ageing society – an example of consequences for biomass use2010Ingår i: MFA for Sustainable Future, Tokyo, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Environmental challenges when developing renewable materials to replace non-renewable materials - receiving guidance from LCA studies2010Ingår i: 9th International Conference on EcoBalance 2010 'Towards & Beyond 2020' 9-12 November,Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demand for more sustainable products is growing, the pressure on material developers to improve the sustainability performance of the products that they are developing is increasing. As a consequence, the need to move away from a narrow understanding of “product” and “environment” is becoming more apparent. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been used to find rough estimates of how much process energy, raw materials etc. are used in the process of transforming a biomass feedstock into a new material. A reference product with a fossil based material intended to be replaced is used as a benchmark for the new product. The new product must perform at least as well as this benchmark and preferably better. We illustrate this LCA based methodology using the example of replacing petroleum-based polymeric material with wood-based material in a disposable consumer product.

  • 33.
    Cox, Erica
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Höjning av Fäbodträsket - Hur påverkas ekosystemtjänsterna om sjön höjs?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjön Fäbodträsket har under många år sänkts med igenväxning och sämre vattenkvalitet som följd. Stugföreningen för sjön vill undersöka möjligheten att höja sjön Fäbodträsket och den sammankopplade sjön Vallsträsket till sin ursprungliga nivå, genom att göra en fördämning vid deras utlopp till Bureälven. För att få göra detta behöver de komplettera sin ansökan till mark- och miljödomstolen med en MKB.

    Denna undersökning handlar om att ta ekosystemperspektivet till hjälp i bedömningen om det är lämpligt att höja sjöarna Fäbodträsket och Vallsträsket och därefter diskutera hur ekosystemtjänster kan integreras i MKB-processen. Delar ur MKB-verktyget har använts som grund och berörda ekosystemtjänster har identifierats och värderats utifrån om de kommer att öka eller minska i värde vid höjningen av sjön samt vid nollalternativet. Värdet på nio av elva utvalda ekosystemtjänster ökar vid en höjning av sjön Fäbodträsket. Stugorna runt sjön höjs i värde vid en höjning av sjön, medan en liten del jordbruksmark minskar i värde.

    Resultaten visar att en höjning av sjön är försvarbar ur ett ekosystemjänstperspektiv och får stöd i såväl lokala som nationella miljömål.

  • 34.
    Daniali, Iran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    The Initial Deployment of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment: Case study: Green Highway Region, E14 from Sundsvall in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered a more sustainable alternative vehicle because of their efficient electric motor when compared to internal combustion engines (ICE), and thus help to mitigate environmental problems and reduce fossil fuel dependency. In or-der to support drivers of plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PEVs), the installation and adequate distribution of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) is a major factor. The availability of EVSE is a vital requirement in order to charge the vehicle’s battery pack through connection to the electricity grid. This thesis evaluates the likely distribu-tion of a sufficient number of charging stations, measured as the demand of EVSE, for initial deployment in the E14 highway. This highway is also known as the Green High-way region, where a plan has been outlined with the aim to create a fleet of 15% EVs in the area by 2020.In order to model EVSE distribution, the first step was to complete a survey in 2012 on the population density and location of cities, along with the location of already estab-lished charging station locations on the Green Highway. The survey was done with ge-ography information survey (GIS) software. The second step was to create a map of the region. Based on the map, the initial estimate of EVSE locations on the Green Highway project plan was analyzed, as the third step. This was used as an initial analysis. The forth step was to use the location of current gasoline stations to provide as alternative pattern for the EVSE sites.It was observed that the network of gasoline stations correlates positively with population density. Through using these stations, the optimal location of the EVSEs was proposed. However, the model results do not provide for sufficient placement of EVSE sites where the population density is very low. In order to assess the different potential options, it was necessary to create analytical models in Arc-GIS, in which buffer zones were created with a variable size of 10, 15, 20 and 31 miles. This permitted allocation of a geographical area to estimate the optimum sites for charging stations. The resultsiiishowed that for a buffer zone of 10 miles, 28 charging stations were calculated, using buffer zone of 15 miles gives 18 stations, and a buffer zone of 20 miles results in 13 charging station sites. Notably, the estimate of the 20-mile buffer zone gives the same results as for the 50 km (31 miles) buffer zone for residential areas along E14. Therefore, the results show that the optimal design is to deploy 14 fast charging stations with three-phase DC, or 14 fast charging stations with three-phase AC, installed adjacent to the E14 road.

  • 35.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

    In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

    The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

    Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

    From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

  • 36.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Sweden .
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO AB (publ), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016Ingår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, s. 352-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden.

    The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 37. Dimitriou, I.
    et al.
    Berndes, G.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Brown, M.
    Busch, G.
    Dale, V.
    Devlin, G.
    English, B.
    Goss, K.
    Jackson, S.
    Kline, K. L.
    McDonnell, K.
    McGrath, J.
    Mola-Yudego, B.
    Murphy, F.
    Negri, M. C.
    Parish, E. S.
    Ssegane, H.
    Tyler, D.
    Lignocellulosic crops in agricultural landscapes: production systems for biomass and other environmental benefits - examples, incentives, and barriers2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 39.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, nr 1, s. 462-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

  • 40.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings2011Ingår i: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Dyer, Mark
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Examining barriers to phytoremediating heavy metal polluted soils in developing countries2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal soil pollution from anthropogenic sources such as historical use of fertilizers, poor waste disposal, and spills from industries are a serious environmental problem. This can be especially damaging in developing countries where incentives are limited to remediate these soils, and some of the poorest regions are the most affected. Soil remediation can clean heavy metal polluted soil to a level that is sustainable for the environment and the organisms that inhabit it. Many conventional soil remediation techniques can be very expensive, and resource and energy intensive, making them poor choices for developing countries. However, phytoremediation, an emerging soil remediation technology, is much cheaper and less intensive by using the natural ability of certain plants to clean polluted soils. Although phytoremediation has been considered the best available technology for developing countries with heavy metal polluted soil, it is still being underutilized. In this thesis, through the examination of case studies from the U.S., several barriers are identified that are preventing further implementation of phytoremediation projects in developing countries. These barriers include, the difficulties for developing countries in recognising the scale of heavy metal pollution, a lack of enforcement of environmental legislation and standards, prohibitive costs of projects, problems with the effectiveness of phytoremediation as a soil remediation technology, and a lack of technological knowledge.

  • 42.
    Eklund, Ellinor
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    How should Nederman adjust their sustainability reporting as a consequence of the new EU-directive?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    By incorporating sustainability on all levels in an organization, it signals to customers, stakeholders and others that are affected by the company’s actions that they are taking actions towards a more sustainable business on all levels. There are several benefits from doing so, the organization can identify areas that need improvement, and highlight areas that are ahead in their sustainability work.

     

    In 2017 all companies within the European Union that have 500 employees or more have to report on sustainability according to the new EU directive (2014/95/EU). Today Nederman has a report covering their sustainability work, however, it does not meet the requirements of the new EU directive. This report is a part of the preparatory work that has to be completed before being able to form a sustainability report according to the new directive.

     

    A benchmarking of six companies, of which three are competitors was done as well as a GAP analysis, weighing Nederman’s current key objectives with the new indicators.

     

    The result shows that Nederman’s existing Key Performance Indicators are relevant but are not enough to meet criterias of the new EU-directive. Several new indicators are suggested regarding energy use, CO2 emissions, water use, recycling and Transport. The GAP analysis showed a clear increase in quality in the reports reporting according to GRI and following UN Global Compact. By adapting to the suggested indicators as well as doing Integrated reporting, a higher level of sustainability reporting can be reached. There are strengths and weaknesses with all ways of measuring data and the potential of measuring errors or using not very useful unit is always present. What is most interesting is the development over time since that can be measured in percent and trends can be seen.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 43.
    Eklund, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar för mikroproduktion av el med förnybar solenergi i Jämtlands län med fokus på Östersunds stad2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har undersökt olika möjligheter och begränsningar för mikroproduktion av el med förnybar solenergi i Jämtlands län. Fokus har riktats mot Östersunds stad där sex mikroproducenter intervjuades gällande deras upplevda möjligheter och begränsningar. 64 villaägare i Östersund och Frösön svarade på frågor gällande deras intresse för solceller och vilken typ av information de skulle vilja ha för att bli mer intresserade. De åtta primärkommunerna i Jämtlands län kontaktades också för att få en bild av hur de ställer sig till bygglov för solceller. Resultatet av studien visar att de intervjuade mikroproducenterna upplever byråkrati som den största begränsningen, framför allt momsregistrering. En tydlig kontaktperson alternativt en grupp av personer med erfarenheter efterfrågas för att intresserade personer ska få nödvändig information till att själv bli mikroproducenter. Resultaten av de tillfrågade villaägarna indikerar att det finns ett visst intresse från villaägare att införskaffa solceller. De vill dock främst ha mer information gällande ekonomi som exempelvis pris och återbetalningstid, som kommer från en oberoende källa. De flesta av de åtta primärkommunerna i Jämtlands län har inga tydliga skrivelser gällande bygglov för solceller. Det övergripande svaret var att det inte behövs bygglov för solceller om de placeras i samma lutning som taket på en- till tvåfamiljshus. Det kan dock skilja sig från fall till fall och en förklaring till detta kan vara att det inte heller står tydligt om bygglov för solceller i varken Plan och bygglagen (SFS 2010:900) eller Plan- och byggförordningen (SFS 2011:338). Slutsatserna av studien är att en tydlig kontaktperson alternativt en grupp av personer med erfarenheter bör finnas tillgängligt hos kommunen eller annan oberoende källa. Detta för att ge mer information om förutsättningar till de som är intresserade att bli mikroproducent av solenergi. För att främja en ökning av mikroproducenter behöver utmaningen av byråkrati som exempelvis hanteringen av momsregistrering förenklas. Resultat av studien indikerar att det finns ett visst intresse från villaägare att införskaffa solceller. Dock vill de främst ha mer information gällande ekonomi som exempelvis pris och återbetalningstid från en oberoende part. Gällande bygglov för solceller kan det vara motiverat att kommunerna är tydligare i vad som gäller i deras kommun. Detta för att göra det enkelt samt minska osäkerheter och främja mikroproduktion av solenergi.

  • 44.
    Eliasson, Karin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    HALMBASERAD DJUPSTRÖGÖDSEL I KONTINUERLIGA BIOGASPROCESSER PÅ GÅRDSNIVÅ2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas from organic waste is one part in a sustainable energy system.  Biogas based on residues and organic materials from agricultural production can increase the level of energy self-sufficiency on the farm and will provide a better recycling of nutrients. For that reason it is important to development methods to increase the efficiency at agricultural based biogas. Biogas production on farm scale level is often dimensioned on the quantity of the liquid manure available, which has high water content. This results in a relatively low utilization of the microorganisms in the biogas process. On the other hand, most livestock farms have access to manure which is mixed with bedding material (often straw), called “deep litter manure”. Solid materials to be processed in the anaerobic process need some kind of pre-treatment and the milling, pumping and mixing of the substrates that are needed, results in an increase of energy requirements. The study was conducted to identify the possibilities for a more efficient utilization of the anaerobic digester and a better energy yield when deep litter manure is added to the process. Managing deep litter manure in the biogas process also results in an increase in the availability of nitrogen in the farm's manure.

    To investigate the relevance of pre-treatment for the biogas potential (B0) of deep litter manure a chopping method for particle size reduction was developed in the project. Deep litter manure from two farms was used. The potential for biogas was investigated in a batchprocess, in a process temperature of 39 C °. Methane and carbon dioxide were analyzed in gas chromatography to calculate the methane production from deep litter manure. The results showed that the production of methane from the chopped sample of deep litter manure was twice as high compared to the production from the untreated sample. Furthermore, the specific methane yield of the first 13 days was significantly higher for the pretreated fraction of the substrate, 156 l VS CH4/kg, compared with 62 l CH4/kg VS of the untreated sample. A fast startup phase for the biogas process will decrease the retention time form the substrate in the digester. No significant difference could be demonstrated in the experiments with regards to different degrees of chopping of the substrate.

    One problem of mechanical pre-treatment methods of the solid substrate is the energy consumption.  The method is however the most common on farm scale biogas digesters, according to the interview conducted among Swedish suppliers of biogas systems. The Swedish suppliers recommend a solution in which the solid substrate is mixed with the liquid substrate in a pre-treatment reactor.  The experiments show that solid substrate provides more gas at the same time as it costs energy and investment to get it into the biogas plant. Results of the batch experiment were used to calculate the possible investment level for pre-treatment methods. An investment level of about 450 000 SEK with an amortization period of ten years and operating costs of 10% of the amount, is needed in order include deep litter manure in the biogas process. The possibility for a farm to use all its manure in the biogas process will provide better biogas yields, in addition to greater effect in relation to the invested volume of the digester. The potential of deep litter manure in farm biogas process should be carefully analyzed on a case-by-case basis as the heterogeneity of the substrate is large and the energy exchange is strongly connected with the choice of pre-treatment technology.

  • 45.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Forss, Linda
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Noaksson, E
    Säll, B
    Samverkan mellan små innovativa miljöteknikföretag och kund2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers.
    On Sustainability of Biomass for Energy and the Governance Thereof2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to concerns about climate change, energy security, and resource scarcity, non- renewable resources are increasingly being displaced by biomass. As with most human activities, the production of biobased products can be associated with negative impacts. Primarily, this relates to the biomass supply systems, i.e., agriculture and forestry, which currently are major causes of biodiversity loss and degradation of ecosystem services. Developing sustainable production systems when transitioning from non-renewable resources to biomass is imperative. This thesis aims to clarify the meaning of sustainability in the context of biomass for bioenergy, and contribute to our understanding of how different forms of governance can promote sustainably sourced biomass for bioenergy. The thesis is based on five appended papers: Paper I analyses to what extent, where, and under what conditions oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil can be produced profitably, and what risks and opportunities that can be associated with introducing large-scale oil palm production in Brazil. Paper II lays the foundation for understanding how new biomass production can be introduced into landscapes while supporting rather than compromising the ability of the landscape to supply other ecosystem services. Paper III describes different forms of governance and shows how these can play different roles in promoting sustainable bioenergy in different countries. Paper IV focuses on how short rotation coppice production systems are affected by EU policy and how different governance forms can assist in adapting production systems to conform to the corresponding sustainability requirements. Finally, Paper V assesses how sustainability certification (private governance) addresses biodiversity conservation and contributes to our understanding of possible improvements.

  • 47.
    Englund, Oskar
    Ekologistas.
    Politisk samsyn krävs för nya elnät och ny elproduktion2013Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Englund, Oskar
    Ekologistas.
    Siffrorna för vindkraft stämmer inte2011Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Englund, Oskar
    Ekologistas.
    Stämmer inte att svenskarna vill ha kärnkraft2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 50.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers.
    Towards Sustainable Bioenergy - Governance, Resource potentials and Trade-offs2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global energy system needs to be transformed from fossil dependent to renewable, to cope with the challenges of resource scarcity and climate change. Bioenergy can play an important role in this transformation, but land is scarce, and uncontrolled bioenergy expansion could have unacceptable consequences. This thesis contributes to the understanding of (i) how bioenergy governance can be improved to better safeguard sustainability; and (ii) the extent to which biomass can be used for energy, focusing on the potential for biodiesel from Brazilian oil palm.In Paper I, we present sustainability criteria that may affect a range of stakeholders involved with short rotation coppice (SRC) bioenergy, and attempt to outline a framework for engaging relevant stakeholders in the development of sustainable SRC. In Paper II, we present an assessment of how biodiversity is considered in different types of sustainability standards. We discuss key barriers to, and challenges for, certification schemes in general, and conclude that all the assessed standards can, to a varying degree, be improved to better consider biodiversity. In Paper III, we analyse the economic potential of producing oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil in different policy scenarios, as well as the corresponding trade-offs with various conservation objectives. The results unveil a very large economic potential: Without causing any direct land use change emissions and without inflicting on high conservation value areas, a total of 71-89 Mha land could support production of 6.9-7.8 EJ/year of biodiesel, corresponding to 13-15% of the global petrodiesel demand.

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