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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2.
    Abedi, Shiva Masoumeh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Considering a sustainable approach tonitrogen removal of waste waterin south-west Iran2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution of the drinking water environment has long been thought to be a primary cause of diseases. According to environmental research, there is a global water quality crisis. From an environmental stand point, eutrophication or accumulation of nitrates in wastewater are expected to cause high ammonium, low pH and increased nitrate concentrations [Koren et al. 2000] which are a critical form of nitrogen that needs our attention. This study considers the case of eutrophication in south-west Iran. This region is located in the Khuzestan province and consists of two basins (Karun and Dez) which can be seen as susceptible to the effect of eutrophication. This paper analyses the environmental pollution impact, economic, and social approaches of two waste water treatment plants. The case study focuses on a waste water treatment plant operated by activated sludge in Iran and the reference study is technology combined Sharon-Anammox treatment in Netherlands. The environmental impact assessment of these Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been analyzed by a Triple Bottom Line method. The hypothesis is to prove a general and specific outlook of the lowest environmental emissions, the lowest costs and creation of better welfare. The other method applied in this study is the barriers of transferring technology. The results show that the combined Sharon-Anammox method is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact based on the methods applied in this study.In this study, the generally considered barriers are problems of methods of transferring combined Sharon-Anammox technology to Iran and the possible obstacles that may be encountered in the transfer of technology to Iran. The result of this study is estimated with respect to an evaluation of political, environmental, economic, social, and technological capacity. The result is that most potential problems are political and economic in nature, which may be because these two issues are so closely related to each other. In this case, lack of management is a problem in the institution of policy, and could affect the economic situation. In fact each of the barriers could be overlapped and affect each other. Regarding all barriers and problems that are in the process of transferring technology, Iran as a developing country would be able to receive technologies.

  • 3.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 4.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 5.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 7.
    askelund, sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Problems and improvements in reindeer’s habitat2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the challenges towards Feed-in Tariff law instrument in order to promote renewable energy in Iran. The targets of the study were chosen among authorities and investors in the field of wind energy. Wind power was selected as the case study because of its more popularity among investors. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the study and semi-structured interviews served as the method. Although there were a few studies done with the focus on renewable energy challenges in Iran, however, none of them focused on the challenges through Feed-in Tariff law. The results show that the law's long administrative process, lack of communication between authorities and investors, and rather low remuneration rate are the barriers to promote renewable energy in Iran. Furthermore, lack of financial assistance and imposed political and economical sanctions against Iran play an important role in this regard.

  • 10.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Linking ecological and economical progress at micro level by Nature-Economy (SDR) model.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Blomberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hållbart lärande i Varbergs kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate how the teaching of sustainable development looks for five primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. Hopefully, the study’s findings will help primary schools to revise their teaching regarding sustainable development and contribute to a brighter future.

    Method - The current study is based on a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with seven teachers at five public primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. The interviews consisted of eight questions, which the author has assumed from the review of the curriculum and the current teaching practices on sustainable development.

    Results – Teachers for the study expresses lack of skills, time and support from Skolverket and the municipality of Varberg in their teaching regarding work of sustainable development. Based on the collected interviews, it was found that education for sustainable development is done mainly through environmental education, especially at younger ages. There, the focus is on learning about the local environment, material properties and change and recycling.

    Conclusion - The author can conclude that teachers need more resources for to be able to follow the curriculum's sustainable development objectives. It is not enough that teachers perform their intended hours with given textbooks to reach the objectives of the curriculum. In order to achieve sustainable development goals, teachers must find their own material that inspires students and meet the proficiency requirements that are currently bearing in learning.

  • 13.
    Bois, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Miljömärkning av små logiverksamheter: Varför och varför inte?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing which means an increased impact on the environment and an increased resource use. At the same time a healthy environment is of significant importance for many operators within the tourism industry. Many lodging operations want to put on display that they are responsible and that they are doing improvements to decrease their environmental impact. A number of ecolabels are available to help them do so.

    The purpose of this study is to learn the motives behind why small lodging operations in Sweden choose to put an ecolabel on their companies, or the motives behind why they choose not to. The study also includes research about what ecolabel opportunities small lodging operations in Sweden have and what they mean.

    The study is based on qualitative research interviews and literature studies. The respondents are six small lodging operations. One Bed & Breakfast, two hotels, one hostel and two guesthouses. Three of the companies are ecolabelled, the other three are not. Ecolabels that are focused on in the study are Svanen (Nordic Ecolabel), Green Key, EU-blomman (EU Eco label) and Naturens Bästa (Nature's Best).

    The study shows that an ecolabel works as both a marketing tool and an environmental management system for lodging operations. The study also indicates that reasons to get an ecolabel are marketing gains, better track of the environmental work, new ideas and personal commitment.

    Motives behind not putting an ecolabel on the lodging operation have in the study shown to be the cost, expenditure of time and unawareness of the ecolabel opportunities. It has also been mentioned that the ecolabels are not always suitable for the smaller lodging operations.

    The respondents considers that an ecolabel has meant or would mean a small or no decrease of the environmental impact of their lodging operation.

    No conclusion has been reached regarding ecolabels effect on lodging operations' environmental impact.

  • 14.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Samband mellan ekosystemtjänster - Synliggörande av påverkan från gruvverksamheten i Mertainen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several perspectives of the environmental impacts of mining in Mertainen, this study is an attempt to assess the impact on ecosystem services.

    An identification and valuation of ecosystem services can highlight the value of the ecosystem services affected by operations, and how they in turn drive a further impact on other ecosystem services.

    In order to reach a methodical identification and valuation of ecosystem services the Environmental Protection Agency's Guide for valuation of ecosystem services, was used where both quantitative and qualitative valuation was conducted.

    The identification showed connections between ecosystem services, which compiled visualized feedback loops. The result shows both how the ecosystem services can influence each other, and that consideration needs to be taken regarding possible threats to ecosystem services on a local, regional and global level.

    Although more studies are necessary for higher certainty in the results, the identification and valuation of ecosystem services contribute to a systemic perspective of the impacts on the ecosystem..

  • 15.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 16.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 17.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Aquaponic systems: Potentials on a northern latitude2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaponics is a food production method that combines hydroponic and aquaculture to form a system that, through symbiosis, re-circulates all the water and nutrients – and thereby negates any discharge of eutrophied or contaminated residuals – in order to grow terrestrial plants and aquatic life. To study the possibilities of aquaponics at northern latitude, a small scale aquaponic system was constructed in Jämtland, a county in the Mid Sweden region (latitude 63°) and studied while running over a nine month period, August 2012 to April 2013.

    The fish species grown in the fish tank was a species of trout prominent in local lake and stream fauna. The plants in the growbed were a mixture of different flora with herbs as a dominating part. Water from a local groundwater well was used. At start, appropriate nitrogen level in the system was achieved by adding ammonia. The values of nitrate, nitrite, pH, carbonate and total hardness were analyzed in repeatedly measured samples. The values stabilized quickly and stayed stable over the duration of the experiment. Heavy metals were analyzed at one point in time and showed no levels causing reason for alarm. Electric energy use for pumps and lighting was measured to reach close to 40 kWh per month.

    The trout growth was monitored and found to be comparable with (equal or slightly higher than in) the conventional aquaculture where the fish were originally obtained, when comparing with the same species and same brood. Among flora three herbs were the species thriving best, Oregano, Rosemary and Thyme. They kept growing throughout the winter with Oregano never ceasing to bloom. The total mass of produced vegetables and herbs were fairly low, since the herbs grew best. Results indicate that present aquaculture systems (fish only) could potentially be converted or adjusted into aquaponic systems (recirculating and purifying the water through a growbed) and thereby decrease potential risks of fresh water pollution from fish farming, especially regarding excessive nutrients.

    From the results in this study it seems aquaponic systems on northern latitudes are more favorable if focusing on fish growth, with herbs or vegetables as added benefit, and not focusing on maximizing vegetable growth. Continued studies would do well to investigate optimization parameters through, for instance, mass balance calculations and to identify optimal mixtures of plants over the year.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Environmental Crime Intelligence: The need for a locally and regionally oriented intelligence system on the field of environmental crime2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns researching the need for an environmental crime intelligence system at regional and local level geared specifically for environmental crimes within the Swedish Police as well as the need for such a combined operation towards e.g. supervisory authorities.

    The study views the current situation of environmental crime and environmental damage in part being caused due to an environmental legal implementation deficit. The study explains and defines the need as well as initiates a theoretical systematic design for an Environmental Crime Intelligence which could help reduce the deficit and so help reduce environmental damage. An Environmental Intelligence which in operation from the national level down through the organization would be linking police, prosecutors and county administrations. Authorities – who are assumed to enable, simplify, and standardize discoveries, obligations, investigations and prosecution – would be better interlinked and processed for an improved view and control in the field of environmental crime.

    This study shows the need to rethink and reevaluate the current state of environmental crime prevention process in terms of priorities and chronological regard. It has shown to verify the theory of legal implementation deficiency. Besides this, the study has also shown a way to reduce that deficiency. With this in mind it has been made visible how the need for an Environmental Intelligence system on a local and regional level would with all probability do very well by current anthropogenic systems.

    The study finds the presence of an Environmental Intelligence a consistently desired, preferred, alternative from the perspectives of the authorities mentioned above. Many of the findings points straight towards a similarity – principally in prioritization and procedures – through the intent and purpose of research for reducing environmental crime on an international level. This is viewed as a suitable segment of the methodological foundation.

  • 20.
    Chandolias, Pavlos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diesel from wood biomass: Screening LCA of a proposed KDV-plant in Jämtland, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The KDV-process uses catalytic depolymerisation to convert biomass into diesel oil. The environmental performance of KDV-diesel in a proposed KDV-plant located in the County of Jämtland, Sweden, was assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit of the study was one litre of KDV-diesel and the environmental impact categories that were considered were Global Warming Potential (GWP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Acidification Potential (AP). The acquisition of wood biomass significantly affected the life cycle performance of KDV-diesel production in all three impact categories. When benchmarked against conventional diesel oil, KDV-diesel contributed significantly less to GWP, since there are no fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the use phase, but it contributed more to EP and AP due to slightly higher emissions in the production phases. This conclusion holds true for five investigated electricity-supply scenarios for the production of KDV-diesel. Each scenario utilised a different source for electricity production: wind power; hydro power; nuclear power; coal power; and using part of the produced KDV-diesel for on-site electricity production. Another scenario analysis compared an alternative use of the wood biomass and assumed that the same amount of wood biomass was used to generate bio-electricity, instead of being converted into KDV-diesel. The scenario analysis indicated that whether wood biomass should be used for KDV-diesel production or for bio-electricity production depends on the type of electricity that is used throughout the life cycle of KDV-diesel.

  • 21.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Peters, Gregory
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental im-pacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing designare of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabellingschemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This studyinvestigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving thegarment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and con-trasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the materialwas analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currentlyonly marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For amore sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in thedesign process regarding sustainability of theirfinished products. Such a change is only possible if thedesigners can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 22.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The ageing society – an example of consequences for biomass use2010In: MFA for Sustainable Future, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Environmental challenges when developing renewable materials to replace non-renewable materials - receiving guidance from LCA studies2010In: 9th International Conference on EcoBalance 2010 'Towards & Beyond 2020' 9-12 November,Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demand for more sustainable products is growing, the pressure on material developers to improve the sustainability performance of the products that they are developing is increasing. As a consequence, the need to move away from a narrow understanding of “product” and “environment” is becoming more apparent. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been used to find rough estimates of how much process energy, raw materials etc. are used in the process of transforming a biomass feedstock into a new material. A reference product with a fossil based material intended to be replaced is used as a benchmark for the new product. The new product must perform at least as well as this benchmark and preferably better. We illustrate this LCA based methodology using the example of replacing petroleum-based polymeric material with wood-based material in a disposable consumer product.

  • 24.
    Cox, Erica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Höjning av Fäbodträsket - Hur påverkas ekosystemtjänsterna om sjön höjs?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lake ”Fäbodträsket” has under a long time decreased in height with overgrowth and a loss of water quality as a result. The lake´s interest group for cottages intends to research the possibility to increase the height of lake ”Fäbodträsket” and the adjacent lake ”Vallsträsket” to their original heights, by building a dam at their outlet to the river “Bureälven”. To get an approval for this, they need to complement their application to the environmental court of law with an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This study aims to use the perspective of the regional ecosystem as a complement to the conclusion if it is suitable to increase the height of the lake ”Fäbodträsket” and thereafter discuss how ecosystem services can be incorporated in the EIA process. Parts of the EIA tool has been used as a foundation and relevant ecosystem services have been identified and evaluated based on if they will become more or less valuable after the increase of the lakes heights and after the “zero alternative”. The value of nine out of eleven chosen ecosystem services grows by increasing the height of the lakes ”. The cottages at “Fäbodträsket” grows in value by an increase in the lakes height, while some nearby farmland decreases in value.

    The results show that an increased height of the lake is justifiable from an ecosystemservice perspective and also gets support from both national and regional environmental goals.

  • 25.
    Daniali, Iran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Initial Deployment of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment: Case study: Green Highway Region, E14 from Sundsvall in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered a more sustainable alternative vehicle because of their efficient electric motor when compared to internal combustion engines (ICE), and thus help to mitigate environmental problems and reduce fossil fuel dependency. In or-der to support drivers of plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PEVs), the installation and adequate distribution of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) is a major factor. The availability of EVSE is a vital requirement in order to charge the vehicle’s battery pack through connection to the electricity grid. This thesis evaluates the likely distribu-tion of a sufficient number of charging stations, measured as the demand of EVSE, for initial deployment in the E14 highway. This highway is also known as the Green High-way region, where a plan has been outlined with the aim to create a fleet of 15% EVs in the area by 2020.In order to model EVSE distribution, the first step was to complete a survey in 2012 on the population density and location of cities, along with the location of already estab-lished charging station locations on the Green Highway. The survey was done with ge-ography information survey (GIS) software. The second step was to create a map of the region. Based on the map, the initial estimate of EVSE locations on the Green Highway project plan was analyzed, as the third step. This was used as an initial analysis. The forth step was to use the location of current gasoline stations to provide as alternative pattern for the EVSE sites.It was observed that the network of gasoline stations correlates positively with population density. Through using these stations, the optimal location of the EVSEs was proposed. However, the model results do not provide for sufficient placement of EVSE sites where the population density is very low. In order to assess the different potential options, it was necessary to create analytical models in Arc-GIS, in which buffer zones were created with a variable size of 10, 15, 20 and 31 miles. This permitted allocation of a geographical area to estimate the optimum sites for charging stations. The resultsiiishowed that for a buffer zone of 10 miles, 28 charging stations were calculated, using buffer zone of 15 miles gives 18 stations, and a buffer zone of 20 miles results in 13 charging station sites. Notably, the estimate of the 20-mile buffer zone gives the same results as for the 50 km (31 miles) buffer zone for residential areas along E14. Therefore, the results show that the optimal design is to deploy 14 fast charging stations with three-phase DC, or 14 fast charging stations with three-phase AC, installed adjacent to the E14 road.

  • 26.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

    In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

    The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

    Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

    From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

  • 27.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Sweden .
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO AB (publ), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden.

    The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 28.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 29.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

  • 30.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings2011In: SB11, World sustainable building conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Eklund, Ellinor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    How should Nederman adjust their sustainability reporting as a consequence of the new EU-directive?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By incorporating sustainability on all levels in an organization, it signals to customers, stakeholders and others that are affected by the company’s actions that they are taking actions towards a more sustainable business on all levels. There are several benefits from doing so, the organization can identify areas that need improvement, and highlight areas that are ahead in their sustainability work.

     

    In 2017 all companies within the European Union that have 500 employees or more have to report on sustainability according to the new EU directive (2014/95/EU). Today Nederman has a report covering their sustainability work, however, it does not meet the requirements of the new EU directive. This report is a part of the preparatory work that has to be completed before being able to form a sustainability report according to the new directive.

     

    A benchmarking of six companies, of which three are competitors was done as well as a GAP analysis, weighing Nederman’s current key objectives with the new indicators.

     

    The result shows that Nederman’s existing Key Performance Indicators are relevant but are not enough to meet criterias of the new EU-directive. Several new indicators are suggested regarding energy use, CO2 emissions, water use, recycling and Transport. The GAP analysis showed a clear increase in quality in the reports reporting according to GRI and following UN Global Compact. By adapting to the suggested indicators as well as doing Integrated reporting, a higher level of sustainability reporting can be reached. There are strengths and weaknesses with all ways of measuring data and the potential of measuring errors or using not very useful unit is always present. What is most interesting is the development over time since that can be measured in percent and trends can be seen.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 32.
    Eklund, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Möjligheter och begränsningar för mikroproduktion av el med förnybar solenergi i Jämtlands län med fokus på Östersunds stad2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har undersökt olika möjligheter och begränsningar för mikroproduktion av el med förnybar solenergi i Jämtlands län. Fokus har riktats mot Östersunds stad där sex mikroproducenter intervjuades gällande deras upplevda möjligheter och begränsningar. 64 villaägare i Östersund och Frösön svarade på frågor gällande deras intresse för solceller och vilken typ av information de skulle vilja ha för att bli mer intresserade. De åtta primärkommunerna i Jämtlands län kontaktades också för att få en bild av hur de ställer sig till bygglov för solceller. Resultatet av studien visar att de intervjuade mikroproducenterna upplever byråkrati som den största begränsningen, framför allt momsregistrering. En tydlig kontaktperson alternativt en grupp av personer med erfarenheter efterfrågas för att intresserade personer ska få nödvändig information till att själv bli mikroproducenter. Resultaten av de tillfrågade villaägarna indikerar att det finns ett visst intresse från villaägare att införskaffa solceller. De vill dock främst ha mer information gällande ekonomi som exempelvis pris och återbetalningstid, som kommer från en oberoende källa. De flesta av de åtta primärkommunerna i Jämtlands län har inga tydliga skrivelser gällande bygglov för solceller. Det övergripande svaret var att det inte behövs bygglov för solceller om de placeras i samma lutning som taket på en- till tvåfamiljshus. Det kan dock skilja sig från fall till fall och en förklaring till detta kan vara att det inte heller står tydligt om bygglov för solceller i varken Plan och bygglagen (SFS 2010:900) eller Plan- och byggförordningen (SFS 2011:338). Slutsatserna av studien är att en tydlig kontaktperson alternativt en grupp av personer med erfarenheter bör finnas tillgängligt hos kommunen eller annan oberoende källa. Detta för att ge mer information om förutsättningar till de som är intresserade att bli mikroproducent av solenergi. För att främja en ökning av mikroproducenter behöver utmaningen av byråkrati som exempelvis hanteringen av momsregistrering förenklas. Resultat av studien indikerar att det finns ett visst intresse från villaägare att införskaffa solceller. Dock vill de främst ha mer information gällande ekonomi som exempelvis pris och återbetalningstid från en oberoende part. Gällande bygglov för solceller kan det vara motiverat att kommunerna är tydligare i vad som gäller i deras kommun. Detta för att göra det enkelt samt minska osäkerheter och främja mikroproduktion av solenergi.

  • 33.
    Eliasson, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    HALMBASERAD DJUPSTRÖGÖDSEL I KONTINUERLIGA BIOGASPROCESSER PÅ GÅRDSNIVÅ2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas from organic waste is one part in a sustainable energy system.  Biogas based on residues and organic materials from agricultural production can increase the level of energy self-sufficiency on the farm and will provide a better recycling of nutrients. For that reason it is important to development methods to increase the efficiency at agricultural based biogas. Biogas production on farm scale level is often dimensioned on the quantity of the liquid manure available, which has high water content. This results in a relatively low utilization of the microorganisms in the biogas process. On the other hand, most livestock farms have access to manure which is mixed with bedding material (often straw), called “deep litter manure”. Solid materials to be processed in the anaerobic process need some kind of pre-treatment and the milling, pumping and mixing of the substrates that are needed, results in an increase of energy requirements. The study was conducted to identify the possibilities for a more efficient utilization of the anaerobic digester and a better energy yield when deep litter manure is added to the process. Managing deep litter manure in the biogas process also results in an increase in the availability of nitrogen in the farm's manure.

    To investigate the relevance of pre-treatment for the biogas potential (B0) of deep litter manure a chopping method for particle size reduction was developed in the project. Deep litter manure from two farms was used. The potential for biogas was investigated in a batchprocess, in a process temperature of 39 C °. Methane and carbon dioxide were analyzed in gas chromatography to calculate the methane production from deep litter manure. The results showed that the production of methane from the chopped sample of deep litter manure was twice as high compared to the production from the untreated sample. Furthermore, the specific methane yield of the first 13 days was significantly higher for the pretreated fraction of the substrate, 156 l VS CH4/kg, compared with 62 l CH4/kg VS of the untreated sample. A fast startup phase for the biogas process will decrease the retention time form the substrate in the digester. No significant difference could be demonstrated in the experiments with regards to different degrees of chopping of the substrate.

    One problem of mechanical pre-treatment methods of the solid substrate is the energy consumption.  The method is however the most common on farm scale biogas digesters, according to the interview conducted among Swedish suppliers of biogas systems. The Swedish suppliers recommend a solution in which the solid substrate is mixed with the liquid substrate in a pre-treatment reactor.  The experiments show that solid substrate provides more gas at the same time as it costs energy and investment to get it into the biogas plant. Results of the batch experiment were used to calculate the possible investment level for pre-treatment methods. An investment level of about 450 000 SEK with an amortization period of ten years and operating costs of 10% of the amount, is needed in order include deep litter manure in the biogas process. The possibility for a farm to use all its manure in the biogas process will provide better biogas yields, in addition to greater effect in relation to the invested volume of the digester. The potential of deep litter manure in farm biogas process should be carefully analyzed on a case-by-case basis as the heterogeneity of the substrate is large and the energy exchange is strongly connected with the choice of pre-treatment technology.

  • 34.
    Englund, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Forss, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Noaksson, E
    Säll, B
    Samverkan mellan små innovativa miljöteknikföretag och kund2014Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Enzenhofer, Klaus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Statkraft Hydro Power Plants – Oil Spills and Valuable Areas2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, Statkraft knows that they have oil spills from their hydraulic system, but the problem is that the amount of the oil spilled is not clear. Furthermore, Statkraft is missing a tool that can be used when decisions need to be made on what power plants that should be prioritized to be renovated next or which oil system that they should be switched to. In order to answer these points a look has been taken onto the environmental effects and the amount of oil spilled from hydropower plants, the general oil system inside a power plant, and in Kaplan turbines. Furthermore, two maps were developed: one presenting areas of interest for humans and environment around the hydropower plants and a second map about the river shorelines sensitivity to oil spills represented in form of an ESI ranked river shoreline. The maps give a general overview and can be used as a starting point to include environmental aspects into the planning and decision making process. The outcomes of the study are that more detailed information about the amount of oil spills released in small amounts from the turbines is needed. The catchment areas, where Statkraft Sverige AB has hydropower plants, which are most sensitive to oil spills, are Moälven and Nätraån. The hydropower plant with the most sensitive river shoreline is the Stennäs power plant due to a large wetland close by. Those areas should therefore be prioritized in projects about reducing the amount of oil inside Statkraft`s hydropower plants.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carbon dioxide and Energy flows in Jämtland’s waste sector2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to assess the current situation of energy and carbon flows through the waste sector in Jämtland. An energy flow analysis is performed by balancing the inflows and outflows of the lower heating value and embodied energy. A carbon flow analysis was made on the same principles although with the carbon content and embodied CO2eq.  The results are showing that over a period of one year, 75 000 tons of waste flows through the waste sector in Jämtland. Approximately 60 % of all the waste is incinerated. The energy analysis shows that 970TJ flows through the waste sector every year. Household waste is the category with most energy consumption and emissions in total. However, other materials like metal and electronics have higher energy and carbon content per ton than the household category. The results of the analyses can further be implemented in the Sustainable Jämtland model and it can then be used as a base when making strategies for a sustainable waste treatment.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Kallio, Maarit
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Solberg, Birger
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, N-1432 As, Norway .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Inst, N-0314 Oslo, Norway .
    Valsta, Lauri
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 38.
    Eronini, Nnamdi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Adoption Of solar photovoltaic systems among industries and residential houses in southern Nigeria2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The shortage of electricity in Nigeria creates a huge gap between demand and supply, making individuals and organizations look for alternatives to obtain regular supply of power. The objective of this study was divided into two parts. First identify the barriers and drivers of the adoption of solar PV systems among home owners and organisations in Rivers State Nigeria. Second, identify the challenges faced by the suppliers of this product for small and large scale suppliers. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, a qualitative research approach was used to carry out the study. A loosely-structured interview and a well-structured interview were used as the method.

    Findings from this study suggest that the need for a regular power supply was enough to motivate residential adopters to purchase and install solar PVC's and sustainability was a sufficient driver to encourage adoption among organizations interviewed in this study. On the other hand, inadequate policies to encourage subsidies, high cost, difficulty to access finances, high interest rates 20%-22% and short period of payback (3years) for loans involving renewable technology were identified as barriers among residential adopters. Lack of implementation of policies for example, double standard shown by custom officials at ports against the zero tax on importation of renewable energy products set by the government, low level of awareness among the public and lack of organized co-oprative group which provides advisory information to potential adopters were among the barriers identified within this study from interviews conducted with suppliers of solar PV systems.

  • 39.
    Estrada, Mariana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    A case study of cob earth based building technique in Matagalpa, Nicaragua – LCA perspective and rate of adoption2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cob is an earth based building technique that may be an alternative for the construction of new homes in developing countries. Earth based constructions techniques commonly used in the past, like adobe and wattle-and-daub, have increasingly been replaced by buildings using more processed materials commercially available such as bricks or concrete blocks. The cost of such commercial materials is often unreachable for a large part of the population in developing countries. Cob buildings could be an appropriate option in rural areas, where human labor is a less restricted resource compared to monetary capital, and most of the materials needed are locally available. The cob technique is based on a mixture of clay, sand, straw and water that enables the builder to combine different materials and to create a variety of shapes. A recently constructed cob building in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, was studied using screening LCA methodology applied to the construction phase, as well as by applying a diffusion of innovation framework (specifically the five perceived attributes of an innovation). Results regarding fossil CO2 emissions due to material production and material transportation were contrasted to an equivalent concrete block building. The highest contribution to CO2 emissions from the cob building was generated by paints and solvents, and bricks and tiles (cooked earth); whereas in the concrete building it was due to the concrete bricks and iron. According to this case study, cob building technique seems to have the potential to be an affordable option for rural housing in Nicaragua, and at the same time accountable for rather limited emissions of fossil CO2 emissions in its construction phase. At present, some obstacles to the use of cob technique are lack of examples for people to see and experience, and a general limited knowledge on how to work with cob technique.

  • 40.
    Fakhari Rad, Mohammad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Including Ecosystem Services in Sustainability Assessment of Forest Biofuels2012In: World Bioenergy 2012 Proceedings / [ed] The Swedish Bioenergy Association, 2012, p. 75-78Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing demand for forest biofuels the pressures on ecosystem services from forestry practices willincrease. This calls for identification and assessment of tradeoffs between different uses of provisioning and otherecosystem services and establish management practices considering such tradeoffs.

  • 41.
    Feuerbach Wengel, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lilla Böslid Integrated Buffer Zone: Methods for assessing the value of ecosystem services2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has investigated which methods for assessing the value of ecosystem services would be suitable for evaluating and assessing a constructed wetland concept. The actual valuation being a future subject to the result of the study required a clear identification of ecosystems at the site, possibly by using a well-established tool. It would also require practical and reliable methods to value ecosystem services. The site under study, an Integrated Buffer Zone (IBZ) in Lilla Böslid, Sweden, was constructed to capture excess nutrients leaking from agricultural land into the streams ending up in the ocean causing eutrophication, which could have critical effects on biodiversity as well as the ecosystem services that are provided by the ocean and its marine lifeforms.

    The IBZ site would capture run-off water, rich in Phosphorus and Nitrogen from the agricultural land and utilize them for growing timber through sedimentation and infiltration, before entering the water course leading to open water bodies. Services derived from the IBZ site have in this thesis been identified as a first step. This mapping of ESS could in the future be developed further by using the European Union’s CICES tool for identifying or assessing ESS.

     

    This thesis has focused on finding methods that will measure the value of ecosystem services in currency, based on case-studies, using primary data and most importantly can measure all values derived from Lilla Böslid IBZ site, even though some of the services lack an actual market price.

    This thesis has shown that market price method, stated preference methods and cost-based methods could be used as a combination for a comprehensive valuation. A recommendation of further work and re-search has been proposed as well as a direct suggestion to what methods could be suitable to use for this specific purpose.

  • 42.
    Fjellström, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Klimatinvesteringsprogrammet som styrmedel: på väg mot klimatmålen med Östersund som fall2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The swedish national environmental goals have different policies and developments connected to them in order to achieve the goals on time, but the implementation of the different policies differ and is hard to evaluate compared to the theoretical background. With this thesis I have chosen to investigate the climate investment programmes results in Östersund compared to its goals with a case study. The different projects within the climate investment programme have reduced the emissions of CO2, but not in the amount that was anticipated and a lot of the projects were within projects that the municipality already was developing or doing. 

  • 43.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Integrated assessment for sustainable rural development in the Mid Sweden mountain region2015In: Proceedings of SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL AREAS IN PRACTICE (SURAP) 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable rural development have partly different challenges compared to urban areas, both in types of challenges and in solutions possible to implement. Ongoing work at Mid Sweden University addresses such issues in the Mid Sweden mountain region (county of Jämtland) through integrated assessment.

     

    The global development has now come to a critical state where humanity act as a new geological force and it is obvious that there are numerous of environmental problems which arise from the present geosphere-biosphere-anthroposphere interactions which urgently need to be addressed. Even though Jämtland is a sparsely populated area with large forests, a lot of hydro power, and only one major city, it is still not obvious how to reach long term sustainability. We can e.g. easily identify tradeoffs between increased biofuel harvesting and development of tourism based on experience of nature.

     

    Regional sustainability can be addressed with an ecological systems model based on carbon and energy balances. The model is supplemented with investigations of ecosystem services in the region, intended to capture additional dimensions of sustainable development. A regional model can serve as a support tool for regional decisions aiming for sustainable regional development.

  • 44.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Introduction to Ecotechnology - Maintaining Possibilities for Good Lives: Introducción a la Ecotecnología - Maintaining Possibilities for Good Lives2015In: Ecotechnology - Living Technology for a Green Future, Managua, Nicaragua, April 17, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    To Really Do What We Know We Need to Do: Can Humanities Help Where Natural Sciences and Engineering Have Reached the End of the Road?2014In: Proceedings of NIES X / ECOHUM Research Symposium, Rethinking Environmental Consciousness, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, 5–8 December 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, we need to significantly increase human well-being for a large part of the world’spopulation. However, if this is done wrong, the potential to worsen global environmentalproblems and overburden planetary boundaries is significant. Technically mankind has atits disposal much of what is needed to solve these problems, but we don’t seem to be ableto use available options in effective ways. System effects resulting from human behavioroften counteract the results of previous efforts when attempts to achieve this dual goalare made. One description of such a problem is the so-called Rebound Effect. To handlethese issues we must go outside the sphere of understanding problems and of findingtechnical solutions to these problems; we need to find ways to change ourselves, ourwants, and what we value. This paper investigates the need for humanities research forsustainability from the perspective of natural science and engineering.

  • 46.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fakhari Rad, Mohammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ecosystem services tradeoffs when striving twoards a biobased future [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing demand for bio-based materials and forest biofuels the pressures on ecosystem services from forestry practices will increase. This calls for identification and assessment of tradeoffs between different uses of provisioning and other ecosystem services and establish management practices considering such tradeoffs. Traditional optimization parameters like carbon footprint or life cycle energy use will not be enough; impacts on ecosystem services must also be assessed.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment concludes that ecosystems and their ability to provide humanity with ecosystem services are under severe stress. Increased use of bio-based materials and biofuels must be furnished in ways not unnecessary worsening the situation, or locally destroy the provisioning of essential ecosystem services.The Swedish county of Jämtland is used as an example, with 3.4 million ha of forest area and forestry as an important industry. At the same time the county has a large tourism industry - for skiing but also for experiences of undisturbed nature, hiking, hunting, fishing et c. The county is also marketing itself as a “Quality Food Area” having a focus on local food production and food experiences, with the clean and uncontaminated environment for agriculture, game and fish as a cornerstone. More intensive forestry may create conflicts between enterprises related to cultural ecosystem services and those provisioning services pushed for biofuel production.We need to make possible the inclusion of tradeoffs between different types of e.g. cultural ecosystem services in sustainability assessments of increased forest biomaterial harvesting and production in Jämtland.

  • 47.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ecosystem services in evaluating value chains when moving toward a bio based society2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A worldwide shift from a fossil based to biobased economy is slowly underway. Even if fossil resources will be still be used in foreseeable future, an increased use of biomass as resources, not least for fuels, can be expected. A systematic, worldwide increase in demand of bioresources will inevitably put larger potential pressures on ecosystems and the environment. To be able to minimize or fully avoid damage, or at least unnecessary damage to human welfare, we among other things need the increased understanding of including ecosystem services into life cycle assessment of products and services. Such a combination of understanding basic responses from impacts on ecosystems by technical systems, and environmental interactions of technical systems over the whole value chain of a product or service will give possibilities to identify important hot spots as well as optimizing technology use to minimize damage to important ecosystem services. Yet we have not achieved this. We argue that important reasons are that we still need to understand how to include ecosystem services in LCA, and that this is complicated by the fact that there are two main paradigms regarding ecosystem services – the donor value approach and the receiver value approach. Approaching the problem through the case of an expected increased forest bio fuel production from the boreal forests of the Mid Sweden region, we demonstrate the different approaches. We argue that for now we will probably need to use the two approaches in parallel.

  • 48.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    From environmental problems to sustainable development and towards resilience: Development over time of a university program inenvironmental science aiming for action competences2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:During the latest decades society has developed from an environmental awareness, with reactive thinking, of the “preBrundtland age” into having sustainability as the goal for human development after the Rio declaration. Lately, within the environmentalscientific sphere, the concept of resilience is increasingly superimposed on the sustainability paradigm. It is seen as important both forunderstanding of the present situation as well as a necessity for societies to survive in times of rapid change. During this period from “preBrundtland” until today when resilience is in focus, the environmental science program of Ecotechnology started, developed and changed inresponse to changes in society. A goal, from the very beginning of the educational program, has been to empower students to take action.The types of action and how action competence has been perceived, has changed over the three decades the program has been running.

    Objectives: Environmental science and sustainability is often difficult to teach since it demands an interdisciplinary approach stretching overthe traditional faculty division of natural, social, and engineering sciences. At Mid Sweden University these three branches have beenintegrated in Ecotechnology education for 30 years. The purpose of this paper is to describe the interdisciplinary teaching with special focuson the development of the student’s action competence for sustainable development, in the light of how the environmental issues havedeveloped.

    Methods: The paper has a descriptive approach exploring the experiences from the 30 years of interdisciplinary teaching.

    Results: Different teaching methods and strategies have been employed over time, partly in sync with changing overarching societal goals.

    Conclusion: Some observations are 1) a key element to develop action competence is to push students to a self-propelled learning behaviorrather than traditional teaching of facts, 2) to not too easily provide the students with answers will develop problem solving skills, 3) “doingbefore-reading” teaching is more time consuming but seem to give deeper knowledge.

  • 49.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hjortsberg, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lindblom, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Scheffer, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Söderberg, Karolina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Theorell, Linus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Bio-CCS - a model based case study from the mid Sweden region2015In: Proceedings of Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption, Sitges Barcelona, November 1-4, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In its 2014 report, IPCC recommend Carbon Capture and Storage not only for fossil power plants but also for bioenergy to beable to meet the 2 degree target. In a case study, models for CCS applied to a combined heat and power (CHP) plant inÖstersund, Sweden, using wood chips as main fuel was assessed. The goal was to gain knowledge to be prepared to takemore rapid action if policy instruments are implemented in future. More "traditional" technology with absorption inmonoethanolamine (MEA) and subsequent underground storage uses a significant part of produced electricity, and in anenergy system perspective it is not necessarily the most efficient use of a limited wood resource. For processes withcomparatively low net climate impact, like bio-CHP, alternatives significantly more energy efficient per unit of capturedcarbon dioxide but only able to capture part of the total emitted carbon can be considered. One such alternative is to capturecarbon dioxide using microalgae. Key issues for assessment of processes in this case are how to store the carbon captured inthe algae biomass (e.g. in products) and for how long the carbon will be withdrawn from atmosphere with such storage.

  • 50.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Kuul, Ivi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Berg, Claes-Göran
    Jämtkraft AB.
    Pre Study of CCS for a Bio Fueled CHP Plant2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and CoolingSeptember, 6-10, 2014, Stockholm, SWEDEN / [ed] Anna Land, 2014, p. 511-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental performance of a potential carbon capture and storage (CCS) installation at the bio fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Lugnvik, Östersund was studied with screening life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. CCS has lately been discussed for plants using bio fuels since it is one of few possibilities to actively decrease the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most common process for carbon capture, absorption in MEA, was assumed. Transportation of the captured carbon dioxide to Norway for injection in natural gas fields was the considered storage option.The impacts from transportation of the captured carbon dioxide indicate that alternatives should be investigated, e.g. possibilities for local storage or other types of utilization of the captured carbon. The comparatively high energy use for the MEA capturing process indicates that CCS for bio fueled plants must be carefully considered. Alternative technologies for carbon capture should be further investigated - e.g. if biological methods might give better performance over chemical absorption – as should the consequences of alternative handling of the captured carbon dioxide.

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