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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2.
    Abedi, Shiva Masoumeh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Considering a sustainable approach tonitrogen removal of waste waterin south-west Iran2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution of the drinking water environment has long been thought to be a primary cause of diseases. According to environmental research, there is a global water quality crisis. From an environmental stand point, eutrophication or accumulation of nitrates in wastewater are expected to cause high ammonium, low pH and increased nitrate concentrations [Koren et al. 2000] which are a critical form of nitrogen that needs our attention. This study considers the case of eutrophication in south-west Iran. This region is located in the Khuzestan province and consists of two basins (Karun and Dez) which can be seen as susceptible to the effect of eutrophication. This paper analyses the environmental pollution impact, economic, and social approaches of two waste water treatment plants. The case study focuses on a waste water treatment plant operated by activated sludge in Iran and the reference study is technology combined Sharon-Anammox treatment in Netherlands. The environmental impact assessment of these Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been analyzed by a Triple Bottom Line method. The hypothesis is to prove a general and specific outlook of the lowest environmental emissions, the lowest costs and creation of better welfare. The other method applied in this study is the barriers of transferring technology. The results show that the combined Sharon-Anammox method is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact based on the methods applied in this study.In this study, the generally considered barriers are problems of methods of transferring combined Sharon-Anammox technology to Iran and the possible obstacles that may be encountered in the transfer of technology to Iran. The result of this study is estimated with respect to an evaluation of political, environmental, economic, social, and technological capacity. The result is that most potential problems are political and economic in nature, which may be because these two issues are so closely related to each other. In this case, lack of management is a problem in the institution of policy, and could affect the economic situation. In fact each of the barriers could be overlapped and affect each other. Regarding all barriers and problems that are in the process of transferring technology, Iran as a developing country would be able to receive technologies.

  • 3.
    Adams, M L
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Hawke, D J
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Nilsson, Nils
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Powell, K J
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    The relationship between soil solution pH and Al3+ concentrations in a range of South Island (New Zealand) soils2000In: Australian Journal of Soil Research, ISSN 0004-9573, E-ISSN 1446-568X, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 141-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of Al3+ were calculated in soil solutions from concentrations of the monomeric ‘reactive Al’ species ([Al3+] + [Al(OH)2+] + [Al(OH)2+] + [AlF2+]) obtained using a recently reported flow injection analysis (FIA) chelating resin technique. Soil solution samples came from 7 sites encompassing a range of New Zealand soils (Brown, Gley, Pallic, Podzol, and Recent Soils) and vegetation types (pasture, shrub lands, and indigenous and exotic forest). Previously published data from a further 7 sites, obtained using a rapid (7 s) FIA technique, were transformed to give compatible results. The resultant data (n = 85) covered the pH range 2.7–7.6, and showed a single curvilinear relationship for log [Al3+] v. soil solution pH, regardless of vegetation or soil type. At pH >5.6, the data had a slope of –2.98 and fell between the amorphous Al(OH)3 and gibbsite solubility lines. At pH <5.0, the data had a slope of –0.46; further, the soil solutions were under-saturated with respect to both minerals. These results are interpreted as indicating control of Al solubility by Al(OH)3(s) (at pH >5.6) and soil organic matter (at pH <5.0), respectively. This interpretation is supported by data from a pH-dependent Al–fulvic acid binding curve, for which calculated values of [Al3+] follow the same curvilinear relationship determined from the soil solution samples.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diverting human urine from outhouses into agriculture in Nicaragua: for sanitation, fertilizer and recycling purposes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human urine is a   valuable resource which has good potential to be used as a fertilizer all   over the world. In the developing countries sanitation and food security are   both issues that need urgent attention.    A urine separation toilet can be constructed with minimal investment   in the Nicaraguan context, and the usage of the urine as a fertilizer can   help establish higher yields and is a good alternative to chemical   fertilizers. This field experiment is trying this in practice in the context   of rural Nicaragua, to determine the effect of urine on two plants on. For   this study, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the Chaya (Cnidoscolus   aconitifolius) was selected and the results confirm that urine has potential   as a fertilizer in the Nicaragua context. The common bean yield was twice as   large after urine fertilization and the Chaya reacted positively to urine   fertilization. For urine separation purposes, two different separators were   constructed on the site to showcase the benefits with separating the urine   from the faeces, creating lower latrine volume and better sanitation in the   outhouse. The risks associated with human urine are low if the urine is   separated securely to avoid crosscontamination from faeces. If a   safety-barrier system is adopted, the overall risks with using urine as a   fertilizer are negligible. The spreading potential of urine separation and   fertilization in rural Nicaragua is high, but more experiments and   demonstrations are needed to reach adopters of the technology.  

  • 5.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 6.
    Alfred, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Byggstenar för en hållbar by: En fallstudie på föreningen Permakultur Stjärnsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many definitions and thoughts around the idea of sustainability but a main theme for most of the modern and accepted approaches is the idea that the nature provides the frame for mankinds social and economic development. Still it is not clear how a sustainable life within this frame should be lived practically. The aim of this study is therefore to contribute to the understanding of how sustainable lifestyles should be promoted. To do that, this report searches for buildingblocks to create sustainable villages.

    The study has focused its work around a case study on the organisation Permakultur Stjärnsund, an organisation that has gotten attention for their alternative lifestyle. The case study was carried out with the help of four interviews from members of the organisation. To support the case study, earlier studies of sustainable villages was used. In addition, a framework of approaches to the concept sustainability was added.

    The conclusion of this study is that sustainable villages value a life closer to nature and social community higher than consuming goods and the ownership of things. Anti-consuming thoughts is the antipole to what people in the villages want to achieve. This is supported in part, even if it is in a less direct way, by the selected approaches to sustainability. They suggest a thoughtful usage of natural resources. The social community is the most important part of village life. Without a strong community and reciprocity the life within natures framework cannot even begin. This priority is in contrary to what the approaches suggest, where nature provides the base for the social. Both on village level and among the approaches there is an evident rule implying that the ecosystem provides the frame for our living-conditions. This is the most apparent similarity between the two groups. Mostly, though, there are not that many clear similarities. There is a form of dissidence between the approaches and the villages. There is simply a lack of understanding. There is a need for better communication between the practical and the governmental way of doing things.

  • 7.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 8.
    Andoh-Appiah, Benjamin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    ComparativeExamination Of The Impacts Of Electricity Generation With Both Photovoltaic AndConventional Energies On Climate Change. The Case Of Mutanda Eco-CommunityCentre. (MECC)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on how Mutanda Eco-Community   Centre (MECC) in the south western part of Uganda can harness the solar   energy at their disposal using photovoltaic as compared to the using of   conventional energies in producing the needed electricity at the centre and   the impacts on climate change. Since the centre is used in education on   climate change mitigation and adaptation measures, it is expected that   anything the centre does or uses with regards to energy ought to come from   renewable sources such as wind, solar, thermal and biomass. Electricity has   been a great challenge because there is no access to the national electricity   grid. Since there is much abundance of solar irradiation in the entire   country, solar poses as a potential sustainable energy since it is a   renewable energy and has the greatest environmental benefits. The objective   is in two categories: to determine how feasible the photovoltaic technology   is in Kisoro and its application at MECC and to analyse the effects on   climate change with comparison with non-renewable sources of energy. To   determine the above, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used.   Results from the studies through the use of simulation method (PVGIS-5)   indicate that Kisoro, where the centre is located, has solar irradiation to   harness due to Uganda´s geographical location on the equator. Findings   revealed there are feasible governmental and private policies, market for PVs   systems, enough players in the Sector and the willingness of the people to   adopt and use solar energy, and its markets economic studies do reveal to be   the indicators for the feasibility of the technology in Kisoro. Corrections   of a few bottlenecks will increase the adoption rate of the photovoltaic   systems. An investment of 85,000, 000 UGX will aid a financial benefit of   4,569.40 UGX per each kWh of electricity generated with 3.1years of Energy   Payback Time and will prevent environmental pollution when compared with   non-renewable energy. Climatic effects are minimal as compared to the other   sources of energy. This greenhouse gases emission comes during the production   of the PVs, modules and systems. The usage of solar technology possesses a   lot of advantages. It is an unlimited source of energy; its maximum usage   reduces carbon dioxide emissions. International conflicts of ownership of   source of conventional energies are reduced and solar power creates energy   security and dependency.

  • 9.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    ARTHUR, FRANK
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    CARBONDIOXIDE FLUXES FROM A CONTROLLED BOREAL RIVER2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    River, lakes and   streams account for more carbon dioxide emissions than all other freshwater   reservoirs together. However, there is still lack of knowledge of the   physical processes that control the efficiency of the air-water exchange of   CO2 in these aquatic systems. In the more turbulent water sections   of a river, the gas transfer is thought to be governed by the river’s   morphology such as bottom topography, slope and stream flow. Whiles for wider   sections of the river, the gas transfer could potentially be influenced by   atmospheric forcing (e.g. Wind speed). The main purpose of this project is to   study the fluxes of carbon dioxide and how (wind speed and stream discharge)   influence the CO2 fluxes in the river. In this study, direct and   continuous measurements of CO2 emission was conducted for the   first time in a controlled boreal river in Kattstrupeforsen (Sweden) from   18th April to 10th May 2018. A unique measurement setup which combines eddy   covariance techniques, general meteorology and in situ water variables (for   high accuracy emission measurements) was used. The results show that   in the late winter, an   upward directed CO2 fluxes measured in the river was approximately   2.2 μmol m−2 s−1. This value agrees with many other small and   large rivers where CO2 fluxes has been studied. The river can be   said to serve as source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the day due to   the dominant upward fluxes recorded during the daytime. The results also show   that carbon dioxide fluxes increase with increasing wind speed notably at   wind speed above 2 m s-1. There   was no relation between CO2 fluxes and stream discharge. This   indicates that wind speed could be one principal factor for air- river gas   exchange. The findings in this work on river gas exchange will provide   a basis for a regional estimate and be applicable for many river systems on a   global scale.

     

  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 12.
    askelund, sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Problems and improvements in reindeer’s habitat2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the challenges towards Feed-in Tariff law instrument in order to promote renewable energy in Iran. The targets of the study were chosen among authorities and investors in the field of wind energy. Wind power was selected as the case study because of its more popularity among investors. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the study and semi-structured interviews served as the method. Although there were a few studies done with the focus on renewable energy challenges in Iran, however, none of them focused on the challenges through Feed-in Tariff law. The results show that the law's long administrative process, lack of communication between authorities and investors, and rather low remuneration rate are the barriers to promote renewable energy in Iran. Furthermore, lack of financial assistance and imposed political and economical sanctions against Iran play an important role in this regard.

  • 15.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Linking ecological and economical progress at micro level by Nature-Economy (SDR) model.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bazyan, Saloume
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Environmental impact of war technology and prohibition processes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays humans struggle to supply and attain longer and more appropriate life time.

    Introducing new technologies, which, speeded up by modernization and industrialization, is the

    main subject in many branches of science to improve the human’s life; but this rate of innovation

    is not always pleasurable. As seen in many cases, side effects of using new technology come up

    as warning signs, and lead to huge environmental and humanitarian disaster with irreversible

    impact. Moreover, most of these technologies might be applied in different kinds of warfare

    where nations use high-Tech as tools to reach other’s resources and raise their economic

    benefits. As in most wars that happened in the world, updated technologies have been applied to

    overcome the combatant, which finally shows up as damages on the environment, economy,

    civilians and soldiers. In this study we reviewed the reasons of shaping warfare and its

    consequences in different aspects of environment, civilians, soldiers and economy. The questions

    I followed to answer were: What are those main factors that induced by technology to form

    different kinds of warfare? And, can technology be altered as a tool to make a war more

    environmentally friendly? To answer these two main questions, we need to know reasons for

    shaping warfare a) Economy, b) Ideological/religious, and c) Power/pride/love which raise many

    theories such as Economic, Behavioural, Evolutionary, Demographic, Rational, and Political

    science theory. In 1990 members of the committee of environmental issue discussed

    development of technology in the future which should follow by consideration of global

    environmental issue. Therefore, new technology should bring solution to environmental

    problems. Nowadays technology creates some kind of competition, not only in combat, but also

    in cold war. According to reviews of many studies, the harshness of war increases and the

    aftermath becomes more severe on the environment and societies, consequently irreversible

    rehabilitation in short and long term. Applied technologies in some warfare have been considered

    by their impact on natural and human environment. As a case study I considered the recent war

    in Libya and its consequences, not only in the country, but also its impact on other nations and

    neighbours as well. Strict international laws is needed to explicit and declare the rights of each

    individual and nation to prevent and ban any activities in the term of war crime. Also groups of

    authentic authorities should set up to conduct an investigation into each activity in countries and

    survey on introduced technologies to ensure them about their result and consequences. Finally

    some reviews were released about how international committees and conventions, declarations

    and agreement has been set to prevent and prohibit crime in wars, and some international laws

    has been brought to guide nations about their rights and responsibility against each other.

  • 17.
    Bergkvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Elisie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carbon Sequestration Potential f Agroforestry Systems For Phytoremediation In Chinandega, Nicaragua2018In: Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World / [ed] William Hogland, 2018, p. 211-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased to earlier unrecorded levels, causing global climate change that increases GMT and threaten ecosystems and livelihoods. IPCC report suggest that agroforestry offers considerable carbon sequestration (c seq.) potential, especially for developing countries. The purpose of this study is to estimate the c seq. potential in different agroforestry systems suitable in Chinandega, Nicaragua - a deforested region where the ground is polluted by toxaphene and other POP:s. Three scenarios where studied; Shading system using Tectona grandis and Pogostemon cablin; Alley cropping using Erythrina poeppigiana and Ricinus communis and Silvopasture using Cordia alliodora and Brachiaria ruziziensis, the last scenario being divided into two subscenarios; unmanaged (grazed) and managed (harvested) grass. Calculations were performed using the modelling program CO2FIX v. 3.2, with a runtime of 100 years and assuming deforested area with no previous land use. Results show a significantly higher c seq. potential in Shading system (168/217 MgC/ha). Alley cropping yields 71 MgC/ha and Silvopasture results in 80/84 MgC/ha unmanaged and 65/70 MgC/ha managed. The higher number includes products from harvest. All scenarios show fluctuations over time due to thinning and harvesting practices. Phytoremediation potential of POPs has been shown in Ricinus communis and grass species. Soil c seq. is especially important to consider in longterm scenarios as this c seq. can be sustained over longer time. The inclusion of crop residue, the effect of grazing animals or changes in density of trees and crops and environmental fate of the toxic compounds need further assessment before considering large scale applications. Agroforestry practices could contribute to several benefits, including climate change mitigation and phytoremediation.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Early Holocene in Gästrikland, east central Sweden: Shore displacement and isostatic recovery2012In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In GÀstrikland in central Sweden, deglaciation took place c. 11000cal. a BP. In the present study the shore displacement during the earliest ice-free period is investigated by the 14C dating of sediment from isolated lake basins. The shore displacement in GÀstrikland includes an initial phase (∌500 years) of rapid regression, followed by a slowing of the relative sea level (RSL) fall to a rate similar to that of the remaining Holocene c. 9250cal. a BP. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea belongs to the analysed interval. The RSL curve and glacial unloading history are used to separate and quantify elements of isostatic uplift. The postglacial uplift is ∌260m, of which ∌45m forms a rapid initial rise, which can be treated as qualitatively separate from the later, slower rise. There is considerable glacial unloading just prior to the deglaciation, but calculations suggest that only a small part of this relates directly to the rapid early Holocene rebound: most unloading is transferred either to uplift immediately prior to the deglaciation or to subsequent Holocene or future uplift. The isostatic rise in GÀstrikland occurring between the end of the Younger Dryas stadial and the deglaciation, c. 11500-11000cal. a BP, is estimated to be 100-110m. Observations and estimations are incompatible with a Weichselian maximum ice thickness much smaller that 3000m. The lack of glacial unloading during the Younger Dryas has a measurable impact on the Holocene isostatic rebound in GÀstrikland, reducing it by an estimated 20-25m. © 2011 The Boreas Collegium.

  • 19.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holocene shore displacement and chronology in Ångermanland, eastern Sweden, the Scandianvian glacio-isostatic uplift centre2004In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 48-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shore displacement during the Holocene in southeastern Ångermanland, Sweden, has been investigated by means of radiocarbon-dating of isolation intervals in sediment cores from a total of nine new basins. Results from earlier investigations have been used in complement. There is a forced regression in the area from c. 9300 BP (c. 10 500 cal. yr BP) until c. 8000 BP (c. 9000 cal. yr BP), on average c. 8 m/100 years, after which there is a gradually slowing regression of c. 2.5-1.0 m/100 years up to the present time. The most rapid regression occurs during the later phase of the Ancylus Lake stage, 9500-9000 cal. yr BP. There is no evidence of halts in the regression. Crustal uplift in the area since deglaciation is c. 310 m. The deglaciation of southeastern Ångermanland took place c. 9300 BP (c. 10 500 cal. yr BP); this is c. 900 years earlier than the age given by clay varve dating. The shore displacement curve provides a means of estimating the difference between the clay varve time scale and calibrated radiocarbon dates, by comparison with varve-dated altitudes of alluvial deltas of the River Ångermanälven. From c. 2500 to c. 8000 cal. BP there is a deficit in clay varves of some 300 years; further back in time this discrepancy increases significantly. The main explanation for the discrepancy is most likely lacking varves in the time-span 8500-10 200 cal. yr BP, located along the upper reaches of River Ångermanälven below the highest shore level

  • 20.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Litorina Sea shore displacement and pollen analytical indications of forest succession during the Mid-Holocene in Gästrikland, east central Sweden2010In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 213-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the mid-Holocene shore level history and vegetation development in Gästrikland, east-central Sweden. This is investigated using sediment and microfossil records and 14C datings. The time span covered is c. 8000-5000 cal yr BP. Vegetation history during this time includes an increase in Tilia pollen 6500-6300 cal yr BP and a decrease in Ulmus and Corylus c. 5500 cal yr BP. The former change coincides with a sharp drop in relative sea level (RSL) of some 5 m; this RSL drop can be correlated to the regression from the L3 transgression of the Litorina Sea, identified in other areas around the Baltic Sea. The possible connections between RSL and climate (in particular changes on a maritime-continental continuum), as indicated by new pollen data and other records, are investigated. The new material shows, in comparison to other pollen records from southern and central Scandinavia, unusually high percentages of Tilia, Ulmus and Corylus pollen, but less Quercus. The change in pollen spectra around 5500 cal yr BP can be correlated to the northern European “elm decline”. A regional cooling is recorded in widespread data for this time, but observations suggest that other factors must be considered here, including disease and change in the physical landscape due to the ongoing land uplift.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    THE HIGHEST POSTGLACIAL SHORE LEVELS AND GLACIO-ISOSTATIC UPLIFT PATTERN IN NORTHERN SWEDEN2012In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 94A, no 3, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detailed clay varve chronology and an extensive knowledge of the highest postglacial shore level elevation (HS) in northern Sweden, along the Bothnian western coast, provides opportunities for determining the pattern of isostatic rise and centre of uplift from the early Holocene. The shore level of c. 10 100 cal yr bp (10 ka) for this area is determined by subtracting, from the metachronous HS elevations, the fall in relative sea level between local deglaciation time and the chosen reference time. The area of highest uplift since 10 ka is situated somewhat north of the location with the world-record HS (Skuleberget in Angermanland), but south of the area with most rapid current rise. Wave erosion marks in the studied area are seen to be more consistent indicators of HS than glaciofluvial delta levels. The gradients of shore marks at 10 ka are generally small within the investigation area. The regional 10 ka shore level pattern shows considerable irregularity compared to the current uplift. Central Sweden and western Finland show 10 ka gradients that indicate isostatic response to late (1310 ka bp) glacial unloading. Indications of a secondary uplift centre west of the present investigation area are reported in previous work; this also suggests rapid isostatic response to unloading. Finally, the possibility of identifying errors in the varve-dated deglaciation chronology via the 10 ka shore level pattern is illustrated.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The Holocene shore displacement of Gästrikland, eastern Sweden: A contribution to the knowledge of Scandinavian glacio-isostatic uplift2005In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shore displacement in Gästrikland, east-central Sweden, has been investigated by means of AMS radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from isolated basins. Twenty dates from 11 sites are presented. Pollen and diatom analyses, and archive material from the Geological Survey of Sweden, have been used to identify isolation intervals in the cores and as chronological support to the 14C dates. An important pollen stratigraphical time-marker is a distinct mid-Holocene increase in Tilia. For the mid-Holocene, pollen stratigraphy is used rather than the 14C dates for the age determination. The deglaciation of Gästrikland, according to the new 14C dates, took place ca. 11 000 cal. yr BP (ca. 9500 14C yr BP). Through the Holocene the shore displacement is regressive. The regression was initially rapid (on average ca. 3.5 m per 100 yr 11 000-7500 cal. yr BP, probably much more rapid at the earliest stage), then slowed down considerably and was from ca. 5000 cal. yr BP (probably already from 7000 cal. yr BP) relatively constant, ca. 0.8-0.9 m per 100 yr. There are important differences between the shore level curve from Gästrikland and curves from other areas, indicating some irregularities in the regional glacio-isostatic rebound.

  • 23.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Time-transgressive early Holocene vegetational succession following shore displacement: a case study from central Sweden2008In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deglaciation took place in eastern Jamtland and Angermanland in central Sweden c. 10 500 - 10 200 cal. yr BP. In the present study, vegetation development and shore displacement during the earliest ice-free period are investigated by C-14 dating of sediment from six isolated lake basins and by pollen analysis. A brief but distinct peak in Hippophae "occurs in all pollen diagrams coincident with basin isolation, followed by up to 500 years ( varying locally) by an Alnus rise. The Alnus curve does not display a synchronous rise in the area. Its expansion below the highest shore level is time-transgressive and controlled mainly by the timing of basin isolation. The relationship between regional Alnus expansion and changes in hydrology and climate is discussed. The pollen diagrams show Pinus predominance with Corylus to the east ( more coastal areas) and Betula predominance ( though less pronounced) to the west during the period 10 200 - 9000 cal. yr BP. However, comparisons between sites suggest marked variability in the forest development. Shore displacement in easternmost Jamtland c. 10 300 - 9000 cal. yr BP is equal to or slightly more rapid than that of SE Angermanland, contrary to the present pattern of isostatic recovery. A rapid shore level regression c. 10 300 - 10 000 cal. yr BP may be related to drainage of the Ancylus Lake.

  • 24. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 25. Berndes, Göran
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Cintas Sanchez, Olivia
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Olofsson, Johanna
    Sustainable biofuels: critical review of current views and case studies using extended systems analysis providing new perspectives and positive examples2018Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Blomberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hållbart lärande i Varbergs kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate how the teaching of sustainable development looks for five primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. Hopefully, the study’s findings will help primary schools to revise their teaching regarding sustainable development and contribute to a brighter future.

    Method - The current study is based on a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with seven teachers at five public primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. The interviews consisted of eight questions, which the author has assumed from the review of the curriculum and the current teaching practices on sustainable development.

    Results – Teachers for the study expresses lack of skills, time and support from Skolverket and the municipality of Varberg in their teaching regarding work of sustainable development. Based on the collected interviews, it was found that education for sustainable development is done mainly through environmental education, especially at younger ages. There, the focus is on learning about the local environment, material properties and change and recycling.

    Conclusion - The author can conclude that teachers need more resources for to be able to follow the curriculum's sustainable development objectives. It is not enough that teachers perform their intended hours with given textbooks to reach the objectives of the curriculum. In order to achieve sustainable development goals, teachers must find their own material that inspires students and meet the proficiency requirements that are currently bearing in learning.

  • 27.
    Boily, J F
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nilsson, Nils
    Umeå Universitet.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå Universitet.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå Universitet.
    Benzenecarboxylate surface complexation at the goethite (alpha-FeOOH)/water interface: I. A mechanistic description of pyromellitate surface complexes from the combined evidence of infrared spectroscopy, potentiometry, adsorption data, and surface complexation modeling2000In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 16, no 13, p. 5719-5729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation combining IR spectroscopy, potentiometric titrations, and adsorption experiments was carried out to study pyromellitate (1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate) sorption at the goethite (α-FeOOH)/water interface. The IR spectra show evidence of outer-sphere complexation throughout the pH range from 3 to 9. Below pH 6 additional IR spectroscopic features appear, which are tentatively assigned to inner-sphere complexes. A normalized IR peak area plot for each peak indicative of inner- and of outer-sphere complexes as a function of pH provided a semiquantitative surface speciation scheme. This scheme was successfully reproduced using surface complexation theory with a multisite complexation model calibrated on potentiometric titration and on adsorption data. The surface speciation was described with a binuclear outer-sphere complex on the {110} plane of goethite and a mononuclear inner-sphere complex on the {001} plane. Furthermore, as the IR spectra also indicated partial protonation of pyromellitate complexes at low pH, a partially protonated outer-sphere species on the {110} plane was included in the model.

  • 28.
    Bois, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Miljömärkning av små logiverksamheter: Varför och varför inte?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing which means an increased impact on the environment and an increased resource use. At the same time a healthy environment is of significant importance for many operators within the tourism industry. Many lodging operations want to put on display that they are responsible and that they are doing improvements to decrease their environmental impact. A number of ecolabels are available to help them do so.

    The purpose of this study is to learn the motives behind why small lodging operations in Sweden choose to put an ecolabel on their companies, or the motives behind why they choose not to. The study also includes research about what ecolabel opportunities small lodging operations in Sweden have and what they mean.

    The study is based on qualitative research interviews and literature studies. The respondents are six small lodging operations. One Bed & Breakfast, two hotels, one hostel and two guesthouses. Three of the companies are ecolabelled, the other three are not. Ecolabels that are focused on in the study are Svanen (Nordic Ecolabel), Green Key, EU-blomman (EU Eco label) and Naturens Bästa (Nature's Best).

    The study shows that an ecolabel works as both a marketing tool and an environmental management system for lodging operations. The study also indicates that reasons to get an ecolabel are marketing gains, better track of the environmental work, new ideas and personal commitment.

    Motives behind not putting an ecolabel on the lodging operation have in the study shown to be the cost, expenditure of time and unawareness of the ecolabel opportunities. It has also been mentioned that the ecolabels are not always suitable for the smaller lodging operations.

    The respondents considers that an ecolabel has meant or would mean a small or no decrease of the environmental impact of their lodging operation.

    No conclusion has been reached regarding ecolabels effect on lodging operations' environmental impact.

  • 29.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    How can Ecosystem Services be implemented in local Climate Adaptation?: A case study of Arjeplog2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services are essential for human climate adaptation. As climate change is a direct driver of change for ecosystem service provisioning, it is of importance to care for our ecosystems to be able to cope with future challenges. Local governance has a central role in climate adaptation due to its responsibility in physical planning. To be able to plan for changes driven by climate change, a flexible, adaptive strategy is necessary. Ecosystem-based Adaptation, EbA, can provide this flexibility to an overall adaptation strategy. In this case study, the potential of EbA to help Nature-based Tourism, NbT, to adapt to a changing climate was spatially mapped to be a useful part of the basis for local physical planning. The mapping includes areas of biodiversity, water infrastructure and features that provide resilience to climate change. The results show that there are areas with potential for EbA that can address adverse effects of climate change for the NbT. These spatial mapped areas provide an instant overview of the key areas to consider when planning for climate adaptation. These mapped areas are also combined with a qualitative assessment of the potential for EbA. By providing decision-makers with information on where and how ecosystem services can assist local climate adaptation, decisions that support both the future of humanity and ecosystems are enabled. However, to reach enforcement of EbA, the knowledge has to be included in binding documents such as detail plans.

  • 30.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Samband mellan ekosystemtjänster - Synliggörande av påverkan från gruvverksamheten i Mertainen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several perspectives of the environmental impacts of mining in Mertainen, this study is an attempt to assess the impact on ecosystem services.

    An identification and valuation of ecosystem services can highlight the value of the ecosystem services affected by operations, and how they in turn drive a further impact on other ecosystem services.

    In order to reach a methodical identification and valuation of ecosystem services the Environmental Protection Agency's Guide for valuation of ecosystem services, was used where both quantitative and qualitative valuation was conducted.

    The identification showed connections between ecosystem services, which compiled visualized feedback loops. The result shows both how the ecosystem services can influence each other, and that consideration needs to be taken regarding possible threats to ecosystem services on a local, regional and global level.

    Although more studies are necessary for higher certainty in the results, the identification and valuation of ecosystem services contribute to a systemic perspective of the impacts on the ecosystem..

  • 31.
    Brewington, Seth
    et al.
    Anthropology Program, CUNY Graduate Center, United States .
    Hicks, Megan
    Anthropology Program, CUNY Graduate Center, United States .
    Edwald, Ágústa
    Department of Archaeology, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom .
    Einarsson, Árni
    Mývatn Research Station, Iceland.
    Anamthawat-Jónsson, Kesara
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Cook, Gordon
    Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), United Kingdom.
    Ascough, Philippa
    Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), United Kingdom.
    Sayle, Kerry L
    Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), United Kingdom.
    Arge, Símun V
    Søvn Landsins – Faroese National Heritage, Faroe Islands .
    Church, Mike
    Department of Archaeology, Durham University, United Kingdom.
    Bond, Julie
    Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
    Dockrill, Steve
    Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
    Friðriksson, Adolf
    Archaeological Institute of Iceland, Iceland .
    Hambrecht, George
    Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland, United States .
    Juliusson, Arni Daniel
    Reykjavík Academy, Iceland .
    Hreinsson, Vidar
    Reykjavík Academy, Iceland .
    Hartman, Steven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Smiarowski, Konrad
    Anthropology Program, CUNY Graduate Center, United States.
    Harrison, Ramona
    Anthropology Program, CUNY Graduate Center, United States.
    McGovern, Thomas H
    Anthropology Program, CUNY Graduate Center, United States.
    Islands of change vs. islands of disaster: Managing pigs and birds in the Anthropocene of the North Atlantic2015In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1676-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The offshore islands of the North Atlantic were among some of the last settled places on earth, with humans reaching the Faroes and Iceland in the late Iron Age and Viking period. While older accounts emphasizing deforestation and soil erosion have presented this story of island colonization as yet another social–ecological disaster, recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental research combined with environmental history, environmental humanities, and bioscience is providing a more complex understanding of long-term human ecodynamics in these northern islands. An ongoing interdisciplinary investigation of the management of domestic pigs and wild bird populations in Faroes and Iceland is presented as an example of sustained resource management using local and traditional knowledge to create structures for successful wild fowl management on the millennial scale.

  • 32.
    Carlborg, Jakob
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Spårbarhet och kvalitetssäkring i livsmedelsindustrin: fallstudie av Kungsörnens produktsortiment2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 34.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 35.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 36.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Aquaponic systems: Potentials on a northern latitude2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaponics is a food production method that combines hydroponic and aquaculture to form a system that, through symbiosis, re-circulates all the water and nutrients – and thereby negates any discharge of eutrophied or contaminated residuals – in order to grow terrestrial plants and aquatic life. To study the possibilities of aquaponics at northern latitude, a small scale aquaponic system was constructed in Jämtland, a county in the Mid Sweden region (latitude 63°) and studied while running over a nine month period, August 2012 to April 2013.

    The fish species grown in the fish tank was a species of trout prominent in local lake and stream fauna. The plants in the growbed were a mixture of different flora with herbs as a dominating part. Water from a local groundwater well was used. At start, appropriate nitrogen level in the system was achieved by adding ammonia. The values of nitrate, nitrite, pH, carbonate and total hardness were analyzed in repeatedly measured samples. The values stabilized quickly and stayed stable over the duration of the experiment. Heavy metals were analyzed at one point in time and showed no levels causing reason for alarm. Electric energy use for pumps and lighting was measured to reach close to 40 kWh per month.

    The trout growth was monitored and found to be comparable with (equal or slightly higher than in) the conventional aquaculture where the fish were originally obtained, when comparing with the same species and same brood. Among flora three herbs were the species thriving best, Oregano, Rosemary and Thyme. They kept growing throughout the winter with Oregano never ceasing to bloom. The total mass of produced vegetables and herbs were fairly low, since the herbs grew best. Results indicate that present aquaculture systems (fish only) could potentially be converted or adjusted into aquaponic systems (recirculating and purifying the water through a growbed) and thereby decrease potential risks of fresh water pollution from fish farming, especially regarding excessive nutrients.

    From the results in this study it seems aquaponic systems on northern latitudes are more favorable if focusing on fish growth, with herbs or vegetables as added benefit, and not focusing on maximizing vegetable growth. Continued studies would do well to investigate optimization parameters through, for instance, mass balance calculations and to identify optimal mixtures of plants over the year.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Environmental Crime Intelligence: The need for a locally and regionally oriented intelligence system on the field of environmental crime2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns researching the need for an environmental crime intelligence system at regional and local level geared specifically for environmental crimes within the Swedish Police as well as the need for such a combined operation towards e.g. supervisory authorities.

    The study views the current situation of environmental crime and environmental damage in part being caused due to an environmental legal implementation deficit. The study explains and defines the need as well as initiates a theoretical systematic design for an Environmental Crime Intelligence which could help reduce the deficit and so help reduce environmental damage. An Environmental Intelligence which in operation from the national level down through the organization would be linking police, prosecutors and county administrations. Authorities – who are assumed to enable, simplify, and standardize discoveries, obligations, investigations and prosecution – would be better interlinked and processed for an improved view and control in the field of environmental crime.

    This study shows the need to rethink and reevaluate the current state of environmental crime prevention process in terms of priorities and chronological regard. It has shown to verify the theory of legal implementation deficiency. Besides this, the study has also shown a way to reduce that deficiency. With this in mind it has been made visible how the need for an Environmental Intelligence system on a local and regional level would with all probability do very well by current anthropogenic systems.

    The study finds the presence of an Environmental Intelligence a consistently desired, preferred, alternative from the perspectives of the authorities mentioned above. Many of the findings points straight towards a similarity – principally in prioritization and procedures – through the intent and purpose of research for reducing environmental crime on an international level. This is viewed as a suitable segment of the methodological foundation.

  • 38.
    Chandolias, Pavlos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diesel from wood biomass: Screening LCA of a proposed KDV-plant in Jämtland, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The KDV-process uses catalytic depolymerisation to convert biomass into diesel oil. The environmental performance of KDV-diesel in a proposed KDV-plant located in the County of Jämtland, Sweden, was assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit of the study was one litre of KDV-diesel and the environmental impact categories that were considered were Global Warming Potential (GWP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Acidification Potential (AP). The acquisition of wood biomass significantly affected the life cycle performance of KDV-diesel production in all three impact categories. When benchmarked against conventional diesel oil, KDV-diesel contributed significantly less to GWP, since there are no fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the use phase, but it contributed more to EP and AP due to slightly higher emissions in the production phases. This conclusion holds true for five investigated electricity-supply scenarios for the production of KDV-diesel. Each scenario utilised a different source for electricity production: wind power; hydro power; nuclear power; coal power; and using part of the produced KDV-diesel for on-site electricity production. Another scenario analysis compared an alternative use of the wood biomass and assumed that the same amount of wood biomass was used to generate bio-electricity, instead of being converted into KDV-diesel. The scenario analysis indicated that whether wood biomass should be used for KDV-diesel production or for bio-electricity production depends on the type of electricity that is used throughout the life cycle of KDV-diesel.

  • 39.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Peters, Gregory
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental im-pacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing designare of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabellingschemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This studyinvestigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving thegarment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and con-trasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the materialwas analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currentlyonly marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For amore sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in thedesign process regarding sustainability of theirfinished products. Such a change is only possible if thedesigners can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 40.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The ageing society – an example of consequences for biomass use2010In: MFA for Sustainable Future, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Environmental challenges when developing renewable materials to replace non-renewable materials - receiving guidance from LCA studies2010In: 9th International Conference on EcoBalance 2010 'Towards & Beyond 2020' 9-12 November,Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the demand for more sustainable products is growing, the pressure on material developers to improve the sustainability performance of the products that they are developing is increasing. As a consequence, the need to move away from a narrow understanding of “product” and “environment” is becoming more apparent. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach has been used to find rough estimates of how much process energy, raw materials etc. are used in the process of transforming a biomass feedstock into a new material. A reference product with a fossil based material intended to be replaced is used as a benchmark for the new product. The new product must perform at least as well as this benchmark and preferably better. We illustrate this LCA based methodology using the example of replacing petroleum-based polymeric material with wood-based material in a disposable consumer product.

  • 42.
    Cox, Erica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Höjning av Fäbodträsket - Hur påverkas ekosystemtjänsterna om sjön höjs?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lake ”Fäbodträsket” has under a long time decreased in height with overgrowth and a loss of water quality as a result. The lake´s interest group for cottages intends to research the possibility to increase the height of lake ”Fäbodträsket” and the adjacent lake ”Vallsträsket” to their original heights, by building a dam at their outlet to the river “Bureälven”. To get an approval for this, they need to complement their application to the environmental court of law with an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This study aims to use the perspective of the regional ecosystem as a complement to the conclusion if it is suitable to increase the height of the lake ”Fäbodträsket” and thereafter discuss how ecosystem services can be incorporated in the EIA process. Parts of the EIA tool has been used as a foundation and relevant ecosystem services have been identified and evaluated based on if they will become more or less valuable after the increase of the lakes heights and after the “zero alternative”. The value of nine out of eleven chosen ecosystem services grows by increasing the height of the lakes ”. The cottages at “Fäbodträsket” grows in value by an increase in the lakes height, while some nearby farmland decreases in value.

    The results show that an increased height of the lake is justifiable from an ecosystemservice perspective and also gets support from both national and regional environmental goals.

  • 43.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Input processes and decomposition rates of large woody debris in a boreal forest stream2001In: Tree Rings and People: An International Conference on the Future of Dendrochronology, Davos, Switzerland September 22-26, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Long-term dynamics of large woody debris in a managed boreal forest stream.2005In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 210, no 1-3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how past forest management in Sweden influenced the quantity and quality of large woody debris (LWD) in streams. The present study provides information of the long-term dynamics of LWD in a reach of a boreal stream intersecting a managed forest. Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct mortality years of the pieces of LWD and the general history of fire and cuttings of the surrounding riparian forest. Today, spruce dominates among the living trees, whereas the LWD is dominated by birch in the forest and by pine in the stream. Fire frequency prior to active fire suppression was similar to values reported from boreal forests. Pine trees were more abundant in the riparian forest before selective logging operations and active fire suppression began in the 1800s. Many of the pieces of LWD found in the stream today died more than 200 years ago and derived from a cohort of pines that generated in the early 1600s. Pine LWD in stream channels is highly resistant to decomposition and can reside for more than 300 years. A substantial amount of the LWD found today in managed forest streams in boreal Sweden most likely derives from the time before extensive human influence and is likely to decrease further in the future. Management of riparian forests to ascertain future supply of long-lived LWD in streams should target to increase the proportion of pine trees.

  • 45.
    Daniali, Iran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Initial Deployment of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment: Case study: Green Highway Region, E14 from Sundsvall in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered a more sustainable alternative vehicle because of their efficient electric motor when compared to internal combustion engines (ICE), and thus help to mitigate environmental problems and reduce fossil fuel dependency. In or-der to support drivers of plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PEVs), the installation and adequate distribution of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) is a major factor. The availability of EVSE is a vital requirement in order to charge the vehicle’s battery pack through connection to the electricity grid. This thesis evaluates the likely distribu-tion of a sufficient number of charging stations, measured as the demand of EVSE, for initial deployment in the E14 highway. This highway is also known as the Green High-way region, where a plan has been outlined with the aim to create a fleet of 15% EVs in the area by 2020.In order to model EVSE distribution, the first step was to complete a survey in 2012 on the population density and location of cities, along with the location of already estab-lished charging station locations on the Green Highway. The survey was done with ge-ography information survey (GIS) software. The second step was to create a map of the region. Based on the map, the initial estimate of EVSE locations on the Green Highway project plan was analyzed, as the third step. This was used as an initial analysis. The forth step was to use the location of current gasoline stations to provide as alternative pattern for the EVSE sites.It was observed that the network of gasoline stations correlates positively with population density. Through using these stations, the optimal location of the EVSEs was proposed. However, the model results do not provide for sufficient placement of EVSE sites where the population density is very low. In order to assess the different potential options, it was necessary to create analytical models in Arc-GIS, in which buffer zones were created with a variable size of 10, 15, 20 and 31 miles. This permitted allocation of a geographical area to estimate the optimum sites for charging stations. The resultsiiishowed that for a buffer zone of 10 miles, 28 charging stations were calculated, using buffer zone of 15 miles gives 18 stations, and a buffer zone of 20 miles results in 13 charging station sites. Notably, the estimate of the 20-mile buffer zone gives the same results as for the 50 km (31 miles) buffer zone for residential areas along E14. Therefore, the results show that the optimal design is to deploy 14 fast charging stations with three-phase DC, or 14 fast charging stations with three-phase AC, installed adjacent to the E14 road.

  • 46.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

    In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

    The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

    Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

    From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

  • 47.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Sweden .
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO AB (publ), Umeå, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden.

    The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 48. Dimitriou, I.
    et al.
    Berndes, G.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Brown, M.
    Busch, G.
    Dale, V.
    Devlin, G.
    English, B.
    Goss, K.
    Jackson, S.
    Kline, K. L.
    McDonnell, K.
    McGrath, J.
    Mola-Yudego, B.
    Murphy, F.
    Negri, M. C.
    Parish, E. S.
    Ssegane, H.
    Tyler, D.
    Lignocellulosic crops in agricultural landscapes: production systems for biomass and other environmental benefits - examples, incentives, and barriers2018Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 50.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. Based on hourby- hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the benefit of thermal mass inherent in concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with CHP-based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

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