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  • 1.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Abbaszad Rafi, Abdolrahim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Cordova, Armando
    Sustainable Surface Engineering of Lignocellulose and Cellulose by Synergistic Combination of Metal‐Free Catalysis and Polyelectrolyte Complexes2019In: Global Challenges, ISSN 2056-6646 (online), Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable strategy for synergistic surface engineering of lignocellulose and cellulose fibers derived from wood by synergistic combination of metal‐free catalysis and renewable polyelectrolyte (PE) complexes is disclosed. The strategy allows for improvement and introduction of important properties such as strength, water resistance, and fluorescence to the renewable fibers and cellulosic materials. For example, the “green” surface engineering significantly increases the strength properties (up to 100% in Z‐strength) of chemi‐thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and bleached sulphite pulp (BSP)‐derived sheets. Next, performing an organocatalytic silylation with a nontoxic organic acid makes the corresponding lignocellulose and cellulose sheets hydrophobic. A selective color modification of polysaccharides is developed by combining metal‐free catalysis and thiol‐ene click chemistry. Next, fluorescent PE complexes based on cationic starch (CS) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) are prepared and used for modification of CTMP or BSP in the presence of a metal‐free catalyst. Laser‐scanning confocal microscopy reveals that the PE‐strength additive is evenly distributed on the CTMP and heterogeneously on the BSP. The fluorescent CS distribution on the CTMP follows the lignin distribution of the lignocellulosic fibers.

  • 2.
    Barhoum, Ahmed
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium.
    Samyn, Pieter
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dufresne, Alain
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Review of recent research on flexible multifunctional nanopapers2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 40, p. 15181-15205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional paper and papermaking have struggled with a declining market during the last decades. However, the incorporation of nanotechnology in papermaking has brought possibilities to develop low-cost, biocompatible and flexible products with sophisticated functionalities. The functionality of nanopapers emerges from the intrinsic properties of the nanofibrous network, the additional loading of specific nanomaterials, or the additional deposition and patterning of thin films of nanomaterials on the paper surface. A successful development of functional nanopapers requires understanding in how the nanopaper matrix, nanomaterial fillers, coating pigments/inks, functional additives and manufacturing processes all interact to provide the intended functionality. This review addresses the emerging area of functional nanopapers. The review discusses flexible and multifunctional nanopapers, nanomaterials being used in nanopaper making, manufacturing techniques, and functional applications that provide new important possibilities to utilize papermaking technology. The interface where nanomaterials research meets traditional papermaking has important implications for food packaging, energy harvesting, and energy storage, flexible electronics, low-cost devices for medical diagnostics, and numerous other areas.

  • 3.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Changing from petroleum to wood-based materials: critical review of how product sustainability characteristics can be assessed and compared2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 39, p. 372-385Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a literature survey on available approaches for the assessment of product sustainability, with a specific focus on assessing the replacement of non-renewable petroleum-based materials with renewable wood-based materials in absorbent hygiene products. The results are contrasted to needs in a specific material development project. A diverse number of methods exist that can help in assessing different product sustainability characteristics for parts of or whole product lifecycles. None of the assessment methods found include guidelines for how to make a case-specific interpretation of sustainability and there is a general lack of assessment parameters that can describe considerations in the comparison between the use of wood or petroleum as main raw material. One reason for this is lack of knowledge and/or consensus on how to describe and assess impacts of land and water use, e.g. on ecosystem services, different types of resource depletion and social impacts.

  • 4.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cellulose stabilizers for 2D materials inkjet inks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, the most promising scalable method for achieving 2D materials dispersions is through liquidbasedexfoliation of nanosheets in solvents. We study the use of high throughput shear exfoliation insteadof sonication to exfoliate water dispersions of MoS2 using environmental friendly stabilizers based oncellulose. The resulted dispersion was then concentrated and inkjet printed on a flexible substrate. We usedethyl cellulose, cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and ultra-fine cellulose nanofibers (UF-CNF). The stability wasevaluated by measuring the differences in concentration over time. The particle size distribution (PSD) ofthe dispersed particles was evaluated using statistical methods applied to SEM images of the dispersions(See Fig 1 and 2). The zeta potential and the mechanisms of stabilization involved was evaluated (See Fig4). All three stabilizers appear to work very well for MoS2 nanosheets even though the mechanisms ofstabilization were different i.e. steric stabilization for MoS2-EC and electrostatic stabilization for MoS2-CNF and MoS2-UF-CNF dispersions. For the MoS2-EC dispersions we achieved a broader PSD (Fig. 1)and higher stability. Thin nanosheets was observed from the SEM image of MoS2-EC dispersions depositedonto cellulose filters by vacuum filtration (Fig. 5) which demonstrated that the exfoliation technique usedwas successful. The estimated concentration of the MoS2-EC dispersion after 8 days of sample preparationwas 0.24 mg/mL, 77% of the initial concentration (see Fig. 6) and it was relatively steady after 40 days ofsample preparation (0.22 mg/mL). To adjust the concentration and the viscosity of the MoS2-EC dispersion,we concentrated it using a rotary evaporator solvent exchange technique. For this we used terpineol andadjusted the viscosity using ethanol. This paper presents the results of an inkjet 2D material ink usingenvironmental friendly components different than previous 2D materials inks that used organic solvents orwater based dispersions containing surfactants.

  • 5.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Green materials for inkjet printing of 2D materials and transparent electronics2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Liquid Exfoliation of Layered Materials in Water for Inkjet Printing2016In: Printing for Fabrication 2016: Materials, Applications, and Processes, USA: Curran Associates, Inc., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MoS2 is a layered material which is abundant and non-toxic and has been increasingly studied during the last few years as a semiconducting alternative to graphene. While most studies have been performed on single MoS2 nanosheets, for example to demonstrate high-performance electronic transistors, more work is needed to explore the use of MoS2 in printed electronics. The importance of using MoS2 as a printed electronic material could be understood by considering the several orders higher electron mobility in MoS2, even in several nanometer thick layers, compared to the organic and other materials used today. In the few studies performed so far on printing MoS2, the developed dispersions used mainly organic solvents that might be detrimental for the environment. Here, we show an environmentally friendly liquid-based exfoliation method in water where the solution was stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. The dispersions consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets with average lateral size of about 150 nm, surface tension of 28 mN m-1 and a shelf life of a year. Although both the concentration and viscosity was less than optimal, we were able to inkjet print the MoS2 solution on paper and on PET films, using multiple printing passes. By tuning the concentration/viscosity, this approach might lead to an environmentally friendly MoS2 ink suitable for printed electronics.

  • 7.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The Influence of pH on the Stability of Inks of Two-Dimensional Materials for Digital Fabrication2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aim to achieve stable printable 2D inks with environmental friendly solvents using a surfactant as a stabilizer. This study focuses on the influence of the pH on the stability of the MoS2 dispersionsin acetic acid at concentrations ranging from pH 1 to 5.The effectiveness of liquid-based exfoliation using shear exfoliation was also evaluated though SEM images and resulted in very thin nanosheets. We observed that at pH concentrations higher than 2, the dispersions were more stable.

  • 8.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Towards flexible and cheap printed electronics using inks of exfoliated 2D materials stabilized by cellulose2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible and cheap electronics are needed for simple applications such as sensors and solar cells. To achieve this, thin functional materials should be deposited efficiently to flexible substrates such as paper. A promising method for the deposition of such materials is through inkjet printing that said a stable and printable dispersion is necessary. We achieved this through liquid-based exfoliation of 2D materials in water using shear exfoliation and cellulose stabilizers. The resulted dispersion was then concentrated and inkjet printed on a flexible substrate. We used ethyl cellulose, cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and ultra-fine cellulose nanofibers (UF-CNF). All three stabilizers appear to work very well for MoS2 nanosheets even though the mechanisms of stabilization were different among them. For the MoS2-EC dispersions we achieved a broader PSD and higher dispersion stability. Thin nanosheets were observed from the SEM image of MoS2-EC dispersions deposited onto cellulose filters. The estimated concentration of the MoS2-EC dispersion after 20 days of sample preparation was 0.20 mg/mL. This dispersion was further processed to adjust the concentration and viscosity.  Good coverage of the substrate was achieved after 50 printing passes. If the same technique is applied to other 2D materials such as graphene (conductor) and boro nitride (insulator), a transistor can be fabricated.

  • 9.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Towards stable 2D materials inkjet inks: a study of stabilizers and MoS2 grades2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Samyn, Pieter
    et al.
    Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Barhoum, Ahmed
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium; Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dufresne, Alain
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Review: Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials in Papermaking2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 146-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) in papermaking originally emerged from the perspective of improving processing operations and reducing material consumption. However, a very broad range of nanomaterials (NMs) can be incorporated into the paper structure and allows creating paper products with novel properties. This review is of interdisciplinary nature, addressing the emerging area of nanotechnology in papermaking focusing on resources, chemical synthesis and processing, colloidal properties, and deposition methods. An overview of different NMs used in papermaking together with their intrinsic properties and a link to possible applications is presented from a chemical point of view. After a brief introduction on NMs classification and papermaking, their role as additives or pigments in the paper structure is described. The different compositions and morphologies of NMs and NSMs are included, based on wood components, inorganic, organic, carbon-based, and composite NPs. In a first approach, nanopaper substrates are made from fibrillary NPs, including cellulose-based or carbon-based NMs. In a second approach, the NPs can be added to a regular wood pulp as nanofillers or used in coating compositions as nanopigments. The most important processing steps for NMs in papermaking are illustrated including the internal filling of fiber lumen, LbL deposition or fiber wall modification, with important advances in the field on the in situ deposition of NPs on the paper fibers. Usually, the manufacture of products with advanced functionality is associated with complex processes and hazardous materials. A key to success is in understanding how the NMs, cellulose matrix, functional additives, and processes all interact to provide the intended paper functionality while reducing materials waste and keeping the processes simple and energy efficient.

  • 11.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sintering Inhibition of Silver Nanoparticle Films via AgCl Nanocrystal Formation2017In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive films are key components in most printed and flexible electronics applications. For the solution processing of conductive films, inks containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) remain important because of their relatively easy processing and generally low resistivity after a sintering procedure. Because the commonly used, moderate sintering temperatures of 150-300 °C are still too high for most low-cost flexible substrates, expanding the knowledge of surface-ink interactions that affect the sintering temperature is desirable. It is known that chloride ions can assist the sintering of AgNP films by displacing capping agents on the surfaces of AgNPs. However, very little is known about other possible Cl-AgNP interactions that affect the resistivity and no interaction having the opposite effect (sintering inhibition) has been identified before. Here we identify such a Cl-AgNP interaction giving sintering inhibition and find that the mechanism involves the formation of AgCl nanocrystals within the AgNP film. The AgCl formation was observed after inkjet-printing of AgNP inks with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent onto papers with quick-absorbing coatings containing 0.3 wt % KCl. Our findings show that chloride can have opposite roles during sintering, either assisting or inhibiting the sintering depending on the prevalence of AgCl formation. The prevalence of AgCl formation depends on the absorption properties and the capping agent.

  • 12.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

  • 13.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, France.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 18273-18282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost solution-processing of highly conductive films is important for the expanding market of printed electronics. For roll-to-roll manufacturing, suitable flexible substrates and compatible postprocessing are essential. Here, custom-developed coated papers are demonstrated to facilitate the inkjet fabrication of high performance copper patterns. The patterns are fabricated in ambient conditions using water-based CuO dispersion and intense pulsed light (IPL) processing. Papers using a porous CaCO3 precoating, combined with an acidic mesoporous absorption coating, improve the effectiveness and reliability of the IPL process. The processing is realizable within 5 ms, using a single pulse of light. A resistivity of 3.1 ± 0.12 μΩ·cm is achieved with 400 μm wide conductors, corresponding to more than 50% of the conductivity of bulk copper. This is higher than previously reported results for IPL-processed copper.

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