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  • 1.
    Agrawal, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Long Term Channel Characterization for Energy Efficient Transmission in Industrial Environments2014In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 3004-3014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges for a successful use of wireless sensor networks in process industries is to design networks with energy efficient transmission, to increase the lifetime of the deployed network while maintaining the required latency and bit-error rate. The design of such transmission schemes depend on the radio channel characteristics of the region. This paper presents an investigation of the statistical properties of the radio channel in a typical process industry, particularly when the network is meant to be deployed for a long time duration, e.g., days, weeks, and even months. Using 17–20-h-long extensive measurement campaigns in a rolling mill and a paper mill, we highlight the non-stationarity in the environment and quantify the ability of various distributions, given in the literature, to describe the variations on the links. Finally, we analyze the design of an optimal received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the deployed nodes and show that improper selection of the distribution for modeling of the variations in the channel can lead to an overuse of energy by a factor of four or even higher.

  • 2.
    Agrawal, Piyush
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Characterization of Long Term Channel Variations in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Akbar, Adnan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Influencing Factors on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Mobile Computing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applications that can change their behaviour based on the user’s contextual appearance are called context-aware applications. Applications developed for smart phones, which carry a multitude of different sensors, and actuators have gained a huge penetration within the market. Frequent usage of mobile applications such as home automation, friend finder, car accident notification and tracking etc; have seen an increased growth from the user’s perspective. However, for such applications, it is necessary to have knowledge of the performance and cost parameters, which directly affect the QoE of the application users.  This thesis investigates possible context aware behaviours in real time situations and measures the Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as identifying the Packet Delay Variation (PDV). The background and some state-of-the-art technologies are studied, and based on these studies, three scenarios are designed and implemented and based on their QoE, results and conclusions are presented, with the  results obtained  shown by means of   graphical representations of the QoE and PDV values. 

  • 4.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Function Practice: Ett verktyg för att öva programmering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more people choose to learn programming it may be good to practicesolving problems by writing functions that can then be tested to see if theuser has succeeded. Function Practice is a service to be able to practice programmingin exactly this way, by solving tasks of writing functions in differentprogramming languages, the languages that will be used is Java, C ++ andPython. It also provides an easy and convenient way to create such tasks. Theaim of the project is to develop this service by creating a Web service that cancompile and run functions for the different languages, a website that users canwrite and test code, as well as a way to define the tasks to be solved, this is thentested with a user test in a smaller group to see how user-friendly it is, and thefunctionality is tested and compared with some previous solutions. The serviceis tested to see if additional security is needed by trying to run commands onthe host system. The conclusion of the project is that the functionality behindthe service works, however, that the website needs to be a little clearer for it tobe more user-friendly, and that the user should be able to get error messages incase something does not work to make it easier to know what they need to do.Security proves to be an important part when it is possible to execute commandson the host system which gives users full control of the system.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    3D Video Playback: A modular cross-platform GPU-based approach for flexible multi-view 3D video rendering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of depth‐perception visualization technologies, emerging format standardization work and research within the field of multi‐view 3D video and imagery addresses the need for flexible 3D video visualization. The wide variety of available 3D‐display types and visualization techniques for multi‐view video, as well as the high throughput requirements for high definition video, addresses the need for a real‐time 3D video playback solution that takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics, while providing a high degree of flexibility through format configuration and cross‐platform interoperability. A modular component based software solution based on FFmpeg for video demultiplexing and video decoding is proposed,using OpenGL and GLUT for hardware accelerated graphics and POSIX threads for increased CPU utilization. The solution has been verified to have sufficient throughput in order to display 1080p video at the native video frame rate on the experimental system, which is considered as a standard high‐end desktop PC only using commercial hardware. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution a number of throughput evaluation metrics have been introduced measuring average frame rate as a function of: video bit rate, video resolution and number of views. The results obtained have indicated that the GPU constitutes the primary bottleneck in a multi‐view lenticular rendering system and that multi‐view rendering performance is degraded as the number of views is increased. This is a result of the current GPU square matrix texture cache architectures, resulting in texture lookup access times according to random memory access patterns when the number of views is high. The proposed solution has been identified in order to provide low CPU efficiency, i.e. low CPU hardware utilization and it is recommended to increase performance by investigating the gains of scalable multithreading techniques. It is also recommended to investigate the gains of introducing video frame buffering in video memory or to move more calculations to the CPU in order to increase GPU performance.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Parallel Simulation: Parallel computing for high performance LTE radio network simulations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio access technologies for cellular mobile networks are continuously being evolved to meet the future demands for higher data rates, and lower end‐to‐end delays. In the research and development of LTE, radio network simulations play an essential role. The evolution of parallel processing hardware makes it desirable to exploit the potential gains of parallelizing LTE radio network simulations using multithreading techniques in contrast to distributing experiments over processors as independent simulation job processes. There is a hypothesis that parallel speedup gain diminishes when running many parallel simulation jobs concurrently on the same machine due to the increased memory requirements. A proposed multithreaded prototype of the Ericsson LTE simulator has been constructed, encapsulating scheduling, execution and synchronization of asynchronous physical layer computations. In order to provide implementation transparency, an algorithm has been proposed to sort and synchronize log events enabling a sequential logging model on top of non‐deterministic execution. In order to evaluate and compare multithreading techniques to parallel simulation job distribution, a large number of experiments have been carried out for four very diverse simulation scenarios. The evaluation of the results from these experiments involved analysis of average measured execution times and comparison with ideal estimates derived from Amdahl’s law in order to analyze overhead. It has been shown that the proposed multithreaded task‐oriented framework provides a convenient way to execute LTE physical layer models asynchronously on multi‐core processors, still providing deterministic results that are equivalent to the results of a sequential simulator. However, it has been indicated that distributing parallel independent jobs over processors is currently more efficient than multithreading techniques, even though the achieved speedup is far from ideal. This conclusion is based on the observation that the overhead caused by increased memory requirements, memory access and system bus congestion is currently smaller than the thread management and synchronization overhead of the proposed multithreaded Java prototype.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Konsten att delegera prefix: En jämförelse av automatiserad och statisk konfiguration2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it became clear that the number of ipv4 addresses would not be enough, ipv6 was developed. With new features that had been adapted to the infrastructure that had been built up around the world, there was now a replacement for ipv4. But the differences are many and the protocols are not alike at all, especially when looking at the built-in functions. One of these new features in ipv6 is called Prefix Delegation, a simple and convenient way to automatically distribute parts of a larger network into smaller networks. Although there are simple and flexible way to implement this, the existing infrastructure of the Internet may not be so simple. The complexity of the infrastructure forces us to use a variety of routes, both static and dynamic. To get an understanding of how this can differ, we looked at an overview of how the infrastructure might look like and then tested how to solve the addressing through an automated process and a static process. The results shows that the automated solution requires a little more preparation and specified equipment, but the work then becomes easy to control, debug, and document. The static process is more straightforward and requires no special equipment, however, it will be difficult to control, debug, and document where the slightest change can require a lot of work where the risk of complications is great.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Blomqvist, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Software Defined Network: Med openflow2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal for this project is to setup a redundant Software Defined Network for a fictive company. The company should be able to use the network for future network extension. The network will be built in mininet. Mininet is a software that is used to simulate a real network environment. The company should also be able to take the simulated network in mininet and implement it in to a real network. The protocols STP and LACP are implemented in the network by means of the programming language python.

  • 9.
    Arslan, Önder
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    BeSafe: Säkerhetsapplikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet beskriver utvecklingen av säkerhetsapplikationen BeSafe vilken utvecklats för IT-konsulttjänsteverksamheten Sogeti. BeSafe kommer i framtiden integreras med två andra applikationer för att tillsammans bilda en större friluftsapplikation.

    Den färdiga applikationen besvarar de verifierbara målen och därmed även problemformuleringen. Applikationen erbjuder användaren möjlighet att stärka den egna säkerheten. Muntliga intervjuer genomfördes för att bestämma design, färger och logotyp för applikationen. Intervjuerna resulterade i en användarvänligare applikation där undersökningen riktade in arbetet mot det gränssnitt BeSafe nu har. BeSafe är utvecklad genom en iterativ process i utvecklingsmiljön Android Studios och riktar sig till enheter baserade på Androids OS. Vidareutveckling av applikationen skulle kunna ske i form av nya funktioner där användaren exempelvis kan tillåta anhöriga få live feedback på vart användaren befinner sig. Det har tagits hänsyn till etiska aspekter under arbetets gång för att värna om användarens integritet. Detta genom notifikationer, minimering av risk för spridning av data genom lagrings- och kommunikationssätt inom applikationen.

  • 10.
    Asklind, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Rapportsystem – Grund för dynamiskt rapportsystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projektet har inneburit att skapa en prototyp av en webbapplikation som man förhoppningsvis kommer att kunna använda i framtiden som en grund till att skapa en mer helomfattande applikationen. Projektet handlar om att skapa ett rapportsystem som tillåter företag att få en bättre koll på statusen av sina uppdrag, sina kunder och anställda. Samtidigt som att den tillåter anställda att rapportera in när uppdrag är klara. Då detta är tänkt som en prototyp av en del för en större lösning så har avgränsningar blivit tvungna att göras. Under projektet så har användbarhet, mängd av internet förbrukning och tillgänglighet tagits i aktning under utvecklandet.

  • 11.
    Axell, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    LAN Segmentering: Implementering av VTP version 3 och MST2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company is on the verge of segmenting their network and the reasons for this are to get a more secure production by creating a controlled and isolated environment, protecting against the spread of virus and  other threats and aswell creating cost savings by not updating or upgrading unnecessary equipment just to meet the network policy. In order to facilitate the company's segmentation needs, this independent project has been about implementing VTP version 3 and MST. VTP sends out VLAN and MST updates around the network and ease the use of PVLAN. MST is a Spanning Tree protocol that enables VLAN to be mapped to instances to save CPU utilization on the switches as well to help load balance the network. The method used was to set up a test environment from backups from the real network where it was tested to implement the new protocols and to see how they acted. An evaluation of the network was made where selected switches and interfaces were measured before the implementation to be compared later with the same measurements after the implementation was completed. It turned out that the results before implementation were low enough that the implementation of MST was postponed until the network segmentation was completed. VTP version 3 was implemented without any problems and three different scenarios with complete configuration were created to help the company take the leap to MST in the future.

  • 12.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Ericsson AB.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Tingting, Zhang
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia.
    Error Manifestation in Industrial WSN Communication and Guidelines for Countermeasures2017In: Wireless Sensor Systems for Extreme Environments: Space, Underwater, Underground and Industrial / [ed] H. F. Rashvand and A. Abedi, John Wiley & Sons, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Guntupalli, Lakshmikanth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Modeling of Enhanced Distributed Channel Access with Station Grouping: A Throughput Analysis2018In: Proc. IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC'18-fall), Chicago, USA, Aug. 2018., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine to Machine (M2M) communication networksare expected to connect a large number of power constrained devices in long range applications with differentquality of service (QoS) requirements. Medium access control with QoS support such as the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) defined by IEEE 802.11e provides traffic differentiation and corresponding priority classes, which guarantees QoSaccording to the needs of applications. In this paper, we employa station grouping mechanism for enhancing the scalability of EDCA to handle the massive number of access attempts expected in large M2M networks. Furthermore, we develop a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) model to analyze the performance of EDCA with station grouping. Using the developed DTMC model, we calculate throughput for each access category as well as for different combinations of grouping and EDCA parameters. Thenumerical results show that the model can precisely reveal the behavior of EDCA mechanism. Moreover, it is demonstrated that employing the proposed grouping mechanism for EDCA increasesthe normalized throughput significantly for all classes of priority.

  • 14.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Energy Efficient Communication in IEEE 802.11ah2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), IEEE, 2017, p. 1295-1300, article id 7915550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are characterized by large numbers of devices with sporadic transmissions and subjected to low energy budgets. This work addresses the importance of energy consumption by proposing a new Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11ah, a standard targeting M2M communication. We propose to use the features of IEEE 802.11ah MAC to realize a hybrid contention-reservation mechanism for the transmission of uplink traffic. In the proposed mechanism, any device with a buffered packet will first notify the Access Point (AP) during a contention phase before being given a reserved timeslot for the data transmission. We develop a mathematical model to analyse the energy consumption ofthe proposed mechanism and of IEEE 802.11ah. The results show that for a monitoring scenario, the proposed contention reservation mechanism reduces the energy consumption for a successful uplink data transmission by up to 55%.

  • 15.
    Bergman, Ellinor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Sassa – En webbapplikation för kreativa briefs2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här projektet har inneburit att skapa en webbapplikation förföretag som vill kunna inhämta information från kund i form avkreativa briefs på ett smidigt sätt innan ett projekt initieras. Dennawebbapplikation har skapats eftersom företaget Nuadesignbehövde ett bättre sätt att hantera inhämtad information. På grundav projektets storlek, samt tidsbegränsningar, så har avgränsningarvarit tvungen att göras. Under projektets gång så har saker somanvändbarhet, tillgänglighet och laddningstider tagits i beräkning.

  • 16.
    Blixt Myrsell, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Dynamiska Skript: Automatisering med Python2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Company X is an Internet Service Provider in need of automation. There are three IT technicians employed and as of right now they rely on scripts that automate everything from documentation to the company database to the basic configuration of the network switches that gets delivered to the customers. The company also provides customer support if that is included in the agreement and when the company grows, so does the workload. To minimize the time the employees have to spend to inform and support customers, the company wishes to create a web-based platform where the customers can help themselves. This project aims to create, test and evaluate a first draft of said platform, on which a customer should be able to log in and see information about their units and configure those units based on parameters set by the company. To accomplish this the programming language Python and its libraries and modules will be used. This project report covers the relevant theory and the work has been realized via the gathering of project requirements, pseudocode and flowcharts, coding and testing, and evaluation. Furthermore a discussion is had regarding the ethics of automation. The study has shown that Python and its libraries is well suited to accomplish automation according to the company’s needs.

  • 17.
    Bondeson, Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Essie - Få koll på vad maten innehåller2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten kommer beskriva faserna planering, implementering och resultat av en webbapplikation som näringsberäknar recept. Webbapplikationens syfte är att skapa medvetenhet över effekten och konsekvenserna som våra matval har över oss. Den är inte riktad till den enskilda personen, utan snarare till storkök som exempelvis skolkök. Applikationen är skriven med i HTML, CSS, PHP, MySQL, AJAX och jQuery. För att underlätta designarbetet används ramverket Twitter Bootstrap. Rapporten beskriver de olika delarna av utvecklandet i applikationen, från databasdesign till funktioner för att lägga till och radera recept och råvaror. Resultatet blev en webbapplikation som näringsberäknar recepten man skapar. Man kan söka efter, sortera och filtrera recept. De enskilda receptsidorna innehåller näringsberäkning per portion, som man sedan kan skriva ut i en utskriftsvänlig version.

  • 18.
    Borgenstrand, Markus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Network automation – the power of Ansible2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses network automation primarily with Ansible. Ansible is a software from Red Hat that can be used for network automation. The report also goes through YAML which is a standardized way of exchanging data, Jinja2 that is a templating language, Python as well as the security with Ansible. The report also goes through why network automation is needed as well as how much time might be saved with Ansible. Ansible ships with modules for Cisco IOS such as ios_config and ios_command and for Cisco ASA asa_config, asa_command and asa_acl as well as many other modules for Arista, Juniper and for other vendors. Ansible can use new APIs by creating new modules for handling that particular API, which means that the only change needed in the playbooks is to change the module name. Ansible can handle NETCONF API using the netconf_config module or various Juniper modules. Ansible is used in this report to perform certain tasks such as to adding VLAN's, close ports on ASA's, audit network devices configuration as well as to create network diagram using the information from CDP. Ansible can be made as secure as manually doing the tasks except that Ansible can do it faster and more consistently.  For connecting to normal Linux servers Ansible uses OpenSSH which is a default SSH client on most Linux systems and for connecting to network devices it uses Paramiko. The security in Ansible depends on SSH and may or may not have passwords stored locally, Ansible can be as secure as the administrator wants it to be such as using RSA key-pair to authenticate, using vault encrypted credentials or asking the administrator about which username and password to use. Using Ansible network automation can save time, the amount saved depends on what is being done, how many devices it is doing it on as well as how the playbook is written.

  • 19.
    Brandt, Nick
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    ChattyMe – En webbaserad chattapplikation2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapporten är att redovisa utvecklingen av chattapplikationen ChattyMe. Målet med projektet är att skapa en robust och högpresterande webbapplikation. Enligt undersökningar finns det stora brister i säkerheten på flertalet webbplatser, och därför är det extra viktigt och en hög prioritet att utveckla denna applikationen med stort fokus på säkerhet. För att kunna hantera den begränsade utvecklingstiden har en tidsplan med deadlines skapats som följs under hela utvecklingen. Det som kommer att ingå i applikationen är teknik som registrering och inloggning, chattrum och privata meddelanden medlemmar emellan. Teknologierna som kommer att användas till att utveckla applikationen är JavaScript-ramverket Angular för frontend och JavaScript server-ramverket Node.js för backend. Förutom Angular och Node.js kommer JavaScript-biblioteket Socket.io användas för uppdatering i realtid. Att utveckla effektivt är viktigt i ett tidsbegränsad projekt, och för att göra det krävs en optimal utvecklingsmiljö. I detta fallet har Jetbrains Webstorm använts för programmering, Google Chrome debugger för debugging, med Postman för API testning och detta har gjorts i Linux Ubuntu 17.10 operativsystem. Resultatet blev en funktionell, högpresterande och säker chattapplikation enligt tester.

  • 20.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal .
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Analysis of LoRaWAN V1.1 Security2018In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Experiences with the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects (SMARTOBJECTS '18)., ACM Digital Library, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa and the LoRaWAN specification is a technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) designed to allow connectivity for connected objects, such as remote sensors. Several previous works revealed various weaknesses regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st draft) and these led to improvements included in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on Oct 11, 2017. In this work, we provide the first look into the security of LoRaWAN v1.1. We present an overview of the protocol and, importantly, present several threats to this new version of the protocol. Besides, we propose our own ramification strategies for the mentioned threats, to be used in developing next version of LoRaWAN. The threats presented were not previously discussed, they are possible even within the security assumptions of the specification and are relevant for practitioners implementing LoRa-based applications as well researchers and the future evolution of the LoRaWAN specification.

  • 21.
    Bygdeson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Cartographer: En kartbaserad friluftsapplikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med det här arbetet har varit att utveckla en friluftsapplikation för människor som rör sig i skog och mark antingen i arbetet eller i privatlivet. Med syfte att låta de skapa och placera ut markörer på en karta med aktivt uppdaterande gps positionering. För att uppnå detta har Google Maps använts som gränssnitt för att hämta och hantera kartinformation och en applikation har designats i flödesscheman utefter kravspecifikationen och i enlighet med Jacob Nielsens användbarhetsprinciper. Hallway test metoden har använts för att utvärdera hur väl användbarhetsdesignen har uppnått sina mål. Applikationen har sedan konstruerats i Java och Android Studio mot Androids mobila plattform. Utvecklingen har följt den planerade designen och uppnått samtliga konkreta mål som specificerades och i synnerhet användbarhetsmålen. Flera funktionella mål har identifierats att kunna optimeras ytterligare och en rad förslag på vidareutveckling av applikationen har tagits fram för eventuella framtida arbeten.

  • 22.
    Bäckstedt, Dennis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Felsökning och optimering av trådlöst nätverk IEEE 802.11ac2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks are growing ever more and the norm is now that in an office or home you can

    settle down with your laptop and work without having to worry about network outlets or wires. IP

    telephony and tablet are now more natural in many users daily lives, and especially IP telephony

    places high demands on the network to which it is connected. Therefore, I have chosen that in this

    report, look at the 802.11 wireless technology developed by the IEEE standardization organization.

    The method I chose to use to accomplish this is to perform a measurement of an existing wire-

    less network. I will then investigate this data in order to hopefully submit a proposal for a better

    network design. As a tool for carrying out this measurement, I have equipment from Ekahau, a

    Finnish company whose main aim is measurement, optimization and troubleshooting of wireless

    networks. What I found out was that the wireless network had major shortcomings. In particular,

    coverage was a matter of concern, not just the lack of coverage, but sometimes even for good cove-

    rage, resulting in sticky clients. I have then presented a design that, in order to minimize costs and

    environmental impact, uses existing equipment, but requires that it be supplemented with 9 new

    access points.

  • 23.
    Bäckström, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Limitations of Azure in GIS Scalability: A performance and migration study2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the cloud platform Windows Azure has been targeted for test implementations of Geographical Information System (GIS) software in the form of map servers and tile caches. The map servers included were GeoServer, MapNik, MapServer and SharpMap, which together with the tile caches, GeoWebCache, MapCache and TileCache, were installed on Windows Azures three different virtual machine roles (Web, Worker and VM). Furthermore, different techniques for scalingapplications and internal role communication are presented, followed by four sets of performance tests. The performance tests attempt to highlight the differences in request times, how the different role sizes handle the load from the incoming requests, how the different role sizes handle many concurrent TCP-connections and how well the incoming requests are load balanced in between the worker roles. The test implementations showed that all map servers and tile caches were successfully installed in Azure, which leads to the conclusion that Windows Azure is suitable for hosting GIS software with similar installation requirements to the previously mentioned software. Four different approaches (Direct mapping, Public Internal Endpoints, Queue and Worker Role Request Broker) are presented showing how Azure allows different methods in order to scale the internal role communication as well as the external client requests. The performance tests provided somewhat inconclusive test results due to hardware limitations in the test setup. This made it difficult to draw concluding parallels between the final results and the expected values. Minor tendencies in performance gain can be seen when scaling the VM size as well as the number of VMs.

  • 24.
    Castberg, Miro
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Adaptor Development: An insight to interfacing with electrical energy meters2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since energy meters became more advanced and able to send data remotely, energy suppliers have had a need to keep their data managed. This gave birth to energy management systems which gather data from energy meters. However, for every type of meter there needs to be a specialization in the management system.

    Smart Metering Language (SML) is a protocol which was created to transfer meter data in as simple way as possible. Implementing the protocol would result in simpler and less vendor-specific solutions for energy management systems.

    This report follows the process of developing an adaptor between a device using the SML protocol and a system that manages energy meters. The thesis uses different parts of the development process in able to show specializations which were needed by the test device and its vendor. 

    The result sums up the experience of developing an adaptor and the specializations which are needed in the SML protocol.

  • 25.
    Chen, Nan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    An IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Error Classification Algorithm: Discriminating Between Multipath Fading and Attenuation and WLAN2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless sensor networks, communications are usually destroyed by signal attenuation, multipath fading and different kinds of interferences like WLAN and microwave oven interference. In order to build a stable wireless communication system, reactions like retransmission mechanisms are necessary. Since the way we must react to interference is different from the way we react to multipathfading and attenuation, the retransmission mechanism should be adjusted in different ways under those different cicumstances. Under this condition, channel diagnostics for discriminating the causes that corrupt the packets between multipath fading and attenuation (MFA) and WLAN interference are imperative. This paper presents a frame bit error rate (F-BER) regulated algorithm based on a joint RSSI-LQI classifier that may correctly diagnose the channel status. This discriminator is implemented on MicaZ sensor devices equipped with CC2420 transceivers. This discriminator is able to improve the accuracy to 91%. Although we need to wait for 2 or 3 necessary packets to make a decision, higher stability and reliability are presented when operating this discriminator.

  • 26.
    Chen, Zongzhe
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Privacy Preserving Implementation in the E-health System2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-health systems are widely used in today’s world, and have a stillbrighter future with the rapid development of smart phones. A fewyears ago, e-health system could only be carried out on computers.But recently, people are using this as a phone application, so thatthey can get information at any time and anywhere. In addition,some smart phones can already measure heart rate and bloodpressure, for example, ‚Instant Heart Rate‛ and ‚Blood PressureMonitor‛. By using these kinds of applications, users can easilymeasure their health data and store them in their mobile phones.However, the problem of privacy has been attracting people’sattention. After uploading their data to the database, users do havethe right to protect their privacy. For instance, even the doctor hasthe authority to obtain the health record; the user's name can behidden, so that the doctor does not know who the owner of this datais. This problem also includes anonymization, pseudonymity,unlinkability, unobservability and many other aspects.In this thesis work, an android application is proposed to solve thisproblem. Users can set their own rules, and all data requests shouldbe dealt with by calling the rules. In addition, a module in the serveris to be developed to carry out the whole process of privacypreserving and the users’ data should be stored in the database.A standard for users to set rules is determined, which is bothdynamical and flexible. The application realizes some additional rulechecking functions to determine whether users have set a valid rule.Privacy rules can be created, deleted, or uploaded. In addition, userscan update their health record and upload it to the database. Theserver will call different protocols to deal with different requests, andthe data which obtains the requests is responded to by calling theusers’ own privacy rules.

  • 27.
    Chukala, Sileshi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Move Towards Practicability: Context Information and User Profile Management for the SensibleThings Platform2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Achievements in academia and industry indicate a move towards the creation of a giant smart system including objects of different sizes, shapes, and purposes where the Internet will be so diverse and more resourceful with the incorporation of different smart devices. Mid Swe-den University took a first step towards providing an appropriate plat-form for Internet of Things applications known as SensibleThings for the emerging intercommunication of “objects”, called Internet of Things. The SensibleThings platform has produced components for sharing sensor-based context information on the Internet, in order to enable Internet of Things applications. In this thesis the plan was to contribute to filling the gap between the IoT and developers in academia as well as in the industries. The aim of the project was to create basic functionality to enable users to find new interesting users on the IoT and prioritize existing users. To this end context information and user profile man-agement is proposed and presented. Furthermore, a comparison be-tween the platform with the proposed extension as well as without was compared and examined.

  • 28. Culver, Stephen
    et al.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research .
    Wang, G.
    Performance of Cooperative relaying with ARQ in Wireless Sensor Networks2009In: Proceedings, 2009, p. 317-319Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Deckmar, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Implementations, simplifications and evaluations around Nfc on Android2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Near field communication (Nfc), a contact-range and short-lived message exchange technology, has in recent years become popular in relation to payment-cards, key-cards and ski-passes. With the release of, in particular, the Google Nexus S, which is capable of reading and writing Nfc tags as well as exchanging messages between devices by touch, the roles of consumers have changed from carriers of passive cards to that of active readers. This publicly available hardware technology, embedded into relatively cheap connected smartphones, creates a new field of possibilities in which a complete and complex Nfc-based system can be developed solely by means of software. In this thesis work, the research is in relation to the field of Nfc, ranging from the physical characteristics of the technology to the design of the Nfc API on the Android platform. Nfc-based apps, library and systems are designed, developed and evaluated in terms of performance. The Android apps which are implemented are WiFi and Bluetooth connectors as well as an Nfc-sensor value visualizer. Additionally, two full systems are developed which consists of an Android app, backend server, database and web or PC-client frontend. These two systems are: a web-based high-performance live statistical visualizer of Nfc sensor values and an Nfc-scan based product endorsement, Like-event, presenting the picture and name of a user endorsing a product on the in-store advertisement displays on top of the ads. The system for scanning, distributing and presenting statistics on sensor-values from a specially crafted NfcV-enabled sensor is evaluated in terms of performance along the chain of events starting at the Nfc tag introduction and being dispatched on the mobile phone and ending with the calculations and plot-generation carried out by the browser connected to the backend via a WebSocket. The evaluations show that in a use-case in which the user holds a tablet in one hand and an Nfc-enabled smartphone in the other, the user would experience a mean-delay of 515 milliseconds between putting the device against an NfcV-sensor and seeing the statistical plot, containing the last 1000 values, updated in the browser on the tablet. Additionally, the user would experience a mean-delay of 74 milliseconds between the values being presented on the mobile device itself until they are presented on the tablet in the case of constant streaming from an NfcV connected sensor. The conclusion is that this delay of 74 milliseconds is sufficiently low for the user to feel that the devices are tightly coupled, making it natural to pay attention to the tablet when scanning sensors. Possible use-cases for this include a technician walking between built-in passive NfcV sensors on the factory floor or a nurse walking between patients wearing bandages with built-in passive health-sensors. Finally, the work is discussed in terms of ethics and social impact as development in the tele-healthcare field continues, and a set of Nfc-based applications are suggested including Nfc-tags for interactive product customization, company car management and app deployment.

  • 30.
    Dong, X.
    et al.
    Georgia Tech.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Culver, Stephen
    NokiaSiemens Networks.
    Impact of Doppler spread and adaptive modulation on TCP throughput in Rayleigh fading channels2010In: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, ISSN 1434-8411, E-ISSN 1618-0399, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1082-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of wireless systems have recently adopted adaptive modulation (AM) schemes to improve its efficiency. In this letter, our aim is to study the impact Doppler spread and adaptive modulation has on transmission control protocol (TCP) throughput in Rayleigh fading channels. We consider a finite state Markov channel (FSMC) model, which is a useful model for analyzing radio channel with nonindependent fading. Furthermore, we use a Markov model for TCP evolution and evaluate the TCP performance by computer simulations. In our simulations we have compared the TCP Reno scheme with TCP Tahoe scheme. The results indicate that a large Doppler spread leads to lower TCP throughput due to more frequent transitions of channel states and modulation schemes which make it difficult for the TCP congestion control mechanism to accommodate the dynamic link characteristics.

  • 31.
    Duan, J
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Yang, D
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Zhang, S
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Zhao, J
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Trust Management Scheme for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Edvinsson, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    AR-park för Android: Augmented Reality park i Sundsvall2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta projekt är att ta fram en applikationsprototyp för Androidenheter som ska locka användare av applikationen till och tillbaka till broparken i Skönsberg med hjälp av augmented-reality. Applikationen ska känna av om användaren befinner sig inom eller utanför parkens område och visa olika bilder/modeller på specifika GPS-koordinater i det digitala lagret beroende på användarens positionering. Arbetet har genomförts i samarbete med Dohi på uppdrag av Sundsvalls kommun där regelbundna möten hafts med uppdragsgivaren. Utvecklingen av applikationen sker i PhoneGap med Wikitude-plugin. Projektet har resulterat i en applikationsprototyp som använder ActionRanges, som är en typ av GeoFence, för att presentera olika bilder hämtade från en egen server i det digitala lagret beroende på användarens position. Användarna har inom parkens område möjlighet att själv påverka de bilder som visas i det digitala lagret genom att i applikationen ta en bild som laddas upp till servern där bilderna lagras och där bilden som tagits även visar det digitala lagret.

  • 33.
    Ekelund, Barbro
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Webbutik Second Hand Shop2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten beskriver det självständiga arbetet med att skapa en webbutik för en second hand butik där klädesplagg visas upp till försäljning. Projektets syfte är att författaren tillsammans med handledaren på den webbaserade tidskriften Illegal Ground ska utveckla en webbplats som lätt kan administreras från ett administratörsgränssnitt samt att vara lätt tillgängligt för kunden/besökaren. Den testas och ska vara lämplig utifrån webbriktlinjer.se. Det innebär att varje individ i samhället ska kunna delta på lika villkor, oavsett etnisk bakgrund eller funktionsnedsättning. Lagen som kom i maj 2018; GDPR ska efterlevas genom att ett pop-up fönster finns på startsidan och vid formulären för registrering av kund och administratör. Det ska bland annat finnas funktionalitet för att webbutikens varor lätt ska kunna bytas ut från klädesplagg till artiklar av annan art, samt applikationen ska kunna lagra information från de olika tabellerna. Det här för att administratören ska kunna plocka ut data vid senare tillfälle. En av sidorna ska vara på engelska, samt det ska finnas en länk till denna på varje webbsida. Webbutiken ska vara allmängiltig för konceptet second hand med de etiska aspekter det innbär och och applikationen ska bygga på responsiv webbdesign och först och främst fungera på mobila enheter, typ Iphone 6. Det är begreppet ”mobile first” som gäller. De tekniker och verktyg som används är HTML, HTML5, CSS, CSS3, media queries, JavaScript, PHP med databas i frågespråket SQL, Bootstrap, Adobe Photoshop CC 2017, Projektledning m fl. Kurslitteratur från samtliga kurser i Webbutvecklingsprogrammet för studier och fördjupning i problem som uppstår under utvecklingen av webbutiken. Här ingår inspelade föreläsningar och relevanta webbsidor på internet. Metoden är främst att via iterationer av prototyper föra utvecklingen av applikationen i rätt riktning. Det hela har resulterat i en webbapplikation enligt mobile first, som fungerar väl vad gäller att registrera konto samt att välja och beställa av det urval av klädesplagg som finns till försäljning. Webbutiken Second Hand Shop fungerar för både kund och administratör. I gränssnittet för administratör finns viktiga funktioner för att organisera ett företags register.

  • 34.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    The Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Key Distribution Protocol for Industrial Internet of Things without Implicit Certificates2018In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) in industry, called the Industrial IoT (IIoT), is supporting the introduction of very desirable improvements such as increasing production flexibility, self-organization and real-time and quick response to events. However, security and privacy challenges are still to be well addressed. The IIoT requires different properties to achieve secure and reliable systems and these requirements create extra challenges considering the limited processing and communication power available to IIoT field devices. In this research article, we present a key distribution protocol for IIoT that is computationally and communicationally lightweight (requires a single message exchange) and handles node addition and revocation, as well as fast re-keying. The scheme can also resist the consequences of node capture attacks (we assume that captured nodes can be detected by the Gateway and previous works have shown this assumption to be acceptable in practice), server impersonation attacks and provides forward/backward secrecy. We show formally the correctness of our protocol and evaluate its energy consumption under realistic scenarios using a real embedded platform compared to previous state-of-the-art key-exchange protocols, to show our protocol reliability for IIoT.

  • 35.
    Eliasson, Pontus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Användning av greylisting för att filtrera skräppost för myndigheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigates the usability of greylisting as a means of filtering spam emails in the perspective of a (swedish) government agency that has got legal obligations to be reachable by email and thus are limited in the ways incoming emails may be filtered. By setting up a virtual environment a few softwares for sending bulk mail are tested and greylisting shows to be a very effective when it comes to filter emails that are sent from clients that does not fully support the SMTP's functions for retransmission listed in the RFC. Greylisting has got an built in disadvantage in the way that email are filtered and that is that all emails from senders that has not been seen before will be delayed, in my tests and with my settings of Postgrey I got an average delay of approximately 17min.

  • 36.
    Embretsen, Axel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Implementation av virtualiseringstjänst: Skillnader eller brist på det gällande hypervisorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lot to consider when implementing a virtualization service and if you make a mistake you might have to pay for it later since migrating virtual machines from the system and technologies you are currently using to the new one can be a troublesome task.

    The aim of this project is to compare different technologies for virtualization, mainly hypervisors to see how they differ in features and performance (or how they don't) in order to better understand which technology is appropriate for what to be able to better recommend how a virtualization service should be implemented.

    To accomplish this I set up a single host machine which is to host two different virtual servers: a web server with high requirements for security and a video conference server with high quality requirements.

    The host was to have six different configurations doing this each using a different hypervisor.

    But due to hardware constrains half of the configurations had to be dropped leaving the ones using KVM, Xen and LXD.

    To better understand the security and quality requirements that the virtualization service and its components should meet I created a poll I sent to people in the industry to gather information. It did yield some interesting info but was lacking in details and it was hard to use it for any comparisons.

    In the end the comparisons showed that in most cases it makes little difference what hypervisor you use, and in the other cases it was a bit hard to tell what to make of it.

    As for security and quality there were some minor differences but of little importance.

    LXD does show some smaller advantages for specific situations but at the cost of being unable to run non-Linux virtual machines.

  • 37.
    Engkvist, Tobias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Remote Netlab2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The projects main focus have been to create a system mainly for the users that study network technology on a more advanced level. In order for the students to start to configure the switches and routers they need to access a server with the SSH protocol which was one of the requirements. Another requirement was that only one user should be able to configure at same time (so two users should NOT be able to configure the switches and routers at the same time). The scripting languages that was used was

    bash, shell, perl and expect in order to achieve these goals and requirement. The result shows a finished product and that this project was feasable. The solution is presented as a flowchart as an overview and some regular text that explains the scripts in more depth. There are of course a ton of other ways to solve this problem and a few of them are presented and discussed in the later chapters.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Sharing information between services while avoiding mandatory dependencies: A survey and performance study of possible implementation options2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Leo, Tobias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Data visualization: Handling and visualizing large data sets2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Falck, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Säkerhet: IT säkerhet på en myndighet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Famuyiwa, Julius Oluwaseye
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Islam, Fahad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wireless Sensor Network Security: Power Consumption of Multicasting (µTESLA) vs. Unicasting Authentication2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    PR-CCA MAC: A Prioritized Random CCA MAC Protocol for Mission-Critical IoT Applications2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE, 2018, article id 8423018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental challenge in Mission-Critical Internetof Things (MC-IoT) is to provide reliable and timely deliveryof the unpredictable critical traffic. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritized Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in MC-IoT control applications. The proposed protocol utilizes a random Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)-based channel access mechanism to handlethe simultaneous transmissions of critical data and to reduce thecollision probability between the contending nodes, which in turn decreases the transmission latency. We develop a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol analytically in terms of the expected delay and throughput. The obtained results show that the proposed protocolcan enhance the performance of the WirelessHART standard by 80% and 190% in terms of latency and throughput, respectively along with better transmission reliability.

  • 43.
    Ferrari, P.
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, A.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Rizzi, M.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    On the evaluation of LoRaWAN virtual channels orthogonality for dense distributed systems2017In: 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Measurement and Network (M&N), IEEE, 2017, p. 85-90, article id 8078371Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) aims at collecting data from billions of devices connected altogether. Despite there is no one technology able to cope with all possible scenarios, LPWAN solutions are emerging as viable technologies for implementing private, low-cost cellular like wireless networks. Distributed systems could leverage this approach as a driving technology for services as smart environment sensing, pervasive sensing and soon. In the considered scenario, the capacity of the network is of main importance; even if communication is sporadic for most of the time, an event observed by many nodes results in a huge amount of simultaneous transmissions. Are the IoT technologies usable to this end? In this paper LoRaWAN technology is investigated, with the aim of evaluating the orthogonality of virtual channels permitted by the LoRa physical layer. In particular, measurements demonstrated that overlapping transmissions having the same power at the receiver can be correctly decoded if occurring with different spreading factors, whereas co-spread messages require at least 4ms spacing.

  • 44.
    Fink, Christoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    InPUTpy: InPUT for Python2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many problems where the solution depends heavily on parametertuning and therefore on conguration. Examples include Hill Climbers andvarious Evolutionary Algorithms. The Intelligent Parameter Utilization Tool(InPUT) uses a cross-language format for describing congurations of computerexperiments, thereby aiding in documentation and communication. Itis implemented in Java, and a C++ version is being developed. This meansthat only implementations in statically typed languages currently exist. APython port would thus greatly increase the diversity of implementation languages.The goal of this project was to create an InPUT implementation inPython, and to explore the suitability of a dynamically typed language inthis context. A de facto specication was discovered by creating a suite oflearning tests, and the new implementation was developed using a test-drivenapproach. Several features of Python proved advantageous by simplifying thedevelopment process.

  • 45.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Challenges of Securing the Industrial Internet of Things Value Chain2018In: 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT, MetroInd 4.0 and IoT 2018 - Proceedings, IEEE, 2018, p. 218-223, article id 8428344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We see a shift from todays Internet-of-Things (IoT)to include more industrial equipment and metrology systems,forming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, thisleads to many concerns related to confidentiality, integrity,availability, privacy and non-repudiation. Hence, there is a needto secure the IIoT in order to cater for a future with smart grids,smart metering, smart factories, smart cities, and smart manufacturing.It is therefore important to research IIoT technologiesand to create order in this chaos, especially when it comes tosecuring communication, resilient wireless networks, protectingindustrial data, and safely storing industrial intellectual propertyin cloud systems. This research therefore presents the challenges,needs, and requirements of industrial applications when it comesto securing IIoT systems.

  • 46.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Performance and Cost Evaluation of Combining OPC-UAand Microsoft Azure IoT Hub into an Industrial Internet-of-Things System2017In: GIoTS 2017 - Global Internet of Things Summit, Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, p. 327-332, article id 8016265Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected monetary costs and response time performance is important information to know before deploying an industrial Internet-of-Things system. The system investigated in this paper is built up by combining the Open Plant Communication Universal Architecture and the Microsoft Azure Internet-of-Things Hub. We consider a real life industrial scenario that remotely monitors a piece of industrial equipment consisting of 1500 sensors, of which 600 update their values every second. The measured results show that the response times for a fiber based Internet connection was on average 770 ms with a standard deviation of 330 ms and the same measurements on a mobile internet connection was on average 1150 ms with a standard deviation of 340 ms. Cost wise, the investigated scenario fits within the most expensive price plan for the IoT hub and ends in a total of just over \$5000 per month for the whole cloud service.

  • 47.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Rise Acreo.
    Lindqvist, Jonas
    Rise Acreo.
    Surveying and Identifying the Communication Platforms of the Internet of Things2018In: 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and industry invest time and resources in producing Internet of Things-based services, and the concept of Internet of Things platforms is climbing in the hype cycle for emerging technologies. Consequently, there is a vast number of enabling technologies, making it difficult to find the most suitable platform. The aim and goal of this article is to list and identify the currently available communication platforms for the Internet of Things. In this work, we surveyed the area and found over \numTot different platforms for communication of data between things and services, out of which \numProm fulfilled our listed basic requirements for being an IoT communication platform.

  • 48.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Flexible Sensor and Actuator Gateway for Internet-of-Things Applications2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a vast amount of sensors, actuators, and other devices intended to create the Internet-of-Things. However, most of these only operate within a particular manufacturer’s ecosystem and with a limited set of compatible hardware. In response to this we present a general sensor and actuator gateway for the Internet-of-Things, which provides the flexibility to easily exchange sensor and actuator hardware. The gateway is implemented as a proof-of-concept prototype that is verified to be compatible with a wide range of commercial off the shelf hardware. It is also shown to be able to run the SensibleThings platform, a fully distributed and open communication platform for Internet-Things applications.

  • 49.
    Fortuna, P.
    et al.
    Jscrambler, Porto, Portugal.
    Pereira, N.
    Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, Turkey.
    A framework for web application integrity2018In: ICISSP 2018 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, SciTePress , 2018, p. 487-493Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their universal accessibility, interactivity and scaling ease, Web applications relying on client-side code execution are currently the most common form of delivering applications and it is likely that they will continue to enter into less common realms such as IoT-based applications. We reason that modern Web applications should be able to exhibit advanced security protection mechanisms and review the research literature that points to useful partial solutions. Then, we propose a framework to support such characteristics and the features needed to implement them, providing a roadmap for a comprehensive solution to support Web application integrity. 

  • 50.
    Francesca Michl, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Utveckling av en tydlig webbsida: - som del av ett optimeringsexperiment2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet som beskrivs i den följande rapporten har som mål att skapa en webbsida som på ett tydligt och vägledande sätt skall leda besökare till rätt val bland de olika digitala kalkyler och ansökningsformulär förknippade med bolån som finns på sbab.se. Webbsidan utvecklas som en del av ett datadrivet optimeringsinitiativ, där man önskar att verifiera en hypotes genom att A/B-testa den utvecklade sidan mot en befintlig för att avgöra om den resulterat i ökad kundnöjdhet och konvertering så som man i hypotesen antagit. Projektarbetet har fokuserat på att tillsammans med en projektgrupp bestämma hur sidans layout och innehåll bör designas för att vara tydlig, samt på implementera den design man tar fram genom en iterativ designprocess, där resultatet sedan successivt integrerats och anpassats i företagets CMS.

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