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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aspekter på nyttometoder för teknikinformation ur ett livscykelperspektiv2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Measuring the Immeasurable?  The Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  2019, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2019, p. 6176-6185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of digital information are mostly viewed as intangible, meaning that they can be hard to measure. This lack of measurements makes the benefits difficult to compare and communicate, creating problems for e.g. decision-making and the strategic development of specific digital information. Therefore, I conducted a literature review to find out how the combination of intangible benefits and measurements are dealt with in the information systems field. I found that we measure the intangible benefits of information systems or information technology. Here, the measurement method is divided into input, rule, and output. The input consists of predetermined individual benefits, areas of predetermined benefits, or interpreted benefits from respondents. The rule follows an accepted theory or contextual adjusted rules, and the output (benefit) can be seen as either financial or non-financial. The avenue for further research focuses on the digital information as the primary resource, not information systems or information technology.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Open Data and its Benefits2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Rätt teknikinformation är hårdvaluta som går att mäta2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Värdeadderande aktiviteter i produktionsprocessen av TI och tillhörande effektivitetsmätningar2013Report (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    A Communication-model for Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2015In: 2015 Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model.The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model. 

  • 7.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Nyttan med CM2013In: Configuration Management i teknikinformationens tjänst: en antologi / [ed] Margaretha Eriksson och Lena-Maria Öberg, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Saariko, Ted
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A semiotic perspective on semantics interoperability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While information technology enables us to access more material than ever before, we need to come to grips with the disagreeable fact that data is not information. Sharing data without safeguarding comprehension may lead to confusion at best and disaster at worst. The issue at hand is one of ensuring semantic interoperability between actors from disparate contexts. Research into this problem is plentiful, but typically focused around specific subject matters, limiting its appeal to a limited range of scholars and practitioners. Based upon a literary study, we identify two extreme approaches to managing semantic interoperability. These are denoted top-down and bottom-up. We illustrate real world instances of these approaches using the TFI-model based on a case study encompassing two organizations. Our theoretical model is found to be a viable lens through which to generalize and interpret issues pertaining to semantic interoperability between human actors. We therefore see a need for further research into human-based on semantic interoperability.

  • 9.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Åslund, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling och test av arbetsmetod för identifiering av nytta och värde i produktionsprocessen i framtagande av teknikinformation.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Testbed requirements for technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation to support independent living2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An identified global phenomenon is that, as the percentage of older adults increases, new challenges arise for medical care and rehabilitation. Several research studies have presented e-health as a promising concept to support the idea of independent living among patients with chronic diseases. The Mid Sweden region has a relatively old population and is a region where people live with long distances to the nearest hospital or health care centres. This study had a focus on defining testbed requirements for a technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation adapted to the specific region. The focal research question to answer in this study was: What are the requirements and their associated benefits and barriers of using technology-enhanced systems instead of traditional techniques for stroke rehabilitation in the Mid Sweden region? With Design Science as the overall research strategy, data was collected by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the field of stroke rehabilitation. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted where important themes were grouped into the four main requirement categories of: Technical, Human-computer-interaction, Clinic and Sustainability. Beside the more specific requirements, an interesting finding was the division of stroke rehabilitation into the categories motoric, cognitive and speech rehabilitation; also, how technology enhanced solutions might be used in these categories. Each category has a potential for a successful use of technology enhanced services, but as the standard procedure in traditional stroke rehabilitation each patient needs a personalised treatment.   

  • 11.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    Designing an Information System for Open Innovation – Bridging the Gap between Individual and Organisational Creativity2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    History shows that those companies that continue to invest in their innovative capabilities during tough economic times are often those that prosper when growth returns. Recently, information systems (IS) have been harnessed to support innovation. Even with IS support, innovation campaigns and suggestion management systems often end up in failure. Employees and customers are reluctant to share their best ideas. Individuals interests, motivation, creativity and life-long learning are seldom adequately supported by companies. In the information systems research area there is very little research on creativity and creativity has traditionally been studied mainly within the decision support systems (DSS) research area. This DSS area has focused on rather mechanistic idea-generation processes lacking a focus on individuals and their creativity. Even in the emerging open innovation paradigm, individual and group levels have come in for little research. From these starting points, we became interested in ways to improve existing information systems and innovation practices. The research question here is: How to design an artefact to support learning and creativity within the open innovation paradigm. Since we are interested in building new artefacts, we will utilise design research methods, particularly the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) process model. Our three artefacts are the results of our work. The first artefact, the Mobile Personal Development Plan, is focused on extending development talks between an employer and employees within human resource management to support innovation. Curiosity and emerging interests are seen here as idea seeds and future competences. The second artefact, the iPortfolio, extends this with a life-long learning and problem-solving focus. The third artefact, the Brokering Platform for Open Innovation, finally focuses on collaboration with customers and crowds. The software development was time consuming in our work and only the first artefact is demonstrated as a functional software prototype. Our pilot in an SME company illustrates practical requirements and usability issues related to the software. Additionally, a Delphi study with international open innovation experts served to identify future related requirements. Given the lack of creativity research in the IS field, we claim that our work makes an appropriate contribution. To the design research literature our input is new usage cases of the previously mentioned DSRM process model. Our results apply to organisations, where the employees work in dispersed teams and need an information system to communicate their emerging ideas and interests for more systematic problem-solving. The managers in our study reported that there are plenty of ideas available, but the challenge is to ensure the commitment of external resources to the actual innovation building. The integration of learning into the innovation and problem-solving activity should be motivational. We therefore discuss human resource management in relation to creativity and innovation. Surprisingly, in our pilots we noticed difficulties in time management in mobile settings and the current health risk debate gradually changed our artefact design, so this work also provides a critical view on mobility and on the access anytime, anywhere phenomenon. Finally, we suggest improvements to existing innovation practices in organisations.

  • 12.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Designing to archive open data – Case: ISERV e-services project.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Amcoff Nyström, Christina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Asproth, Viveca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Virtual Teams - Support for Technical Communication2013In: Journal of Organizational Transformation and Social Change, ISSN 1477-9633, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To work together in virtual teams has increasingly become a natural change

    in how organizations work. Due to demands from the environment,

    organizations have had to transform from traditional ways of working to

    becoming more flexible and adaptive. The aim of this article is to identify

    obstacles, problems, and presumptions in order to enable the virtual team to

    be successful. A project — The TIC-project — is described, and results from

    a study concerning collaboration and networking among companies within

    Technical Communication are presented. Results show that, to a great

    extent, experiences from networking are lacking. Furthermore, trust must be

    embedded in the teams, meaning that personal meetings must precede

    virtual meetings. Most interviewees declared a wish to collaborate despite

    being competitors. Finally, questions and topics for further research are

    presented.

  • 14.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Archival Education2015In: Encyclopedia of Archival Science / [ed] Luciana Duranti, Patricia C. Franks, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015, p. 42-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Encyclopedia is to present the various and evolving interpretations and perspectives on archival concepts, principles and practices.It is designed to aggregate the views of contemporary, well-established and highky regarded archival scholars and professionals and those of new and aspiring scholars and professionals into one, comprehensive work describing past achievements and leading the archival field toward the future.

  • 15.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Building trust and confidence through sustainable information systems research: Towards a common future2015In: INFuture 2015: e-Institutions - Openness, Accessibility, and Preservation / [ed] Karen Anderson, Luciana Duranti, Rafal Jaworski, Hrvoje Stancic, Sanja Seljan, Vladimir Mateljan, Zagreb: Department of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb , 2015, p. 9-18Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Information Systems research group at Mid Sweden University is the result of four separate groups, spread across three disciplines, artificially thrown together because we didn’t seem to fit into other developed research groups. What we were seen to have in common was ‘information’. The disciplines are: Archives and Information Science, Business Management and Organization, and Informatics.

    Shortly after this uncertain start, the University launched a demanding internal process for Assessment of Research and Coproduction (ARC13) over the previous five years. We didn’t have that much past together, so we set out to build ourselves a future, exploring our common interests as we gathered data for the evaluation. We pooled our research, hired a facilitator to help with a SWOT analysis, built trust within the group and achieved a remarkably good report from the external assessors. Participation in the multidisciplinary InterPARES Trust in Digital Records in an Increasingly Networked World Project has been an inspiring factor in the Archives and Information Science contribution to our new collaboration. Our Information Systems research group now focuses on five research challenges: Information value, quality, accessibility, sustainability and trustworthiness.  Now we are having fun exploring the possibilities, confident that our InfoSys research group has its own sustainable future.

  • 16.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    e-Institutions: Openness, Accessibility, and Preservation2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Recordkeeping definitions in legislation:: a conceptual step towards smoothing business interaction in the digitally networked world?2013In: Archives: the Future: Australian Society of Archivists 2013 Conference / [ed] Shapley, Maggie, Canberra, 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation is important to recordkeeping strategies and requirements, since it determines which records are needed for legally legitimate actions. Yet the concepts of a document, a record, a case, a transaction, etc., are frequently defined differently in various laws even within national boundaries and are urgently in need of harmonization to minimize complications and barriers to e-business transactions.

    Every country has its own legislation system which has been adjusted over time in correlation to national context and its surrounding society (Duranti, 1989-1990, p. 5). Duranti and Goh (2012) provided sound arguments as to why it is important to ensure national archival legislation keeps pace with our digitally networked society with its increasingly blurred borders. In addition to their own national law, members of the European Union (EU) are obliged to follow EU-legislation requirements. There are three types of EU legislation: regulations, directives and decisions. A regulation is applicable in all EU countries. Directives are general rules. A decision is a stipulation of issues of concern for specifically mentioned persons or organizations (European Commission, 2013).  Recommendations and statements are not binding, but may, for example, be used by the EU as support in interpretation of EU-legislation (Sveriges Riksdag, 2013). Hence, within public organizations, there is a close relation between records, recordkeeping processes, legislation and accountability.  Yet research in Sweden has shown that 24/7 e-service web-interfaces serving e-government strategies and ambitions are sometimes developed without consulting recordkeeping professionals, in ignorance of legal requirements for capture of records and that preservation issues are rarely considered when acquiring new digital systems (Kallberg, Svärd and Sundberg, 2010). Several other European studies also identify a lack of recordkeeping awareness within public organizations (Barata, 2004; Valtonen, 2007; Shepherd, Stevenson, & Flinn, 2009; Riksarkivet, 2010). However, there is currently a strong European political ambition to implement eGovernment services, which aims to promote cross-border business development. On the other hand, this challenges archival thinking to meet business, technological and legal requirements stipulated for each country. Varying legal definitions used can cause major problems for transactions both within a country and across national borders, even in something as seemingly simple as exchanging e-invoices. This paper will discuss an approach to identifying a way forward for harmonizing legislation that contains recordkeeping requirements across the EU.

    • Identifying the range of / types of laws within countries and EU that define a record
    • Using the ICA multilingual terminology database, to check and add to definitions already found there
    • Checking against definitions found in international standards.

    Research towards harmonizing these crucial definitions will be very challenging, given linguistic and cultural differences but the ICA multilingual terminology database is a potential vehicle for checking existing usage, adding to the definitions and quotations from legalislation and the literature already found there and adding new terms. The foundation version of the ICA-funded Terminology Database, developed as an ICA Section for Archival Educators’ project led and hosted by the University of British Columbia, contains definitions with examples of usage for an initial 300 archival terms across 16 languages. It is planned for public release in the first half of 2013.

    References

    Barata, K. (2004). Archives in the Digital Age. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 25(1), 63-70.

    Duranti, L. (1989-1990). Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science (Part II). Archivaria, 29, 4-17.

    European Commission (2013). Legislation Retrieved 5 February, 2013, from http://ec.europa.eu/legislation/index_en.htm

    Goh, E., Duranti, L. and Chu, S. (2012). Archival legislation for engendering trust in an increasingly networked digital environment. Paper presented at A climate of change: International Council on Archives Congress, Brisbane, 20-24 August, 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2013 from: http://www.ica2012.com/files/data/Full%20papers%20upload/ica12Final00287.pdf

    Kallberg, M. , Svärd, P. & Sundberg, H. (2010). Improving Local Government - A Survey of Problems.  Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference e-Society 2010. pp. 76-84.

    Riksarkivet (2010). Rapport rörande enkätundersökning - myndigheters hantering av elektroniska handlingar. Stockholm: Riksarkivet.

    Shepherd, E., Stevenson, A., & Flinn, A. (2009). The Impact of Freedom of Information on Records Management and Record Use in Local Government: A Literature Review. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 30(2, October ), 227-248.

    Sveriges Riksdag (2013). EU-upplysningen Retrieved 6 February, 2013, from http://www.eu-upplysningen.se/Om-EU/Om-EUs-lagar-och-beslutsfattande/EU-rattsliga-principer/

    Valtonen, M. R. (2007). Documentation in pre-trial investigation, A study of using the records continuum model as a records management tool. Records Management Journal, 17(3), 179-185.

  • 18.
    Anderson, Karen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mature Public e-Services Without Mature Recordkeeping – An Impossibility?2010In: iRMA Information and Records Management Annual, ISSN 1836-3202, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Government has established the eGovernment Delegation agency to identify and support excellence in e-government implementation strategies. This agency has commenced working with the National Archives, to ensure that archival requirements are addressed when developing new e-services. However, the prevailing view of archives is a traditional curatorial approach, which focuses on capturing the end product once actions have been completed. In the digital environment, the prevailing archival practice frameworks are not adequate to the task of capturing the full digital context and process that is essential for a complete record. Previously, when paper records were aggregated on a physical file, the full record of processes was more likely to be captured and managed for the long term.

    Results from two empirical case studies will be used to present and illustrate the risks and problems generated by an approach where the records are not identified and captured until late in the business process. In this paper the term post hoc approach to records capture is used to describe the method whereby an attempt is made to capture records, including the necessary metadata, after they are created, without prior planning or system design. One of the Swedish eGovernment Delegation’s aims is to motivate public agencies to reach level four on Layne and Lee’s e-government maturity model, that is, full integration of interaction between agencies and citizens. However, the model does not incorporate any recordkeeping requirements in its maturity benchmarks. It is clear these kinds of e-services are so complex that late intervention by archivists will not be adequate for needed recordkeeping support and long-term preservation. So it is essential that guidance on archival preservation of integrated e-services is made available as soon as possible, particularly as current trends in government indicate that e-services will be outsourced to private providers.

    Strategies are proposed for including recordkeeping re- quirements in e-service models. Advantageously, this can be done using existing benchmarking tools such as GARP, ISO 15489, ISO 30301 and the ICA Principles and Functional Requirements for Records In Electronic Office Environments. 

  • 19.
    Anderson, Karen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Klett, Elisabeth
    Open data through the archive: A new role for archivists2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the archivist in exploiting and accessing open data as public records in an open government environment is explored.  The possible role, responsibilities and mandate of an archivist in this new public sector context are examined. Necessary knowledge, skills and competence are identified. 

    Content:

    Expectations of a more proactive release of public records and technical developments that support new ways of publishing and reusing digital information, for example as open data on the internet, create new challenges and change the way public records are managed and made accessible to citizens, which will also involve new professions in the management of records. Fundamentally this raises questions of how, in this new management environment, the trustworthiness of the records could be maintained and how the archives and records management profession could contribute to this, related to other professionals involved in these processes.

    In Sweden there is a long tradition of openness and citizens´ right to access public records. But with the implementation of e-government follows a new perception of what openness means and “open government” is a concept that seems to go further and be more proactive. A part of this study will be to analyze and define what is meant by ‘open government’ and ‘open data’ as they are used in Sweden, i.e. how ‘open data’ differs from ‘public records’ for example. In Sweden there is no formal records manager profession, but the archivist often does the corresponding work. That is why this project also includes the archivists´ role in the open government environment.

    This study will reflect upon the archivists´ role in this process and what is needed to ensure a trusted proactive release of public records. To identify what skills, guidelines, knowledge and mandate are needed. The study will focus on StockholmCity’s work on open data, which is an important part of the open government agenda, through the perspective of Stockholm City Archives.

    Scientific contribution:

    Case study methods are used to examine the role of the archivist in the domain of access to public records in an open government and open data environment. The study examines what role an archivist in the public sector currently has, and what knowledge, skills and competence are needed for these new challenges.

    Interpretation of existing work and the perception of the situation by practicing archivists in this changing environment provide valuable data. The case study is based on the City of Stockholm because it is quite progressive in its work on open data. It is now running an open data project, in which the Stockholm City Archive plays an active role. The role of the archivist in practice, experiences and possible needs and missing factors will be explored. Data will be collected by interviews and text analysis. Needed strategies and guidelines will be identified.

  • 20.
    Anderson, Karen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Morner Jansson, Marie
    Benchmarking Information Management Practice and Competence in Swedish Organizations2011In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation: University of Insubria, Como, Italy. 8-9 September 2011 / [ed] Walter Castelnovo and Elena Ferrari, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2011, p. 28-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As organizations transform towards e-service provision and operations sophisticated, organization-wide approaches to information management are required. However, there is reason to believe that few organizations have developed a fully holistic approach to thinking about developing and managing their information assets to ensure their current and future accessibility and usability. There is an increasing awareness of the need to design systems that ensure information is accessible and re-usable, yet vital information often becomes increasingly inaccessible over time, to the disadvantage of business intelligence, business needs, customer service and regulatory requirements. An extensive survey of the state of the art of information management within Swedish organizations was undertaken to gain an understanding of current approaches, what competence is currently available within organizations and what competencies are perceived to be lacking or need development to ensure sustainable management of information as a business asset. This paper presents insights into how well or poorly records managers’ and archivists’ expertise is incorporated into whole- of-organization strategic planning for information management. It was rare to find collaboration between enterprise information architects and IT professionals with the recordkeeping professionals, who have expertise in structuring information and metadata as well as system requirements that contribute to ensuring long-term preservation, which would potentially minimize the proliferation of legacy systems from which records and information are very costly or impossible to migrate or extract. Many archivists considered that it is not their role to participate in wider information management strategies, preferring to focus on the capture of records into an ’e-archive’ without recognizing that information in the archive is a potentially re-usable business asset. This initial research contributes to an understanding of information cultures within organizations. It is intended to be used as a benchmark: follow-up studies are planned at regular intervals in the future to measure change in practice, attitudes and professional alliances to improve information management.

  • 21.
    Asproth, Viveca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Challenges for the Future in an ICT Context: ...for Stig2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contents:

    Introduction Viveca Asproth 1

    Fear for Sustainability? A Simulation Study Markus Schwaninger 2

    Organisational Personality Maurice Yolles and Gerhard Fink 20

    Context‐dependent modelling and anticipation the other coin of 

    the system approach Miroljub Kljajić, Mirjana Kljajić Borštnar 61

    Systemic Information Logistics: A Direction for the Development 

    of an Emerging Field of Studies and Practice Darek M. Haftor 76

    IT and the new society ‐ from XML to Habermas Per Flensburg 103

    Loop or branch Per S Agrell 122

    Issues of emotion and usability of interactive artefacts in HCI Karl W Sandberg 127

    On journey with system thinkers ‐ Systems thinking in

    education and research, today and tomorrow Christina Amcoff Nyström 138

    Applying Synergy‐4 in Informatics Research – Some Reflections Erik Borglund, Thomas Persson, Lena‐Maria Öberg 151

    The Emergence of Service Oriented Architecture from a 

    Business Perspective Karin Ahlin 166

    Proposing Learner E‐dentity to social presence in digital spaces for learning

    Hanna Olsson 177

    Critical information and its implications Viveca Asproth 187

     

  • 22.
    Asproth, Viveca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Critical Information and its implications2011In: Challenges for the future in an ICT context / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2011, p. 187-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Asproth, Viveca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Team syntegrity as a complementary method for requirements analysis2010In: The International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing complex system and systems that will work in a complex situation, or a complex environment, there is an enhanced problem to capture the information needed. It is critical that the system provides the users with as relevant information as possible. The traditional ways to capture information and to involve the users may sometimes be insufficient. All aspects of the intended system may be hard to capture and there might also be a problem to bring different opinions of what is important into line with each other.

    Team Syntegrity is a new process methodology developed by the management cybernetics Stafford Beer to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The driving force behind the development of syntegration was to provide a structure for holding purposeful conversations which would be non-hierarchical and democratic but would be contained and not dissipate their energy or insights.

    As a way to catch what should be included in a complex system and to join possible split pictures that are present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful complementary tool. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a complex system is presented. As an example a system for training for crisis situations is used.

  • 24.
    Asproth, Viveca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Viable Systems Model and Inter-organizations2011In: Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, ISSN 1477-9633, E-ISSN 2040-056X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Holmberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulated decision learning in a multiactor setting2009In: 23rd European Conference on Operational Research, 2009, p. 214-214Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Holmberg, Stig C
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Löfstedt, Ulrica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulated Decision Learning in a Multiactor Setting2010In: Organizacija, ISSN 1318-5454, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of decision analysis-and subsequent learning from the outcomes-is old within Operational Research. Here this approach to continuous improvement of decision outcomes is put one step further within the area of crisis and disaster management. This is done by introducing multiactors making simultaneous decisions with just partial information about each other. Further, decision outcomes are achieved from a simulation model rather than from the real object system.

  • 27.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Holmberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Soft Early Warning for Regional Security2011In: Casys'11: Tenth International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems / [ed] Daniel M. Dubois, Liége: CAOS , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Löfstedt, Ulrica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Teknikinformationscentrum: Samverkan mellan akademi och företag för forskning och utbildning2009In: HSS09: Högskolor och samhälle i samverkan, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Teknikinformationscentrum är ett forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt som fokuserar på tek­nisk information. Teknisk information är all den dokumentation som behövs för att använda, utföra service och reparera en produkt, t ex bruksanvisningar, reparationshandböcker, serviceanvisningar. Pro­jektet drivs av Mittuniversitetet i nära samarbete med Försvarets materielverk (FMV) och ett tiotal företag som producerar teknisk dokumentation i stor omfattning. Projektet syftar till att etablera en kunskapsnod inom Teknikinformations-området. Projektet arbetar dels med frågor runt TI-före­tagens kompetensbehov och kompetens­försörjning dels med framtidssäkra stan­darder, rutiner och tekniker för behovsstyrd TI-produktion. Två studier har gjorts med syftet att undersöka vilka krav som ställs på teknikinformation respektive vilket kompetensbehov som finns för att arbeta med att producera dokumentationen.

    Några av de företag som deltar i projektet har teknisk dokumentation som affärside och producerar dokumentationen till andra företag, medan övriga företag producerar dokumentation till sina egna produkter. Deltagande företag är konkurrenter på marknaden, men har gemensamma problem och har därför funnit att det finns fördelar med att ingå i ett gemensamt projekt. Den frågeställning som behandlas i detta papper är hur konkurerande företag kan samverka och dra nytta av att delta i ett gemensamt forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt.

  • 29.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Löfstedt, Ulrica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Viable design for Technical Communication Systems in future contexts2009In: IRIS32, Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ring, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Simulation of accessibility in Crisis Management2011In: CASYS'11: Tenth International Conference on Computing Anticipatory Systems / [ed] Daniel M. Dubois, Liége: CHAOS , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bidan, M.
    et al.
    LEMNA, Université de Nantes, France.
    Rowe, F
    LEMNA, Université de Nantes, France.
    Truex, Duane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. Georgia State Univ, CIS Dept, J Mack Robinson Coll Business, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA.
    An empirical study of IS architectures in French SMEs: Integration approaches2012In: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 287-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, based on a cross-sectional empirical study of information system (IS) architectures within 143 small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in France, reports findings on how SMEs architect to achieve IS integration and interoperability. This research provides an empirically derived taxonomy of enterprise architectural variants of the types often described in the literature for large firms. This study finds indications that for SMEs the immediate goal of interoperability prevailed over fuller and more formal system integration. The most common means for approaching enterprise architecture and any form of integration is via the construction of software bridges and interfaces. Partially standardized architectures based on Enterprise Systems (ERP) are the next most common type. Hybrid architectures- mixed Enterprise Applications Integration and ERP- are the third most common. The contribution of this paper lies not in the identification of the three types but resides (1) in the description of their distribution in SMEs; (2) in the absence of other integration/interoperability types in this population; and (3) most importantly in the interpretation of the organizational and historical rationale explaining the emergence of these types in this organizational context. © 2012 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Borglund, Erik A M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the becoming of a researcher – challenges and obstacles for PhD students in Informatics with a double belonging2009In: Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 32: Inclusive Design, Molde University College, Molde, Norway, August 9-12, 2009, 2009, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bosk, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rodríguez-Cano, Guillermo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Greschbach, Benjamin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Applying privacy-enhancing technologies: One alternative future of protests2018In: Protests in the Information Age: Social Movements, Digital Practices and Surveillance / [ed] Lucas Melgaço, Jeffrey Monaghan, Taylor and Francis , 2018, p. 73-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While current technologies, such as online social networks, can facilitate coordination and communication for protest organization, they can also endanger political activists when the control over their data is ceded to third parties. For technology to be useful for activism, it needs to be trustworthy and protect the users’ privacy; only then can it be viewed as a potential improvement over more traditional, offline methods. Here, we discuss a selection of such privacy-enhancing technologies from a Computer Science perspective in an effort to open a dialogue and elicit input from other perspectives. 

  • 34.
    Cai, Zhipeng
    et al.
    Georgia State Univ, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Chang, Rong N.
    IBM TJ Watson Res Ctr, Yorktown Hts, NY USA.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kos, Anton
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Wang, Chaokun
    Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Privacy in the Internet of Things2018In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 2018, article id 8281379Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35. Carle, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Portable rescue device and a method for locating such a device2007Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A portable rescue device and a method for locating, by means of a first rescue device set in a search mode, a second rescue device set in a distress mode. In the method, a distress signal carrying a device identification is received from said second rescue device. A first bearing and a second bearing to the second rescue device are obtained. The first and second bearings are taken from a first and a second position, respectively. A distance between these positions is determined. A current distance and a current bearing to the second rescue device are determined on basis of the first and second bearings and the distance. The current bearing and the current distance are communicated to a user of the first rescue device. The portable rescue device is used for performing the method and for that purpose it includes a first communication unit for distress signal transmission and reception; a compass; a processor; a user interface; and a mode switch for switching between a search mode and a distress signal mode. The first communication device has an antenna structure that provides directional capability.

  • 36.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Users’ activities and impediments from motivation to deployment in Open Government Data – a process framework2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Dalin, Rolf
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ekberg, K
    Taking distance education to the extreme: The CEENet precourse & workshop case2004In: NETWORK EMPOWERMENT:  , Amsterdam: I O S PRESS , 2004, Vol. 192, p. 97-105Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Davidsson, Viola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Att välja e-arkiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization has exploded over the past 30 years and unfortunately the archives have not been able to do so. Many municipalities have not yet taken the step out and introduced e-archives, from a survey conducted by the National Archives in 2010, it turned out that only one-fifth of Sweden's municipalities had introduced e-archives, which is very little considering how much progress digitalization has made.

    There are two purposes for this thesis; The first is to do a small survey to capture reasons why some municipalities have introduced e-archives and others not. The other is to show what requirements there are on e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and what cost the introduction of e-archives entails. The thesis is aimed at municipalities with about 10,000-30,000 inhabitants, where there are no equal opportunities for finance and competence that a larger municipality has.

    The issues are:

    What are the requirements for e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and can the municipalities bear the cost of e-archives?

    Why did some municipalities get started with e-archives and others not?

    Method for this is a combination of literature study and interview study. Interviews have been done with two suppliers of e-archives, who want to be anonymous in this paper and 4 municipalities, of which two have introduced e-archives and two do not have e-archives. These municipalities have chosen because they are municipalities with about 10 000-30 000 inhabitants (to whom the report is directed). They were also chosen because they are close to each other purely geographical and can thus give a fair picture of the result.

    All the questions were answered in the result section.

    Requirements for legal aspects are the Freedom of the Press Decree. 2, which states that all Swedish citizens have the right to access public documents. The Archives Act regulates what is required for archives, what the purpose is, what it is supposed to do, and that the authorities are to care for their archives.

    In terms of cost, there was the ambition to get an economic picture of what e-archives cost. One municipality submitted price information and the other municipality referred to SKL kommentus which has confidentiality on the price information. The suppliers also did not issue price information and because of this, a comparison could not be made. However, there are some tips on how to think about procurement instead.

    Regarding security, there are examples of what one can think of, such as authorization control in the e-archive to protect the archive from unauthorized persons.

    With regard to accessibility, this essay has chosen to mean how accessible the e-archive is to the public and also the disabled. Therefore, Ales e-archive has been reviewed and the single Post and Telecom Agency's - Guidance for web development has Ale municipality reached 44 %, so they have a bit left.

    In response to the second question, it emerged after the interview study that the biggest reason why the municipalities did not get started with e-archives is that they lack competence and thus a fiery person who drives the issue and resources.

  • 39.
    Ding, Xiaosong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bilinear optimization in computational decision analysis2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In real-life decision analysis, significant recognition has been given to theunrealistic expectation of numerically precise information. Many modernapproaches attempting to handle imprecision have focused more on representationand less on evaluation. The DELTA method, as one of the fewleading approaches, challenges this issue by its evaluation framework thatcan accommodate both precision and imprecision. However, computationally,DELTA and similar approaches may incur time-consuming calculationsdue to the introduction of imprecise information concerning probability andutility. In general, those problems are bounded non-convex bilinear optimizationprograms with disjoint linear constraints, which cannot be solvedeffectively by any existing general-purpose global optimization technique.This thesis presents two enhanced cutting plane algorithms for solvingbounded disjoint bilinear programs arising in computational decision analysis.Each algorithm consists of a local phase designed to determine a localoptimizer from an approximate solution, and a global phase designed to systematicallyexplore the feasible region, subset by subset. These two phasesare switched automatically during the global search procedure. The basicframework builds upon previously developed efficient cutting plane methods.By embedding the lower bounding technique in a branch and bound procedure,the improvement of their performances seems encouraging in the lightof computational experience. Even though the motivation to develop thesealgorithms stems from computational decision analysis, the idea can also beextended to the development of optimization approaches for handling generalbounded disjoint bilinear programs, especially for larger sized ones.

  • 40.
    Edsbäcker, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    SIM cards for cellular networks: An introduction to SIM card application development2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A SIM, Subscriber Identity Module, is the removable circuit board found in a modern cellular phone. It carries the network identity information and is a type of smart card which can also be found on payment cards (EMV), ID cards and so on. A smart card is basically a small computer, providing a safe and controlled execution environment.

    Historically smart card software was very hardware dependent and mostly developed by the manufacturers themselves. With the introduction of the open Java Card standard created by Sun Microsystems (Oracle) this was meant to change. However, information still remains scattered and is hard to obtain.

    This paper is meant to serve both as an introduction to the field and also as a good foundation for future studies. It begins with a theoretical discussion about smart card hardware and software architectures, network standards in the context of SIM cards, typical applications, coming trends and technologies and ends off with an overview of the Java Card standard. The following section discusses the supplied example SIM card application coupled with an introduction how to use the Gemalto Developer Suite for application development and testing. The paper ends with an extensive appendix section going in depth about some of the more important subjects.

  • 41.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Fasth, Tobias
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Hazards and Quality Control in Humanitarian Demining2018In: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 897-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the adequacy of International Mine Action Standards 09.20 (IMAS 09.20) and the used standards ISO 2859 in the context of demining. The authors show how the actual quality level acceptable quality limit (AQL) significantly affects the average total quality cost for one lot with a single sampling plan and, consequently, the average total quality cost, and as AQL increases, the cost of rejecting a lot and the cost of sampling increase. The sampling plans for demining are not always optimal given economical and other concerns and that other mechanisms should be considered. Addressing opportunity costs for adopting wide samplings plans instead of clearing uncleared land per default, as well as balancing producer and consumer consequences seems, therefore, to be highly relevant from a socio-economical perspective. The general understanding of quality management and the systems involved are limited within the mine action sector. IMAS and most national mine action standards provide only a fairly narrow description of the issue. This implies that the field is missing opportunities to achieve efficiency and effectiveness, as well as to learn from and improve upon past experiences. The authors demonstrate herein that sampling provides little additional confidence as to whether a particular area is free from explosive hazards and substantial savings can be made compared to the current practice.

  • 42.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Preference AB.
    Bohman, Samuel
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    The Lack of Transparency in Public Decision Processes2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the lack of transparency and use of elaborated decision methods in public decision processes. The decision regarding new roads in the greater Stockholm area has been used as a significant example.

  • 43.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Lack of Trust and Loss of Money: Challenges in Online Financial Trade2016In: VISION 2020: INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY, AND COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH, 2016, VOLS I - VII / [ed] Soliman, KS, INT BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASSOC-IBIMA , 2016, p. 954-962Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses challenges of trust in online financial trade. That is a pivotal factor both to clients and the business domain, and the understanding of trust is important to the realization of Europe 2020 vision to create a sustainable, smart and inclusive growth. Self-ethnography has been used to get an in-depth understanding of challenges in a real life setting, where observations, conversations and interviews have been done. Results indicate that there are severe challenges in regards to trust. Misbehavior of companies and brokers, along with patterns of fear and greed, and high risks in the way technology is used, has made many people lose big amounts of money and created a notion of distrust. A framework for trustworthiness in the business domain is required, which includes individuals, business relations as well as the technological and societal context. In this framework records management play an important role.

  • 44.
    Engvall, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Förstudien - En effektiv digital informationshantering2015Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Feller, Joseph
    et al.
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Finnegan, Patrick
    University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Nilsson, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Opening public administration: Exploring open innovation archetypes and business model impacts2008In: Open IT-based innovation - Moving towards cooperative IT transfer and knowledge diffusion, Springer, 2008, p. 483-500Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work-in-progress paper presents an exploration of a network of Swedish municipal authorities. Within this network, we have observed a move from isolated innovation to leveraging inflows and outflows of knowledge in a manner characteristic of the open innovation paradigm. This paper presents a characterization of these knowledge exchanges using an existing framework of open innovation archetypes, as well as an initial description of the business model impacts of this innovation approach on the participant municipalities, and the enabling role of information technology. The paper concludes by drawing preliminary conclusions and outlining ongoing research.

  • 46.
    Ghani, Hajra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Phishing: En innehållsanalys av phishing på webben2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this research has been to answer questions related to social engineeringbased phishing attacks: email phishing and website phishing. This study answers questions like why these attacks occur, which type of internet users easily get tricked by phishers, Moreover this study consist of different defense mechanisms that exist against the attacks, weaknesses in them, examples to improve them and other technical solutions against them. Often the attacks consist of a combination of both email phishing and website phishing. A link can be sent to a user via email that leads to a phishing site where the user get tricked into submitting personal information.These attacks aims to steal personal information and money from users. There are anti-phishing tools in web browsers and mailsystems to protect the user. There are special phishingfilters and features that can protect users from phishing mails and detect them. Users who get attacked by phishers are those who lack knowledge about them. But since high educated people and security experts also fall for phishing beacuse phishers develop new techniques and strategies to attack users, more advanced techniques in web browsers and mail systems are needed. This study was done through a systematic litterture review where 10 articles where chosen. These articles where studied and summarised through a content analysis.

  • 47.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Axelsson, K.
    Linkopings University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Melin, U.
    Linkopings University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Public e-services from inside: A case study on technology's influence on work conditions in a government agency2013In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 455-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of citizens' increased use of public e-services for agency employees' work situation. Design/methodology/approach: In order to accomplish the purpose of the paper the authors focus on the way in which the increased use of public e-services also implies internal process and routine changes in public administration. The authors analyze work conditions for case officers at a government agency in Sweden by applying occupational ideal types to identify the specific work conditions in the studied case. The case study is based on qualitative data collected with a back office perspective. Findings: The findings indicate a new hybrid organization where the increased use of e-services challenges earlier demands for competence. The transformation of e-government has implications for job codification, rule observation, job specification, and interaction with the general public. Originality/value: The paper extends the knowledge on how the increased use of public e-services affects back-office work conditions, with an increased high level of complexity in work content, but with low level of work autonomy. It argues that studying back-office work conditions is an important management issue in public administration research as well as practice. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 48.
    Granholm, Martina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Affordance for municipal crisis management2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Große, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Applying Systems Thinking onto Emergency Response Planning: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Structure a National Act in Sweden2017In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems, Porto, Portugal, February 23-25, 2017 / [ed] Federico Liberatore; Greg H. Parlier and Marc Demange, SciTePress, 2017, p. 288-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines a soft systems method approach to model a national preparedness planning procedure for the case of an electrical power shortage. Through the model, we provide a new perspective on enhancing and understanding the joint decision-making environment for the actors involved in the planning procedure, as well as its underlying power structure. By a process of abstraction from the current implementation, a core root definition is presented which provides a generic systems view that can be a useful concept for the study of similar contexts. An action model dedicated to determining meaningful and valid activities is derived, providing insights for the improvement of collaborative emergency response planning in general. The paper, thus, aims to contribute to the communication and cooperation between actors and stakeholders in the development of appropriate decision processes and decision support in the context of emergency preparedness.

  • 50.
    Große, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Research in Complex Planning Situations: Dimensions and Challenges From Swedish Response Planning2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Research Methods in Business and Management Studies / [ed] Dr Katrine Lawlor and Dr Anthony Paul Buckley, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2017, p. 432-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even beyond the context of critical infrastructure protection, complex planning situations involve several views on and interests in problems underlying the planning. These views are often interrelated with stakeholders bringing various concerns to both the planning itself and the plan’s future utilisation. Complex, real-world situations in particular challenge scholars in building appropriate research strategies and selecting adequate scientific approaches. Therefore, interdisciplinary research problems can require an adaption of traditional research paradigms to different facets of intricacy. However, debate on scientific approaches regarding how to gain knowledge has been perpetual. This paper contributes to this debate and provides a multi-perspective kaleidoscope for complex and interdisciplinary research. This kaleidoscope aims to support a selection of appropriate research strategies in accordance with a given research problem. For this purpose, the kaleidoscope helps gradually focus the problem. It begins with an assembling of research disciplines, continues with selecting adjacent research areas and completes the framework with applicable methods. As an example of implementation, the study further presents a concrete application and adapts the kaleidoscope to a complex research case. This case, called STYREL, represents Swedish response planning that is dedicated to ensuring swift response during a power shortage event. This planning process is concerned with anticipated decisions, which can quicken decision-making during emergencies, particularly during power shortages. This case can also serve as a metaphor, because designing a multi-perspective research strategy for interdisciplinary research may similarly require thorough consideration of possible alternatives and their complex combinations in advance. Both circumstances come furthermore with a constant need for argumentation and communication. For this, the paper contributes a flexible scientific frame of reference. This multi-perspective kaleidoscope, which is applicable to both theoretical and empirical complex research problems, facilitates communication about the selection process of a research methodology among the research community.

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