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  • 1. Acx, A. G.
    et al.
    Berg, M
    Karlsson, M
    Lindström, M
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Slanina, P
    Zander, J
    Radio Resource Management2000In: Third generation mobile communication systems, Boston, Mass: Artech House, 2000, p. 386-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Wireless LAN Access Point Modeling as a Queuing System2002In: Proceedings of The Communications and Computer Networks 2002 Conference (CCN 2002), MIT, Cambridge, USA, November 4-6, 2002, 2002, p. 463-468Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a research study of wireless LAN access points for IEEE 802.11b, where we seek to model the access point as a queuing system. The model can be used to compare performance metrics of different wireless LAN access points and to investigate the QoS of specific applications in the presence of a wireless LAN access point. In this paper, we focus on two parameters: the delay introduced by a wireless LAN access point and the average service time required to serve a packet passing through an access point. A major result is an analytic solution for the average service time of a packet in relationship to payload.

  • 3. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wireless LAN Access Points as Queuing Systems: Performance Analysis and Service Time2003In: Mobile Computing and Communications Review, ISSN 1559-1662, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the approval of the IEEE 802.11b by the IEEE in 1999, the demand for WLAN equipment and networks has been growing quickly. We present a queuing model of wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) for IEEE 802.11b. We use experimentation to obtain the characteristic parameters of our analytic model. The model can be used to compare the performance of different WLAN APs as well as the QoS of different applications in the presence of an AP. We focus on the delay introduced by an AP. The major observations are that the delay to serve a packet going from the WLAN medium to the wired medium (on the uplink) is less than the delay to serve a packet, with identical payload, but travelling from the wired medium to the WLAN medium (on the downlink). A key result is an analytic solution showing that the average service time of a packet is a strictly increasing function of payload.

  • 4. Amon, Benedict
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Munguanaze, Marcelo
    Njabili, Upendo
    Tesha, Rika Manka
    From First-Order Logic to Automated Word Generation for Lyee2003In: Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0950-7051, Vol. 16, no 7/8, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual schema can be viewed as a language to describe the phenomena in a system to be modelled, i.e. a set of derivation rules and integrity constraints as well as a set of event-rules describing the behaviour of an object system. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the Lyee software requirements concepts with various constructs in conceptual modelling. Within our work we choose the Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a modelling notation for explaining conceptual models. The result obtained models a fully expressive set of UML and First Order Logic constructs mapped into Lyee concepts.

  • 5.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Communication and Information Exchange among SMEs and their local environment 2007In: IRIS 30: Proceedings of 30th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia August 11-14, 2007 Tampere Finland, Tampere, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the results from a pilot study in the project Arena for Sustainable Innovative Development of small and medium-sized enterprises. The project aims to create and test a model for collaboration and sustainable development among small and medium sized companies in local areas. The questions raised in the study were: What kind of problems and requirements can be found in small enterprises with respect to information exchange and communication with others? Which information is needed to promote active engagement among the interested parties? How does the knowledge creation and exchange work between the actors? The method used was qualitative and explorative with semi-structured interviews.

  • 6.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Using Team Syntegrity in a Triple Loop Learning Model for Course Development2011In: InSite 2011: Proceedings and Conference Book. Informing Science and IT Education 2011 Joint Conference, Informing Science Institute, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Asproth, Viveca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Using Team Syntegrity in a Triple Loop Learning Model for Course Development2011In: Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, ISSN 1547-5840, E-ISSN 1547-5867, Vol. 8, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Axelson, Lennart
    et al.
    Malmberg, Åke
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Expertsystem: En förstudie och en prototyp1991Report (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Adaptive synchronization for duty-cycling in environmental wireless sensor networks2009In: ISSNIP 2009 - Proceedings of 2009 5th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 49-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wireless sensor networks, as energy limited systems, communication is a costly activity. For this reason duty cycling approaches are commonly used, because they can limit the overall power consumption of a sensor node tremendously by shutting down communication sub-circuits whenever they are not used. However, for efficient power reduction nodes have to know the exact times when they are supposed to communicate in the network. Synchronization can be used to accomplish this and comes with additional features such as the possibility of cooperative sampling at a given time. In this paper we propose a synchronization protocol that introduces low overhead due to broadcast master-node synchronization, while still accomplishing synchronization accuracies in the order of 100 μs. The protocol is intended for periodic data collection applications that are common tasks in environmental monitoring systems. Since changes in environmental conditions can have a large effect on the synchronization behavior, we further present a temperature compensation algorithm for the proposed synchronization protocol that allows stable usage of synchronization in a wide range of temperatures. Measurement results are taken from implementing the protocol on sensor node platforms and show the real world performance of the presented methods.

  • 10.
    Behnami Amin, Shayan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    CRM i små och medelstora företag: En studie om företagens behov av CRM-funktioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) hasbeen receiving increased attention. Searches within scientific articles andliteratures show that there is a need for increased knowledge in CRMand its functionality. The company studied in this work is an independentIT and management company that provides CRM and ERP systemsto customers in various industries. According to the companyʹs experience,their customers have different requirements and expectations ofthe functionality within CRM systems and also of the CRM functionalitythat can be found in other systems, such as ERP systems. There isfunctionality within the customersʹ ERP‐/financial systems which mayoverlap functions in the CRM system. The purpose of this study is tocreate a greater understanding of CRM systemsʹ role and its functions.The results are based on a random sample of eight companies in Sweden,within various industries, which are both small and medium sized.The survey was conducted by means of interview sessions with respondentswho are familiar with the company‐customer relationshipmanagement. Interview opportunities concern the collection of informationregarding the CRM functions and features within the ERP‐/financial systems of a current CRM system, which correspond to thedesired CRM functionality. The result shows that the business needs ofnew systems can be realized through the development of existingsystems rather than new systems. It also shows that the companiesʹ ERP‐/financial systems are used purely for financial matters and not for CRMfunctionality. Small and medium‐sized enterprises solve their CRMissues and financial matters by means of separate IT solutions.

  • 11. Berg, M
    et al.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zander, J
    A Radio Resource Management Concept for "Bunched" Personal Communication Systems1997In: Proceedings of MMT'97 Multiaccess, Mobility and Teletraffic for Personal Communication, Dec. 1997 , Melbourne, Vic., Australia, 1997, p. 259-271Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Berg, M
    et al.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zander, J
    A Radio Resource Management Concept for "Bunched" Personal Communication Systems: FRAMES Long Term Research Workshop1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Perspectives on Demand Side Management1996Book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This work treats recommendations based on energy systems engineering. The focus is on what can be learned by different methods about the roles that demand-side energy efficiency should play in the energy system. In the first part of the thesis, two case studies of local energy planning demonstrate the role of demand-side energy efficiency: energy systems engineering suggests a design in which energy efficiency improvements are aligned with the whole technical energy system. One result of the case studies is that the energy consumers invest in fewer energy efficiency measures than recommended by the methodologies applied. This indicates that there are important aspects of demand-side energy efficiency that are ignored by the methodologies used. In this work, the cause of the difference between the recommended and observed investments is addressed by an investigation of the customer's transaction cost for the energy efficiency investment. The second part is an application of the viable system model and focuses on the role of energy efficiency activities at a public energy utility. A case study demonstrates that most energy efficiency activities were run to support energy sales and, hence, were totally entwined with the traditional business. This role observed is compared with that suggested by the demand-side management methodology. The comparison shows that demand-side management is not capable of handling important aspects of interrelations between energy efficiency activities and energy sales. The work provides a language for further discussion of the role of energy efficiency activities at energy utilities.

  • 14.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Risk Assessment of New Pricing Strategies in the District Heating Market: A Case Study at Sundsvall Energi AB2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 2171-2178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The price structure of district heating has been no major scientific issue for the last decades in energy related research. However, today trends in district heating pricing tend to move towards a more customer oriented approach with fixed prices under a longer period, leading to a more complex price structure. If a district heating supplier offers district heating with fixed prices in order to compete with similar electricity offers, the financial risk of the fixed price product is significantly higher than the risk of an ordinary variable cost offer. In contrary to an electricity seller, the district heating company can not transfer all of the risk of fixed prices offer to the financial market, instead the company is thrown upon its own ability to handle the risk by, e.g., hedging its own energy purchase. However, all uncertainties can not be coped with in this manner. Thus, there is a need for a methodology that can be used to estimate the financial risk of different price structures and to value different opportunities to reduce the risk. In this article we propose a methodology, implemented in a prototype software, to evaluate the risk associated with new price structures in district heating.

  • 15. Boeva, V
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Transition Logic for Schemata Conflicts2004In: Data & Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0169-023X, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Use of Records as Means to Provide a Common Operational Picture2010In: Proceedings of the 33rd IRIS Seminar. 2010. / [ed] Hanne Westh Nicolajsen, John Persson, Lise Heeager, Gitte Tjørnehøj, Karlheinz Kautz, Peter Axel Nielsen, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are used in operational police work as a basis for tactical decisions, but also as important and high quality information sources. One trend in the area of crisis management is common operational picture (COP). COP aims to provide actors in a crisis with a correct overview of what is going on. Yet there is limited knowledge about how evidential records are used in creating a COP. This paper focuses on what role records play in the creation of a COP during operational police work. It is based upon a case study of the police operation in Åre during the informal meeting for the EU energy and environment ministers held in Åre on 23-25 July 2009. This paper argues that records play an important role in creating the common operational picture when the situation is calm. When a calm situations transforms to a more chaotic situation, the records play a less important role in creating a COP. The COP is then created by the actors involved, and is best understood by them. During these more chaotic situations the information is very rich, but the reach of the information is low, which minimizes the reach of the COP.

  • 17.
    Borglund, Erik A.M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Checklists for Evaluating the Quality of Recordkeeping2010In: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation / [ed] Miguel deCastro Neto, Reading: Academic Conferences Limited, 2010, p. 15-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Records are evidence of business transactions and actions. They provide the basis for accountability and traceability. Therefore they are essential to evaluation and audit processes. Records and documents are sources of knowledge that support a learning organization and can be defined as “institutional memory”. However there are few examples in the literature of how records have been used to evaluate and critically assess the outcomes of business activities.

    The purpose of this paper is to identify potential criteria for creating a checklist that provides enough information about the records and the business that created them to ensure that records could be used as tools in evaluation programs. In this research paper we have used the ISO standards ISO 15489 and ISO 23081 as tools to achieve our purpose. This was a qualitative research project, situated in a large railway infrastructure project where the budget is 6.6 billion Swedish kronor (approx 650 million €). The project is ten years long, and to date more than 250 000 records have been produced. Many sub-contractors and 16 other public agencies are involved in the project.

    The internal regulation of records management regulated within the project is very detailed, and at first glimpse the directives seem to be well grounded. Requirements for records creation, capture and metadata-tagging are presented in the regulations.  Yet even after minor analysis it is obvious that the railway project focuses only on managing records that are documents, i.e. in formats that can be treated as a single unit. Common examples of document types are spreadsheets, Word documents, PDF files and blueprints. Thus the project is failing to capture crucial records created in non-document and more complex formats, such as databases and technical drawings produced in applications like CAD. More importantly, the research found that the project’s metadata design and capture is inadequate for capturing the context of the records that are kept and preserved. This makes it difficult to use the records for evaluating the project for accountability purposes both during and after the project. The experience and knowledge gained from the project is also difficult to transfer to similar future projects.

    Records without the contextual binding and applicable contextual metadata cannot provide a quality basis for evaluation of the business. If records are to be used as tools for evaluation, we need to preserve records following the quality criteria that are presented in the ISO 15489 and ISO 23081 standards.

    If records are to be used as evaluation tools they need to be usable for that purpose and be of sufficient quality. In this paper we propose that the assessment of the quality of a record should be based upon the metadata elements found in the ISO 23081.

  • 18.
    Borglund, Erik AM
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson-Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hybrids acting at the hybrid arena2011In: Proceedings of IRIS 2011 / [ed] Timo Leino, Åbo: University of Turku & ̊bo Akademi University , 2011, p. 56-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT has for a long time been viewed as a success factor for police investigation, but now IT has also become an obstacle. Many modern crimes are of a nature where the evidence needed for police investigations is found in both the analogue world and the digital world. We argue that modern criminals act as hybrids, i.e. they are using IT as natural components in their criminal activities. In this paper we analyze the modern criminal as a hybrid and analyze the effect this perspective has on modern police work. The result is that the crime arena should be seen as a hybrid arena, where the criminals and the police both should take the roles as hybrids. Today, there is a division among the police officers, some are acting in the digital world; others in the analogue world. This gives the criminal a bit of an advantage. 

  • 19. Borking, Kjell
    et al.
    Danielson, Mats
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bortom Business Intelligence2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 20. Brouwer, L
    et al.
    Danielsson, M
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hansson, K
    Multi-criteria decision-making of policy strategies with public-private re-insurance systems2004In: Risk, decision and policy, ISSN 1357-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Candia, R
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Glimbert, L
    ICT for Academic Development in Sri Lanka2007In: Partners in progress: a felicitation volume in honour of Vidya Jyothi Prof. V.K. Samaranayake, Colombo , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22. Candia, Rodolfo
    et al.
    Danielsson, Mats
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Glimbert, Lars
    Popov, Oliver
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    SPIDER - Spanning the Web of ICT in Developing World2004In: Proceedings. Norwegian Association for Development Research Annual Conference 2004, 1 October, Bergen, Norway: Education, Knowledge and Development, 2004, p. 150-157Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 23. Candia, Rodolfo
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Popov, Oliver
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    ICT Education for Development Based on the DSV Model2003In: Proceedings of 25th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces 2003, Zagreb: SRCE and University of Zagreb , 2003, p. 341-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injormation and Communication Technology (ICT) is one oj’the premier juctors in the progress of the contemporury society. Albeit, it’s rewarding benejits and jar reaching consequences have onb widen the division between the developed and developing nations. The article explores the major objectives of the ICT education jbr the di#usion of knowledge in the developing world us one of the nieuns to tiusrow the digitul division, and the experience and the hest practices based on the so culled DSV tnodel, conceived in the Depustnietit qf Cornputer und Systems Sciences (DSV) ut Stockholtn University (SU).

  • 24. Chemane, L
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    e-Government and Architecture Principles Government Portal Case Study2006In: Proceedings of E-challenges, 25-27 October Barcelona, Spain, 2006, p. 643-651Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25. Chemane, L
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Popov, Oliver
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Cossa, T
    MCDM Model for Selecting Internet Access Technologies: A Case Study in Mozambique2005In: EUROCON 2005-The International Conference on 'Computer as a Tool', 21-24 Nov. 2005 , Belgrade, Serbia, 2005, p. 4-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Chemane, L
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Popov, Oliver
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Saifodine, Z
    Government Network and ISP Selection Model: Mozambique Case Study2005In: Innovation and the Knowledge Economy: Volume 2: Issues, Applications, Case Studies, IOS Press, 2005, p. 1811-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27. Chemane, Lourino
    et al.
    Carrilho, Sergio
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Taula, Rufino
    MCDM Framework and the Selection of Network Topology: GovNet Case Study2006In: IST-Africa 2006 Conference Proceedings, IIMC International Information Management Corporation , 2006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Chen, Hao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    End-to-end Delay Analysis and Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks have arrived because of further developments of themodern Internet, and this has been considered to be one of the most importanttechnologies of the 21st century. Currently, the wireless sensor network has becomean important technology in a variety of areas and is widely used in thefield of national defense, national security, environmental monitoring, trafficmanagement, anti-terrorism, anti-disaster, and so on. The majority of these applicationsrequire real-time communication as the WSNs are required to sendthe data to the data center within a specified time. In order to meet the real-timedemand for wireless sensor networks, this work mainly focuses on the analysisand measurement of the end-to-end delay, including both single-hop and multihopdelays. This thesis first analyzes the composition of the end-to-end delayand then describes the end-to-end delay measurement algorithms and methods.The measurement is implemented in TelosB motes within TinyOS. Finally thereport will show the evaluation of the end-to-end delay in wireless sensor networks.

  • 29. Cheng, Aijie
    et al.
    Gulliksson, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Finite difference methods for saturated-unsaturated flow in porous media2003Report (Other academic)
  • 30. Damsgaard, J.
    et al.
    Horsti, A.
    Nilsson, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    SUSTAINABLE EVOLUTION OF BUSINESS MODEL: CASES FROM SCANDINAVIAN INTERNET PORTAL MARKET2004In: Proceedings of ECIS 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Portals exist for a large number of topics and they have become quite common on the Internet. So far, researchers have not extensively studied the evolution of portals and only a few portal business models have been reported in the literature. We wonder if Internet portals are following the same evolution path, and what kinds of similarities or differences can be observed. The theoretical references, we drew on for the design of a field study, were derived from a limited number of theories considering portals, online communities, and network economics. We chose to research six portals, comprising Danish, Finnish and Swedish portals, of which three represent healthcare and three mobile services. We learned that the portals are quite similar in their scope of operation. Furthermore, we noticed that there is a difference between portals hosted by large organizations and portals that existing independently. All six portals are national in their geographical sphere of attention. This stresses that the local language capabilities are important when launching a portal. Finally, existing theories seem to provide an adequate theoretical vehicle for explaining the evolution of these portals. The practical contribution of this paper lays in the set of guidelines that can be applied by portal managers to identify their focus areas. It also provides some guidance about in which direction Internet portals currently develop.

  • 31. Danielson, M
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Att fatta svåra beslut2007In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 1650-4925Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32. Danielson, M
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hansson, K
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Påhlman, M
    Riabacke, Ari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundgren, D
    Cross-Disciplinary Research in Analytic Decision Support Systems2006In: 28th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, 2006., 2006, p. 123-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main problem in decision support contexts is that unguided decision making is difficult and can lead to inefficient decision processes and undesired consequences. Therefore, decision support systems (DSSs) are of prime concern to any organization and there have been numerous approaches to delivering decision support from, e.g., computational, mathematical, financial, philosophical, psychological, and sociological angles. A key observation, however, is that effective and efficient decision making is not easily achieved by using methods from one discipline only. This paper describes some efforts made by the DECIDE Research Group to approach DSS development and decision making tools in a cross-disciplinary way.

  • 33.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms unversitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Probabilistic Decision Making in Intelligent Agents2008In: Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Dewey , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ekengren, Anders
    Hökby, Torsten
    Decision Process Support for Participatory Democracy2008In: Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, ISSN 1057-9214, E-ISSN 1099-1360, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 15-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a project and case study integrating decision methods into democratic processes. The case discussed is a set of three complicated decisions in a municipality in Sweden. The decisions had been postponed on several occasions prior to bringing in the method described in the paper. The method employed consists of two main parts. The interaction part contains the communication channels directed to the stakeholders. The decision-process part consists of a three-layered working process model. As a part of the method, the project was highly visible on the web. Citizens were encouraged to submit material to the project. All intermediate results of the process were continuously published, enhancing transparency. For each decision, the analysis consisted of comparing all alternatives, taking the respective criteria into account as weighted or ranked by the participants. A method for recording compromises analytically was also used. The purpose was not to replace the political process but to support it in a structured way.

  • 35.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Dept. of Systems and Computer Science, Stockholm University and KTH.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Dept. of Systems and Computer Science, Stockholm University and KTH.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Dept of Informatics/ESI, Örebro University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Public Decision Support - Using a DSS to Increase Democratic Transparency2005In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a case study in which a decision support method (ADL) was employed by a local government in order to guide and aid decisions on three complicated and politically infected issues which had remained unresolved for many years. The research inquiry was whether a well-defined and openly accessible method would aid a common understanding of the decision problems, and whether people would be able to accept a clearly motivated decision even if politically they preferred a different option. The ADL method has been used in several public sector projects ranging from very large purchasing decisions to the selection of national policies, but this test case was novel in that it involved close inspection by the public. This case was also devised as a test of new methods for potential inclusion into normal practices. The post-case analysis shows mixed understanding of and belief in the method. The results raise issues concerning both the potential for decision support methods in a political context and the nature of political decision making.

  • 36.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro universitet.
    Åström, Joachim
    Örebro universitet.
    Towards Interactive Decision Making:Connecting Participatory Processes and Institutional Contexts2008In: Proceedings of E-challenges 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idefeldt, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Using a Software Tool for Public Decision Analysis Analysis: the Case of Nacka Municipality2007In: Decision Analysis, ISSN 1545-8490, Vol. 4(2), p. 76-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case of interval decision analysis using a tool that takes advantage of interval probabilities, values, and criteria weights, and is capable of handling comparative relations, i.e. interval statements on differences between variables. These statements are represented as constraints to the solution set and evaluated using a number of different evaluation methods, each serving the decision-maker with different insights of the decision problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the tool in a case study regarding three public infrastructure decision problems which had remained unresolved during a number of years.

  • 38. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Johansson, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Decision Evaluation of Three Flood Management Strategies.2003In: FLAIRS' 03 Recent Advances in Artificial Intelligence: Proceedings of the 16th International Flairs Conference, Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press , 2003, p. 491-495Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the application of computational decision analytic techniques for a national policy decision. It constitutes an example of the increasing use of modern computational decision methods to assist in decision-making in society. An integrated flood catastrophe model is presented as well as some results of a case study made in the Upper Tisza region in north-eastern Hungary, viz. the Palad-Csecsei basin. Background data was provided through the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and complemented by interviews with different stakeholders in the region. Based upon these data, where a large degree of uncertainty is prevailing, we demonstrate how an implementation of a simulation and decision analytical model can provide insights into the effects of imposing different policy options for a flood risk management program in the region. We focus herein primarily on general options for designing a public/private insurance and reinsurance system for Hungary. It should, however, be emphasized that the main purpose of this article is not to provide any definite recommendations, but rather to present a methodology for handling a set of policy packages with the aim of gaining a consensus among stakeholders.

  • 39. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Johansson, Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The DecideIT Decision Tool2003In: ISIPTA '03: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Imprecise Probabilities and Their Applications, Lugano, Switzerland, July 14-17, 2003, Carleton Scientific , 2003, p. 204-217Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of much information available to decision makers is vague and imprecise, be it information for human managers in organisations or for process agents in a distributed computer environment. Several models for handling vague and imprecise information in decision situations have been suggested. In particular, various interval methods have prevailed, i.e. methods based on interval estimates of probabilities and, in some cases, interval utility estimates. Even if these approaches in general are well founded, little has been done to take into consideration the evaluation perspective and, in particular, computational aspects and implementation issues. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a tool for handling imprecise information in decision situations. The tool is an implementation of our earlier research focussing on finding fast algorithms for solving bilinear systems of equations together with a graphical user interface supporting the interpretation of evaluations of imprecise data.

  • 40. Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Distribution of expected utility in decision trees2007In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 387-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of decision trees in which uncertain information is present is complicated. Especially when the tree has some depth, i.e. consists of more than one level, the effects of the choice of representation and evaluation procedures are significant. Second-order representation and evaluation may significantly increase a decisionmaker's understanding of a decision situation when handling aggregations of imprecise representations, as is the case in decision trees or influence diagrams, while the use of only first-order results gives an incomplete picture. Furthermore, due to the effects on the distribution of belief over the intervals of expected utilities, the Gamma-maximin decision rule seems to be unnecessarily pessimistic as the belief in neighbourhoods of points near interval boundaries is usually lower than in neighbourhoods near the centre. Due to this, a generalized expected utility is proposed. The results in this paper apply also to approaches which do not explicitly deal with second-order information, such as standard decision trees or probabilistic networks using only first-order concepts, for example upper and lower bounds. Furthermore, the results also apply to other, non-probabilistic weighted trees such as multi-criteria weight trees.

  • 41.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Riabacke, Mona
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Structured eDemocracy beyond eDiscussion2009In: Proceedings of eChallenges 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case showing how the use of a transparent decision support model can increase the effectiveness of the preparatory, analysis and negotiation stages of a democratic decision process. The case is of a democratic decision process taking advantage of a transparent decision support model, which may be extended to also include participatory elements in a well-defined manner. The support methods must allow for decision modelling with respect to different preferences and views, which further can be adjusted in an interactive fashion when considering calculated decision outcomes.

  • 42.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Riabacke, Mona
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Transparent Public Decision Making - Discussion and Case Study in Sweden2010In: e-Democracy: Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation Volume 5 Part 4 / [ed] French, S. and Ríos Insua, D., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2010, 1, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish city of Örebro has since long faced complex problems with poor water quality in a local river. This problem is a typical example of a regional decision problem, since there are several different stakeholders that might be affected, and there are different views on the need for, and effect of, different measures. The problems also strongly relate to the environmental condition of the river and involve other municipalities as well. In this chapter, we describe how to address this problem using an implementation of a systematic democratic decision process for enhancing the transparency and the decision quality in itself. The process is in conformity with common democratic processes, but with higher emphasis on accuracy and precision and on the interaction between civil servants and decision makers. A main issue here is to clearly separate the various views involved in these processes from the actual facts and, at the same time, facilitate input from various stakeholders. Therefore, we allow for modelling of outcomes based on different preferences and facilitate an elicitation process where views are extracted and combined with basic data from the background investigations preceding the decision. The process is divided into two stages. The first one is emphasized in this chapter and concerns the internal democracy, i.e. the formulation and refinement of the original and extended decision problems and the interaction between politicians and civil servants, while the second stage deals with the external democracy, i.e. the communication with the public, where communication channels directed towards citizens will be formed.

  • 43.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Riabacke, Ari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Prescriptive Approach to Elicitation of Decision Data2008In: Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, ISSN 1559-8616, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Danielsson, M
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Method for Decision Support in e-democracy: A Case from the Greater Stockholm Area2004In: Proceedings of e-challenges 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Danielsson, M
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Computing Upper and Lower Bounds in Interval Decision Trees2007In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 181, no 2, p. 808-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents algorithms for computing optima in decision trees with imprecise probabilities and utilities. In tree models involving uncertainty expressed as intervals and/or relations, it is necessary for the evaluation to compute the upper and lower bounds of the expected values. Already in its simplest form, computing a maximum of expectancies leads to quadratic programming (QP) problems. Unfortunately, standard optimization methods based on QP (and BLP - bilinear programming) are too slow for the evaluation of decision trees in computer tools with interactive response times. Needless to say, the problems with computational complexity are even more emphasized in multi-linear programming (MLP) problems arising from multi-level decision trees. Since standard techniques are not particularly useful for these purposes, other, non-standard algorithms must be used. The algorithms presented here enable user interaction in decision tools and are equally applicable to all multi-linear programming problems sharing the same structure as a decision tree.

  • 46. Danielsson, Matd
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sundgren, David
    Structure Information in Decision Trees and Similar Formalisms2007In: Structure Information in Decision Trees and Similar Formalisms: Proceedings of the Twentieth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, 2007, Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press, 2007, p. 62-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In attempting to address real-life decision problems, where uncertainty about input data prevails, some kind of representation of imprecise information is important and several have been proposed over the years. In particular, first-order representations of imprecision, such as sets of probability measures, upper and lower probabilities, and interval probabilities and utilities of various kinds, have been suggested for enabling a better representation of the input sentences. A common problem is, however, that pure interval analyses in many cases cannot discriminate sufficiently between the various strategies under consideration, which, needless to say, is a substantial problem in real-life decision making in agents as well as decision support tools. This is one reason prohibiting a more wide-spread use. In this article we demonstrate that in many situations, the discrimination can be made much clearer by using information inherent in the decision structure. It is discussed using second-order probabilities which, even when they are implicit, add information when handling aggregations of imprecise representations, as is the case in decision trees and probabilistic networks. The important conclusion is that since structure carries information, the structure of the decision problem influences evaluations of all interval representations and is quantifiable.

  • 47. Danielsson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Support System for Decision Analysis: PCT patent application SE2005/000627, filed April 29, 20052005Patent (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 48. Danielsson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Method for decision and risk analysis in probabilistic and multiple criteria situations2005Patent (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A computer-implemented decision device and a family of methods and procedures are used for representing and analyzing imprecise, vague, and incomplete probabilistic decision and risk problems and/or when a criteria hierarchy is present. Decision makers can state the problems simply with the precision the decision-makers feel they have evidence for. Probabilities, values (utilities), criteria weights with belief distributions over them, and optimization procedures for fast evaluation of decision rules with respect to such statements are determined and analyzed.

  • 49. Danielsson, Mats
    et al.
    Ekenberg, Love
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Johansson [Idefeldt], Jim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Investment Decision Analysis: a case study at SCA Transforest2003In: IKE'03: Proceedings of the international conference on infomration and knowledge engineering: Vols. 1 and 2, 2003, p. 79-85Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In investment decision-making in organizations, large values can be at stake. The need for a structured process is evident, not least when several people or interests are involved in the process. We advocate that the use of modern computational decision analysis can improve such investment processes by improving visibility and only requiring reasonably precise input data. The applicability of a structured decision analysis to corporate decision-making is demonstrated in a case study at SCA Transforest, a subdivision to SCA. The decision problem consists of whether a new system for logistic control should be implemented or not. The background information was collected through interviews and the structuring and analysis of the problem was performed using the tool DecideIT, designed for handling situations where uncertainties in input data prevail. The result of the analysis points out a reasonable action, but also shows which aspects are crucial to consider for a reliable result.

  • 50.
    Danielsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Towards a deeper understanding of gender barriers in the IT business2006In: Proceedings of IRIS Information System Research Seminar 29, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze barriers for women to enter and take on professional roles in the IT business. It is argued that earlier research concerning these barriers only has scratched on the surface and to be able to take appropriate meassures a deeper understanding of the foundation the barriers rests upon is needed. In this paper concepts from gender research, the so called four relation types: power, production, emotion, and symbols; are introduced and used in analyzing the barriers identified in earlier research as well as in case studies of IT professionals and youths at a IT high school. This analyzes shows that gender regimes in our society, when it comes to the IT business are, more or less, hostile to women. It also shows that using these four concepts adds a new dimension to the discussion concerning the under-representation of women in IT business. By focusing on relations, measures can be designed to target specific problematic relations instead of targeting a problem that is a complex of two or more relations.

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