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  • 1.
    Aaboud, M.
    et al.
    Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda, Morocco.
    Aad, G.
    CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France.
    Abbott, B.
    Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, United States of America.
    Abdallah, J.
    University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States of America.
    Augsten, K.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Caforio, D.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Gallus, P.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Guenther, J.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Hubaček, Z.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Myska, M.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Pospisil, S.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Seifert, F.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Simak, V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Slavicek, Tomas
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Smolek, K.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Solar, M.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Sopczak, A.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Sopko, V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Suk, M.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Tureček, D.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Praha, Czech Republic.
    Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced by vector-boson fusion and decaying to bottom quarks in root s=8TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector2016In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, no 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search with the ATLAS detector is presented for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced by vector-boson fusion and decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using 20.2 fb−1 of LHC proton-proton collision data at s=8" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">s√=8s=8 TeV. The signal is searched for as a resonance in the invariant mass distribution of a pair of jets containing b-hadrons in vector-boson-fusion candidate events. The yield is measured to be −0.8 ± 2.3 times the Standard Model cross-section for a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. The upper limit on the cross-section times the branching ratio is found to be 4.4 times the Standard Model cross-section at the 95% confidence level, consistent with the expected limit value of 5.4 (5.7) in the background-only (Standard Model production) hypothesis.

  • 2. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 3.
    Abedi, Shiva Masoumeh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Considering a sustainable approach tonitrogen removal of waste waterin south-west Iran2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution of the drinking water environment has long been thought to be a primary cause of diseases. According to environmental research, there is a global water quality crisis. From an environmental stand point, eutrophication or accumulation of nitrates in wastewater are expected to cause high ammonium, low pH and increased nitrate concentrations [Koren et al. 2000] which are a critical form of nitrogen that needs our attention. This study considers the case of eutrophication in south-west Iran. This region is located in the Khuzestan province and consists of two basins (Karun and Dez) which can be seen as susceptible to the effect of eutrophication. This paper analyses the environmental pollution impact, economic, and social approaches of two waste water treatment plants. The case study focuses on a waste water treatment plant operated by activated sludge in Iran and the reference study is technology combined Sharon-Anammox treatment in Netherlands. The environmental impact assessment of these Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been analyzed by a Triple Bottom Line method. The hypothesis is to prove a general and specific outlook of the lowest environmental emissions, the lowest costs and creation of better welfare. The other method applied in this study is the barriers of transferring technology. The results show that the combined Sharon-Anammox method is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact based on the methods applied in this study.In this study, the generally considered barriers are problems of methods of transferring combined Sharon-Anammox technology to Iran and the possible obstacles that may be encountered in the transfer of technology to Iran. The result of this study is estimated with respect to an evaluation of political, environmental, economic, social, and technological capacity. The result is that most potential problems are political and economic in nature, which may be because these two issues are so closely related to each other. In this case, lack of management is a problem in the institution of policy, and could affect the economic situation. In fact each of the barriers could be overlapped and affect each other. Regarding all barriers and problems that are in the process of transferring technology, Iran as a developing country would be able to receive technologies.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Erik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A living based on breath-hold diving in the Bajau Laut2014In: Human Evolution, ISSN 0393-9375, Vol. 29, no 1-3, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea nomads or 'sea people,' namely the 'Bajau Laut' in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia are skilled divers, and many Bajau Laut make a living from freediving. Men do most of the spearfishing, but women also dive, predominantly for gathering sea food. They start to dive at an early age and spend most days of their lives on and in the sea. Our objective was to study their diving and way of life, to reveal if modern humans have the physiological potential for making a living from breath-hold diving for fishing and gathering. Bajau Laut were visited for a total of nine months, during three periods from 2010-2013, in a combined physiological and social-Anthropological study. The diving physiology studies focused on a total of 10 male divers, whose working day diving while spearfishing was logged with time-depth loggers. One group of 5 divers were engaged in shallow (5-7 m) spearfishing with an underwater working time of 60%, when diving for 2-9 h. The other group of 5 divers went to a mean depth of 10 m and had an underwater working time of 50%, when diving for 3-9 h per day. During that time, between one and eight kilograms of coral fish, blow fish, moray eels and octopuses were caught, per diver. Seafood collected by the women included clams, crustaceans, sea weed and sea cucumbers. Life among the Bajau Laut was much like it was 25 years ago, although in some areas the fish stock is diminishing, making it necessary for the Bajau Laut to spend more time in the water to obtain the same quantity of fish. It was concluded that modern humans do possess the physiological qualities necessary for making a living from hunting-gathering via breath-hold diving.

  • 5. Abrashev, M. V.
    et al.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Borjesson, L.
    Pissas, M.
    Kolev, N.
    Iliev, M. N.
    Raman spectroscopy of the charge- and orbital-ordered state in La0.5Ca0.5MnO32001In: Physical Review B, Vol. 64, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarized Raman spectra from microcrystals of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 were studied as a function of temperature, excitation photon energy, and scattering configuration. At temperatures below the transition from ferromagnetic metallic phase to antiferromagnetic insulating charge- and orbital-ordered (COO) phase, several lines appear in Raman spectra excited with photon energies (h) over bar omega (L)<2.5 eV. We argue that their appearance signals ordering and freezing of the Jahn-Teller distortions at this transition temperature into a superstructure with a doubled elementary cell. We suggest a simplified structural model based on an analysis of the normal phonon modes in the COO phase, neglecting the octahedral tilts and containing ordered Mn4+O6 (undistorted) and Mn3+O6 (Jahn-Teller distorted) octahedra. The symmetries of the experimentally observed Raman lines are determined by comparing their relative intensities to those predicted by the polarization selection rules for a finely twinned quasicubic crystal. The most intensive Raman lines are assigned to definite normal modes in close comparison with corresponding modes in COO layered manganites and undoped RMnO3 (R=La, Y).

  • 6. Abrashev, M. V.
    et al.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Borjesson, L.
    Popov, V. N.
    Chakalov, R. A.
    Kolev, N.
    Meng, R. L.
    Iliev, M. N.
    Raman spectroscopy of CaMnO(3): Mode assignment and relationship between Raman line intensities and structural distortions2002In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 65, no 18, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarized Raman spectra of oriented finely twinned CaMnO(3) thin films and nonpolarized Raman spectra of CaMnO(3) ceramics were studied at room temperature using several excitation laser wavelengths. The selection rules for the polarized Raman spectra, obtained from samples consisting of finely twinned orthorhombic domains, were calculated and the symmetry of all observed Raman lines was determined. The relationship between the intensity of the Raman lines and the distortions in the ABO(3) perovskites with GdFeO(3)-type structure is discussed. These distortions can be described as superposition of four simple basic distortions: two MnO(6) octahedral tilts, Jahn-Teller deformation of Mn(3+) O(6) octahedra, and shift of the A ions from their sites in the ideal perovskite. Twenty of the 24 Raman-allowed modes in the real GdFeO(3)-type structure have counterparts in only one of the four simpler structures, obtained by a single basic distortion. The assignment of the Raman lines of CaMnO(3) to definite atomic vibrations, most of them activated by a single basic distortion, was made in close comparison with the results of lattice dynamical calculations and the Raman spectra of isostructural LaMnO(3) and CaGeO(3).

  • 7. Acx, A. G.
    et al.
    Berg, M
    Karlsson, M
    Lindström, M
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Slanina, P
    Zander, J
    Radio Resource Management2000In: Third generation mobile communication systems, Boston, Mass: Artech House, 2000, p. 386-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Adborn, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Visualisering av datastrukturer: Utveckling av ett tolkningsverktyg2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interpretation and assimilation of data structures, organized information andsource code files are frequently occuring during software development. This kindof information is stored in text-based form and its understanding requires greatthoroughness and investment in time from the developer's part. This thesisdescribes the development of a utility program prototype, which automates theparsing of XML data and source code files from the programming languages Cand C++, in purpose of trying to simplify the interpretation process. The programcreates and presents a visual graph of the structure found, using an algorithmwhich can present arbitrary large XML files as well as a limited number ofconcurrent source code files. The effects on the interpretation time and itsreliablity has been evaluated in a survey among software development students.The result showed a certain increase in the number of correct conclusions fromthe participants' side after studying the visual representation compared to itsorignial text-based form. The amount of time used was not measured other thansubjectively by the users themselves, of which a predominant proportionconsidered a reduction in needed time when using the graphical representation.The thesis shows that the use of this or an equivalent utility can enhance theassimilation of data structures by increasing the rate of reliabilty whilesimultaneously decreasing the needed amount of time. Still, the quantifyable gainsof these results remains statistically largely uncertain.

  • 9.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Development of catalytic enantioselective C-C bond-forming and cascade transformations by merging homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal catalysis with asymmetric aminocatalysis2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chiral molecules play a central role in our daily life and in nature, for instance the different enantiomers or diastereomers of a chiral molecule may show completely different biological activity. For this reason, it is a vital goal for synthetic chemists to design selective and efficient methodologies that allow the synthesis of the desired enantiomer. In this context, it is highly important that the concept of green chemistry is considered while designing new approaches that eventually will provide more environmental and sustainable chemical synthesis.The aim of this thesis is to develop the concept of combining transition metal catalysis and aminocatalysis in one process (dual catalysis). This strategy would give access to powerful tools to promote reactions that were not successful with either transition metal catalyst or the organocatalyst alone. The protocols presented in this thesis based on organocatalytic transformations via enamine or iminium intermediates or both, in combination with transition metal catalysis, describes new enantioselective organocatalytic procedures that afford valuable compounds with high chemo- and enantioselectivity from inexpensive commercial available starting materials. In paper I, we present a successful example of dual catalysis: the combination of transition metal activation of an electrophile and aminocatalyst activation of a nucleophile via enamine intermediate. In paper II, the opposite scenario is presented, here the transition metal activates the nucleophile and the aminocatalyst activates the electrophile via an iminium intermediate. In paper III,we present a domino Michael/carbocyclisation reaction that is catalysed by a chiral amine (via iminium/enamine activation) in combination with a transition metal catalysts activation of an electrophile. In paper IV, the concept of dual catalysis was further extended and applied for the highly enantioselective synthesis of valuable structural scaffolds, namely poly-substituted spirocyclic oxindoles. Finally, in paper V the concept of dual catalysis was expanded, by investigating more challenging and environmentally benign processes, such as the successful combination of a heterogeneous palladium and amine catalysts for the highly enantioselective synthesis of functionalised cyclopentenes, containing an all carbonquaternary stereocenter, dihydrofurans and dihydropyrrolidines.

  • 10.
    Afewerki, Samson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Direct regiospecific and highly enantioselective intermolecular a-allylic alkylation of aldehydes by combination of transition metal and chiral amine catalysts2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective a-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by combination of achiral bench stable Pd(0) complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecific a-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 er). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals and 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols.

  • 11.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Osong, Sinke H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    The Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sustainable Design for the Direct Fabrication and Highly Versatile Functionalization of Nanocelluloses2017In: Global Challenges, ISSN 2056-6646, Vol. 1, no 7, article id 1700045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a novel sustainable concept for the scalable direct fabrication and functionalization of nanocellulose from wood pulp with reduced energy consumption. A central concept is the use of metal-free small organic molecules as mediators and catalysts for the production and subsequent versatile surface engineering of the cellulosic nanomaterials via organocatalysis and click chemistry. Here, “organoclick” chemistry enables the selective functionalization of nanocelluloses with different organic molecules as well as the binding of palladium ions or nanoparticles. The nanocellulosic material is also shown to function as a sustainable support for heterogeneous catalysis in modern organic synthesis (e.g., Suzuki cross-coupling transformations in water). The reported strategy not only addresses obstacles and challenges for the future utilization of nanocellulose (e.g., low moisture resistance, the need for green chemistry, and energy-intensive production) but also enables new applications for nanocellulosic materials in different areas.

  • 12.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Breistein, Palle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Pirttilä, Kristian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Deiana, Luca
    Univ Stockholm, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dziedzic, Pawel
    Univ Stockholm, Arrhenius Lab, Dept Organ Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Catalytic Enantioselective beta-Alkylation of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes by Combination of Transition-Metal- and Aminocatalysis: Total Synthesis of Bisabolane Sesquiterpenes2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 32, p. 8784-8788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branching out! The first co-catalytic enantioselective (up to 98:2 e.r.) β-alkylation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by combination of simple chiral amine and copper catalysts provides β-branched aldehydes in a one-pot protocol (see scheme). The methodology was applied to the short total syntheses of bisabolane sesquiterpenes (S)-(+)-curcumene, (E)-(S)-(+)-3- dehydrocurcumene and (S)-(+)-tumerone. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 13.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT, Stockholm.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Arrhenius Lab, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT, Stockholm.
    Combinations of Aminocatalysts and Metal Catalysts: A Powerful Cooperative Approach in Selective Organic Synthesis2016In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 116, no 22, p. 13512-13570Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cooperation and interplay between organic and metal catalyst Arninocatalysis systems is of utmost importance in nature and chemical synthesis. Here innovative and selective cooperative catalyst systems can be designed by combining two catalysts that complement rather than inhibit one another. This refined strategy can permit chemical transformations unmanageable by either of the catalysts alone. This review summarizes innovations and developments in selective organic synthesis that have used cooperative dual catalysis by combining simple aminocatalysts with metal catalysts. Considerable efforts have been devoted to this fruitful field. This emerging area employs the different activation modes of amine and metal catalysts as a platform to address challenging reactions. Here, aminocatalysis (e.g., enamine activation catalysis, iminium activation catalysis, single occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) activation catalysis, and photoredox activation catalysis) is employed to activate unreactive carbonyl substrates. The transition metal catalyst complements by activating a variety of substrates through a range of interactions (e.g., electrophilic pi-allyl complex formation, Lewis acid activation, allenylidene complex formation, photoredox activation, C-H activation, etc.), and thereby novel concepts within catalysis are created. The inclusion of heterogeneous catalysis strategies allows for "green" chemistry development, catalyst recyclability, and the more eco-friendly synthesis of valuable compounds.

  • 14.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Guangning, Ma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Highly enantioselective organo/metal cooperative catalysis for construction of spirocyclopentaneoxindoles2014In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 248, article id 173-ORGNArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Rydfjord, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Breistein, Palle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Direct Regiospecific and Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular α-Allylic Alkylation of Aldehydes By Combination of Transition Metal and amine Catalysts2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 2972-2977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective α-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd 0 complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecificα-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 e.r.; e.r.=enantiomeric ratio). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals, 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols, and amines. The concise co-catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of biologically active natural products (e.g., Arundic acid) are disclosed. Go organic! Directintermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective α-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd 0complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 16.
    Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Berzelii Ctr EXSELENT, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Guangning
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ibrahem, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Liu, Leifeng
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sun, Junliang
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Highly Enantioselective Control of Dynamic Cascade Transformations by Dual Catalysis: Asymmetric Synthesis of Polysubstituted Spirocyclic Oxindoles2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1266-1272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly enantioselective (up to >99.5:0.5 er) synthesis of polysubstituted spirocyclic oxindoles with four new contiguous stereocenters, including the spiro all-carbon quaternary center, is disclosed. It is accomplished by the highly stereoselective control of a dynamic conjugate/intramolecular allylic alkylation relay sequence based on the synergistic cooperation of metal and chiral amine catalysts in which the careful selection of organic Nand, metal complex, and chiral amine is essential. The intermolecular C-C bond-forming step occurred only when both the metal and chiral amine catalysts were present.

  • 17.
    Afram, Gabriel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Genomsökning av filsystem för att hitta personuppgifter: Med Linear chain conditional random field och Regular expression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Act will apply to all companies within the European Union after 25 May. This means stricter legal requirements for companies that in some way store personal data. The goal of this project is therefore to make it easier for companies to meet the new legal requirements. This by creating a tool that searches file systems and visually shows the user in a graphical user interface which files contain personal data. The tool uses Named entity recognition with the Linear chain conditional random field algorithm which is a type of supervised learning method in machine learning. This algorithm is used in the project to find names and addresses in files. The different models are trained with different parameters and the training is done using the stanford NER library in Java. The models are tested by a test file containing 45,000 words where the models themselves can predict all classes to the words in the file. The models are then compared with each other using the measurements of precision, recall and F-score to find the best model. The tool also uses Regular Expression to find emails, IP numbers, and social security numbers. The result of the final machine learning model shows that it does not find all names and addresses, but that can be improved by increasing exercise data. However, this is something that requires a more powerful computer than the one used in this project. An analysis of how the Swedish language is built would also need to be done to apply the most appropriate parameters for the training of the model.

  • 18.
    Agrawal, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Long Term Channel Characterization for Energy Efficient Transmission in Industrial Environments2014In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 3004-3014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges for a successful use of wireless sensor networks in process industries is to design networks with energy efficient transmission, to increase the lifetime of the deployed network while maintaining the required latency and bit-error rate. The design of such transmission schemes depend on the radio channel characteristics of the region. This paper presents an investigation of the statistical properties of the radio channel in a typical process industry, particularly when the network is meant to be deployed for a long time duration, e.g., days, weeks, and even months. Using 17–20-h-long extensive measurement campaigns in a rolling mill and a paper mill, we highlight the non-stationarity in the environment and quantify the ability of various distributions, given in the literature, to describe the variations on the links. Finally, we analyze the design of an optimal received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the deployed nodes and show that improper selection of the distribution for modeling of the variations in the channel can lead to an overuse of energy by a factor of four or even higher.

  • 19.
    Agrawal, Piyush
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Characterization of Long Term Channel Variations in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aspekter på nyttometoder för teknikinformation ur ett livscykelperspektiv2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Open Data and its Benefits2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Rätt teknikinformation är hårdvaluta som går att mäta2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Värdeadderande aktiviteter i produktionsprocessen av TI och tillhörande effektivitetsmätningar2013Report (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    A Communication-model for Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2015In: 2015 Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model.The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model. 

  • 25.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Nyttan med CM2013In: Configuration Management i teknikinformationens tjänst: en antologi / [ed] Margaretha Eriksson och Lena-Maria Öberg, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Saariko, Ted
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A semiotic perspective on semantics interoperability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While information technology enables us to access more material than ever before, we need to come to grips with the disagreeable fact that data is not information. Sharing data without safeguarding comprehension may lead to confusion at best and disaster at worst. The issue at hand is one of ensuring semantic interoperability between actors from disparate contexts. Research into this problem is plentiful, but typically focused around specific subject matters, limiting its appeal to a limited range of scholars and practitioners. Based upon a literary study, we identify two extreme approaches to managing semantic interoperability. These are denoted top-down and bottom-up. We illustrate real world instances of these approaches using the TFI-model based on a case study encompassing two organizations. Our theoretical model is found to be a viable lens through which to generalize and interpret issues pertaining to semantic interoperability between human actors. We therefore see a need for further research into human-based on semantic interoperability.

  • 27.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Åslund, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling och test av arbetsmetod för identifiering av nytta och värde i produktionsprocessen i framtagande av teknikinformation.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Lärarstyrd lek i matematikundervisningen: Dess möjligheter och begränsningar för elevens lärande.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med min studie är att veta hur lärarstyrd lek påverkar matematikundervisningen samt se vilka möjligheter och begränsningar som metoden lärarstyrd lek har. För detta syfte har jag intervjuat ett antal lärare om detta arbetssätt, hur de planerar för en undervisning som bygger på lärarstyrd lek, vad de menar med lärarstyrd lek, vilka möjligheter och begränsningar de ser samt om de märker att de stimulerar eleven i matematikundervisningen med den lärarstyrda leken.Det resultatet som jag ser i min studie är att i huvudsak anser samtliga pedagoger att det finns en positiv påverkan på lärandet när lärarstyrd lek genomförs i undervisningen. De pekar på några begränsande faktorer som tidsbrist, höga arbetsbelastning, problem med elevers sociala sampel. Trots att arbetssättet möter vissa utmaningar så bedömer samtliga pedagoger att lärarstyrd lek i matematikundervisningen ökar elevens motivation i lärandet och gör ämnet roligt och intressant.

  • 29.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    Designing an Information System for Open Innovation – Bridging the Gap between Individual and Organisational Creativity2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    History shows that those companies that continue to invest in their innovative capabilities during tough economic times are often those that prosper when growth returns. Recently, information systems (IS) have been harnessed to support innovation. Even with IS support, innovation campaigns and suggestion management systems often end up in failure. Employees and customers are reluctant to share their best ideas. Individuals interests, motivation, creativity and life-long learning are seldom adequately supported by companies. In the information systems research area there is very little research on creativity and creativity has traditionally been studied mainly within the decision support systems (DSS) research area. This DSS area has focused on rather mechanistic idea-generation processes lacking a focus on individuals and their creativity. Even in the emerging open innovation paradigm, individual and group levels have come in for little research. From these starting points, we became interested in ways to improve existing information systems and innovation practices. The research question here is: How to design an artefact to support learning and creativity within the open innovation paradigm. Since we are interested in building new artefacts, we will utilise design research methods, particularly the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) process model. Our three artefacts are the results of our work. The first artefact, the Mobile Personal Development Plan, is focused on extending development talks between an employer and employees within human resource management to support innovation. Curiosity and emerging interests are seen here as idea seeds and future competences. The second artefact, the iPortfolio, extends this with a life-long learning and problem-solving focus. The third artefact, the Brokering Platform for Open Innovation, finally focuses on collaboration with customers and crowds. The software development was time consuming in our work and only the first artefact is demonstrated as a functional software prototype. Our pilot in an SME company illustrates practical requirements and usability issues related to the software. Additionally, a Delphi study with international open innovation experts served to identify future related requirements. Given the lack of creativity research in the IS field, we claim that our work makes an appropriate contribution. To the design research literature our input is new usage cases of the previously mentioned DSRM process model. Our results apply to organisations, where the employees work in dispersed teams and need an information system to communicate their emerging ideas and interests for more systematic problem-solving. The managers in our study reported that there are plenty of ideas available, but the challenge is to ensure the commitment of external resources to the actual innovation building. The integration of learning into the innovation and problem-solving activity should be motivational. We therefore discuss human resource management in relation to creativity and innovation. Surprisingly, in our pilots we noticed difficulties in time management in mobile settings and the current health risk debate gradually changed our artefact design, so this work also provides a critical view on mobility and on the access anytime, anywhere phenomenon. Finally, we suggest improvements to existing innovation practices in organisations.

  • 30.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Designing to archive open data – Case: ISERV e-services project.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.
    et al.
    Van Hees, P.A.W.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Finlay, R.D.
    Organic acids produced by mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris exposed to elevated aluminium and heavy metals concentrations2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 557-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cultivation method was developed to enable exposure of ectomycorrhizal plants with intact extramatrical mycelium to solutions containing different concentrations of aluminium or heavy metals. Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized by Suillus variegatus (two isolates), Rhizopogon roseolus or Paxillus involutus (two isolates) were used. Seedlings were transferred to Petri dishes containing glass beads and exposed to elevated concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, or Ni in two ways: immediately following transfer; and after allowing mycorrhizal seedlings to develop an extraradical mycelium that colonized the interface between the upper surface of the beads and the metal-containing solution. Production of organic acids in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal systems was measured by withdrawing samples from the solution and analyzing by HPLC. In most experiments, levels of oxalic acid were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than in non-mycorrhizal controls. The measured levels of organic acids were variable, but the results obtained suggest that production of oxalic acid is stimulated by exposure to elevated Al in mycorrhizal seedlings colonized by S. variegatus and R. roseolus. Elevated Al concentrations also increased oxalic acid production by non-mycorrhizal seedlings significantly in two of four Al experiments performed, but the measured concentrations were significantly lower than in corresponding mycorrhizal treatments in both cases. Malonic acid was found in the culture solution of non-mycorrhizal had P. involutus-colonized seedlings, but only trace amounts were found in S. variegatus or R. roseolus-infected seedlings. Citric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, propionic, fumaric, formic, iso-butyric and butyric acid were found in variable concentrations. Production of oxalic acid by seedlings ColoniZed by S. variegatus BL or P. involutus was not stimulated by exposure to 0.44 μM Cd or 17 μM Ni. Exposure to 0.157 mM CU in two separate experiments using P. involutus 87.017 and two strains of S. variegatus (BL and 159) appeared to stimulate production of oxalic acid irrespective of mycorrhizal status or species.

  • 32.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 33.
    Akbar, Adnan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Influencing Factors on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Mobile Computing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applications that can change their behaviour based on the user’s contextual appearance are called context-aware applications. Applications developed for smart phones, which carry a multitude of different sensors, and actuators have gained a huge penetration within the market. Frequent usage of mobile applications such as home automation, friend finder, car accident notification and tracking etc; have seen an increased growth from the user’s perspective. However, for such applications, it is necessary to have knowledge of the performance and cost parameters, which directly affect the QoE of the application users.  This thesis investigates possible context aware behaviours in real time situations and measures the Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as identifying the Packet Delay Variation (PDV). The background and some state-of-the-art technologies are studied, and based on these studies, three scenarios are designed and implemented and based on their QoE, results and conclusions are presented, with the  results obtained  shown by means of   graphical representations of the QoE and PDV values. 

  • 34. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Wireless LAN Access Point Modeling as a Queuing System2002In: Proceedings of The Communications and Computer Networks 2002 Conference (CCN 2002), MIT, Cambridge, USA, November 4-6, 2002, 2002, p. 463-468Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a research study of wireless LAN access points for IEEE 802.11b, where we seek to model the access point as a queuing system. The model can be used to compare performance metrics of different wireless LAN access points and to investigate the QoS of specific applications in the presence of a wireless LAN access point. In this paper, we focus on two parameters: the delay introduced by a wireless LAN access point and the average service time required to serve a packet passing through an access point. A major result is an analytic solution for the average service time of a packet in relationship to payload.

  • 35. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wireless LAN Access Points as Queuing Systems: Performance Analysis and Service Time2003In: Mobile Computing and Communications Review, ISSN 1559-1662, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the approval of the IEEE 802.11b by the IEEE in 1999, the demand for WLAN equipment and networks has been growing quickly. We present a queuing model of wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) for IEEE 802.11b. We use experimentation to obtain the characteristic parameters of our analytic model. The model can be used to compare the performance of different WLAN APs as well as the QoS of different applications in the presence of an AP. We focus on the delay introduced by an AP. The major observations are that the delay to serve a packet going from the WLAN medium to the wired medium (on the uplink) is less than the delay to serve a packet, with identical payload, but travelling from the wired medium to the WLAN medium (on the downlink). A key result is an analytic solution showing that the average service time of a packet is a strictly increasing function of payload.

  • 36. Alarco, J A
    et al.
    Brorsson, G
    Olin, Håkan
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology/University of Göteborg.
    Olsson, E
    Early stages of growth of YBa2Cu3O7− high Tc superconducting films on (001) Y-ZrO2 substrates1994In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 75, p. 3202-3204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theearly stages of growth of high quality YBa2Cu3O7− (YBCO) filmsgrown on (001) Y-ZrO2 (YSZ) substrates by pulsed laser depositionhave been studied using a combination of atomic force microscopyand transmission electron microscopy. A one unit cell thick YBCOlayer and relatively large CuO particles formed in the initialstages. Additional YBCO grew on top of the first layerin the form of one or a few unit cellhigh c-axis oriented islands about 30 nm in diameter. Therounded islands subsequently coalesced into faceted domains. Elongated Y2BaCuO5 particlesnucleated after the first layer of YBCO. A highly texturedBaZrO3 layer formed between the YSZ and the YBCO witha cube-on-cube dominant orientation relationship with respect to the YBCOfilm. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.

  • 37.
    Albani, Giorgia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Perelli Cippo, Enrico
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Croci, Gabriele
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    STFC-ISIS Facility, RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Scherillo, Antonella
    STFC-ISIS Facility, RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carina
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Hultman, Lars
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Birch, Jens
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Claps, Gerardo
    INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Fermi 40, Frascati, Italy.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Fermi 40, Frascati, Italy.
    Rebai, Marica
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: From planar to 3D converters2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 11, article id 115902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called '3He-crisis' has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense R&amp;D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard 3He tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising '3He-free' technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional 3He tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed 3He tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  • 38.
    Albihn, Amalia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Husveterinären: Responsiv design med WordPress2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta projekt har varit att ta fram en responsiv webbplats åt Husveterinären

    AB. Kraven på webbplatsen var bland annat att den skulle skapas i

    WordPress, möjliggöra för kunder att ta del av uppdateringar från veterinärens

    Facebook samt innehålla ett bokningssystem. Projektet genomfördes enligt metoden

    mobile first vilket innebär att man utgår ifrån en liten skärm när man designar

    för att sedan skala upp storleken. Media queries och en flexibel layout

    baserad på relativa enheter har använts för den responsiva designen. För att utvärdera

    webbplatsens användbarhet har användartester genomförts. Resultatet

    är en webbplats som kan användas i enheter med stora såväl som med små skärmar.

    Användartesterna visade på att det var lätt att navigera mellan webbsidorna

    samt att använda både bokningssystemet och kontaktformuläret oavsett skärmstorlek.

    Med WordPress är det dessutom möjligt för veterinären att själv underhålla

    sin webbplats utan att behöva ha kunskaper om att skriva kod.

  • 39.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliation of MoS2 for paper based applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated MoS2 for paper based supercapacitors and photodetectors2014In: Collection of Extent Abstracts, 2014, p. 437-438Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Hakan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photoconductivity of bulk and liquid processed MoS22014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated Layered Materials for Digital Fabrication2015In: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 192-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduced an exfoliation method of MoS2 in a 3% solution of sodium dodecyl surfactant at high concentration (i.e. 2 g/L). The bulk MoS2 was thinned by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and the resulting powder was used to prepare dispersions by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication. The resulting dispersion consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets in surfactant solution with average lateral size around 126 nm. This may be interesting for applications in inkjet printed electronics.

  • 43.
    Alfvin, Tiia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Det laborativa arbetsmaterialet i matematik i lågstadiet (åk1-3) – vad, vem, när, hur & varför?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka det laborativa arbetsmaterialets förekomst i matematikundervisningen och ta reda på hur lärare förhåller sig till materialet och användandet av detta i årskurserna 1-3. Undersökningen är huvudsakligen en kvalitativ studie som bygger på 7 enkätfrågor ställda till lärare i lågstadiet. Min undersökning visar att laborativt arbetsmaterial förekommer i matematikundervisningen och används vid genomgångar av lärarna samt vid behov av både elever och lärare. Materialet är både roligt att använda och ett stöd för lärandet. Vissa tyckte dock att det kunde vara jobbigt att plocka fram och städa undan och att eleverna ibland lekte med det. Lärarna gav exempel på kopplingar till läroplanen och de tillfrågade lärarna upplever sig ha tillräcklig kompetens för att kunna bedriva god undervisning för främjandet av elevernas kunskapsutveckling inom ämnet matematik. Det var dock viktigt med ett fungerande erfarenhetsutbyte i arbetslaget samt möjlighet till fortbildning vid behov.

  • 44.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 45.
    Ali, S.
    et al.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orban, I.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahmood, S.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altun, Z.
    Marmara Univ, Dept Phys, TR-81040 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Schuch, R.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS FOR C II FORMING C I2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 753, no 2, p. Art. no. 132-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined absolute dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for C II, using the CRYRING heavy-ions storage ring. The resonances due to 2s-2p (Delta n= 0) core excitations are detected in the center-of-mass energy range of 0-15 eV. The experimental results are compared with intermediate coupling AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. Plasma rate coefficients are obtained from the DR spectrum by convoluting it with a Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution for temperatures in the range of 10(3)-10(6) K. The derived temperature-dependent plasma recombination rate coefficients are presented graphically and parameterized by using a fit formula for convenient use in plasma modeling codes. The experimental rate coefficients are also compared with the theoretical data available in literature. In the temperature range of 10(3)-2 x 10(4) K, our experimental results show that previous calculations severely underestimate the plasma rate coefficients and also our AUTOSTRUCTURE calculation does not reproduce the experimental plasma rate coefficients well. Above 2x10(4) K, the agreement between the experimental and theoretical rate coefficients is much better, and the deviations are smaller than the estimated uncertainties.

  • 46.
    Ali, Tara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Essén, Sofia A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Liquid extraction of low molecular mass organic acids and hydroxamate siderophores from boreal forest soil2011In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2417-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) and hydroxamate siderophores (HS) are molecules secreted by microbes and have previously been found in soil solution and in cultures. Mycorrhizal fungi are suggested to be involved in the nutrient uptake processes of trees and weathering of minerals. In this study soil samples taken from the O and E horizons of a podzol were extracted with 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. Variable parameters included addition of methanol to the extraction buffer and the use of ultrasonication or rotary shaking during extraction. LMMOAs and HS content of the soil extracts were determined. Analysis of soil extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the extraction results compared to results for soil solution samples obtained by centrifugation of the soils sampled. The extraction yields were significantly increased by addition of methanol to the extraction buffer, especially for the O horizon samples. Rotary shaking of the samples for 90 min gave slightly higher yields than ultrasonication for 15 min but the reduction in extraction time makes ultrasonication an attractive option. Of the HSs determined, ferricrocin was found in all samples. Optimal extraction conditions showed citric acid and isocitric acid to be the most abundant organic acids in the O and E horizons, respectively.

  • 47. Alison, M Lee-Manion
    et al.
    Price, Ruth K
    Strain, J J
    Dimberg, Lena H
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Welch, Robert W
    In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Antigenotoxic Effects of Avenanthramides and Related Compounds2009In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 57, no 22, p. 10619-10624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avenanthramides are substituted N-cinnamoylanthranilic acids, with hydroxycinnamic acid and anthranilic acid moieties. These alkaloid phenols, which are unique to oats, may confer health benefits via antioxidant or other mechanisms. Synthetic avenanthramides, hydroxycinnamic acids, Tranilast, and ascorbic acid were evaluated for antioxidant activity using two assays, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), and for antigenotoxicity using the Comet assay with stressed human adenocarcinoma colon cells. Of all the compounds tested, N-(3′,4′-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl)-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (2c), an abundant oat avenanthramide, generally had the highest activity in all three assays. The drug Tranilast showed antigenotoxic effects, but not antioxidant activity, suggesting that antigenotoxicity is not dependent on antioxidant effects. Overall, results show that avenanthramides exert antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities that are comparable to those of ascorbic acid and which have the potential to exert beneficial physiological effects.

     

  • 48.
    Alkrot, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    React vs Angular: Slaget om användarupplevelsen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, various programming frameworks has been developed for developing web applications. These frameworks focus on increasing the user experience by performance improvements such as faster render times and response times. One of these frameworks are React, which has introduced a completely new architectural pattern for both managing the state and data flow of an application. React also offers support for native application development and makes server-side rendering possible. Something that is difficult to accomplish with an application developed with Angular 1.5, which is used by the company Dewire today. The aim of this thesis was to compare React with an existing Angular project, in order to determine whether React could be a potential replacement for Angular. To gain knowledge about the subject, a theoretical study of web- based sources has been made. While the practical part has been to rebuild a web application with React together with the architecture Flux, which is based on a view from the Angular project. The implementation process was repeated until the view was completed and a desired data flow, as in the Angular application, was reached. The resulting React application was later compared with the Angular application developed by the company, where the outcome of the comparison showed that the React performed better than Angular in all tests. In conclusion, due to the timeframe of the project, only the most important parts of the Angular project were implemented in order to carry out the measurements that were of interest to the company. By recreating most of the functionality, or the entire Angular application, more interesting comparisons could have been done.

  • 49.
    Alm, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    En studie som visar i vilket syfte fyra lärare använder utomhusmatematik i förskoleklass-åk32016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utomhuspedagogik har under de senaste åren ökat inom skolans värld. Jag har upplevt att lärare har börjat prata mer om utomhuspedagogik och använder det mer och mer i undervisningen. Mitt självständiga arbete handlar om hur lärare i grundskolan förskoleklass-åk3 använder sig av utomhusmatematik och i vilket syfte lärarna har när de undervisar inom utomhusmatematik. Studiens syfte är att undersöka i vilket syfte lärare använder utomhusmatematik, vilka positiva respektive negativa sidor de ser/upplever när de undervisar med undervisningsformen samt ett ungefärligt snittvärde på hur många timmar i veckan lärarna använder det. Metoden som tillämpas till denna studie är kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra verksamma lärare på olika skolor i samma kommun. Resultatet visar att alla lärare jag intervjuade jobbade med utomhusmatematik varje vecka och var positiv till att jobba med det. Lärarna såg också att fler elever fångades upp när de valde att ta ut klassrummet och jobba mer praktiskt. Genom att jobba på detta sätt har alla elever en större chans att jobba mot sina mål samt att eleverna får använda sin lärstil eftersom många olika lärstilar blir möjliga att använda utomhus.

  • 50.
    Almeida, Tiago P.
    et al.
    PIPG Bioenergia-UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Miyazaki, Celina M
    Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias para a Sustentabilidade- UFSCa, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.
    Volpati, Diogo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Silva, Tatiana A.
    University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP, Brazil .
    Braunger, Maria Luisa
    University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP, Brazil .
    Barros, Anerise
    University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP, Brazil .
    Hollmann, Frank
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Riul Jr, Antonio
    PIPG Bioenergia-UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Ultra-Thin Films of Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) Nanoplatelets Functionalized with Different Organic Materials2016In: Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, ISSN 2155-9821, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 1000272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims the functionalization of reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets with chitosan (G-chitosan) and also with poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (GPSS), thus forming stable, dispersed aqueous solutions. G-chitosan and GPSS solutions allowed the layer-by-layer (LbL) film formation with glucose oxidase (GOx), establishing multilayered nanostructures with elevated control in thickness and morphology. The graphene nanoplatelets were characterized by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopies, resulting in good adherence and linear deposition of the graphene nanoplatelets with GOx in the LbL structures.Cyclic voltammetry shows an enlargement in the current intensity with increasing number of deposited LbL layers, possibly owing to the formation of conducting paths by the graphene nanoplatelets in the tailored multilayer nanomaterial formed

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