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Large-Scale Production of Nanographite by Tube-Shear Exfoliation in Water
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. (Teknisk Fysik)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4303-2585
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9137-3440
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, e0154686Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The number of applications based on graphene, few-layer graphene, and nanographite is rapidly increasing. A large-scale process for production of these materials is critically needed to achieve cost-effective commercial products. Here, we present a novel process to mechanically exfoliate industrial quantities of nanographite from graphite in an aqueous environment with low energy consumption and at controlled shear conditions. This process, based on hydrodynamic tube shearing, produced nanometer-thick and micrometer-wide flakes of nanographite with a production rate exceeding 500 gh-1 with an energy consumption about 10 Whg-1. In addition, to facilitate large-area coating, we show that the nanographite can be mixed with nanofibrillated cellulose in the process to form highly conductive, robust and environmentally friendly composites. This composite has a sheet resistance below 1.75 Ω/sq and an electrical resistivity of 1.39×10-4 Ωm and may find use in several applications, from supercapacitors and batteries to printed electronics and solar cells. A batch of 100 liter was processed in less than 4 hours. The design of the process allow scaling to even larger volumes and the low energy consumption indicates a low-cost process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nicklas Blomquist , 2016. Vol. 11, no 4, e0154686
Keyword [en]
Nano-graphite, Graphite, Graphene, Nanomaterials, Composite materials
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27600DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154686ISI: 000375212600060Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84966389426OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-27600DiVA: diva2:926695
Projects
KEPS
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2017-09-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Large-Scale Nanographite Exfoliation for Low-Cost Metal-Free Supercapacitors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-Scale Nanographite Exfoliation for Low-Cost Metal-Free Supercapacitors
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2016. 34 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 125
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29720 (URN)978-91-88025-74-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-08-31, O102, Sundsvall, 10:30 (English)
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för framläggningen av avhandlingen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 2 inskickat.

At the time of the defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 2 submitted.

Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
2. Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Electric Double-Layer Capacitors: Conept, Materials and Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Cost, Environmentally Friendly Electric Double-Layer Capacitors: Conept, Materials and Production
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today’s society is currently performing an exit from fossilfuel energy sources. The change to sustainable alternativesrequires inexpensive and environmentally friendly energy storagedevices. However, most current devices contain expensive,rare or toxic materials. These materials must be replaced bylow-cost, abundant, nontoxic components.In this thesis, I suggest the production of paper-based electricdouble-layer capacitors (EDLCs) to meet the demand oflow-cost energy storage devices that provide high power density.To fulfill the requirements of sustainable and environmentallyfriendly devices, production of EDLCs that consist of paper,graphite and saltwater is proposed. Paper can be used as aseparator between the electrodes and as a substrate for theelectrodes. Graphite is suited for use as an active material in theelectrodes, and saltwater can be employed as an electrolyte.Westudied and developed different methods for the productionof nanographite and graphene from graphite. Composites containingthese materials and similar advanced carbon materialshave been tested as electrode materials in EDLCs. I suggest theuse of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) or microfibrillated cellulose(MFC) as a binder in the electrodes. In addition to improvedmechanical stability, the nanocellulose improved the stabilityof graphite dispersions and the electrical performance of theelectrodes. The influence of the cellulose quality on the electricalproperties of the electrodes and EDLCs was investigated.The results showed that the finest nanocellulose quality is notthe best choice for EDLC electrodes; MFC is recommended forthis application instead. The results also demonstrated thatthe capacitance of EDLCs can be increased if the electrodemasses are adjusted according to the size of the electrolyte ions.Moreover, we investigated the issue of high contact resistancesat the interface between porous carbon electrodes and metalcurrent collectors. To reduce the contact resistance, graphitefoil can be used as a current collector instead of metal foils.Using the suggested low-cost materials, production methodsand conceptual improvements, it is possible to reduce the material costs by more than 90% in comparison with commercialunits. This confirms that paper-based EDLCs are apromising alternative to conventional EDLCs. Our findings andadditional research can be expected to substantially supportthe design and commercialization of sustainable EDLCs andother green energy technologies.

Abstract [sv]

I dagens samhälle pågår en omställning från användning avfossila energikällor till förnybara alternativ. Denna förändringkräver miljövänliga och kostnadseffektiva elektriska energilagringsenheterför att möjliggöra en kontinuerlig energileverans.Dagens energilagringsenheter innehåller ofta dyra, sällsyntaeller giftiga material som behöver bytas ut för att nå hållbaralösningar.I denna avhandling föreslås att tillverka pappersbaseradesuperkondensatorer som möter kraven för kostnadseffektivaelektriska energilagrare med hög effekttäthet. För att nå kravenpå miljömässigt hållbara enheter föreslås användning avendast papper, grafit och saltvatten. Papper kan användas somseparator mellan elektroder likväl som substrat vid elektrodbestrykning.Grafit kan användas som aktivt elektrodmaterialoch saltvatten fungerar som elektrolyt. Olika metoder har härutvecklats för att producera nanografit och grafen från grafit.Dessa material har tillsammans med liknande, kommersiellt tillgängliga,avancerade kolmaterial testats i elektrodkompositerför superkondensatorer. Som bindemedel i dessa kompositerföreslås nanofibrillerad eller mikrofibrillerad cellulosa. Jaghar demonstrerat att nanocellulosa ökar dispersionsstabilitetensamt förbättrar den mekaniska stabiliteten och dom elektriskaegenskaperna i elektroderna. Hur cellulosans kvalitet påverkarelektroderna har undersökts och visar att den finaste kvaliteteninte är det bästa valet för superkondensatorer, istället rekommenderasmikrofibrillerad cellulosa. Utöver detta demonstrerasmöjligheten att öka superkondensatorernas kapacitans genomatt balansera elektrodernas massa med hänsyn till jonernasstorlek i elektrolyten. I avhandlingen diskuteras även svårigheternamed hög kontaktresistans i gränssnittet mellan porösakolstrukturer och metallfolie och hur detta kan undvikas omgrafitfolie används som kontakt.Genom att använda de material, produktionstekniker ochkonceptförbättringar som föreslås i avhandlingen är det möjligtatt reducera materialkostnaderna med mer än 90% i jämförelsemed kommersiella superkondensatorer. Detta bekräftar att pappersbaserade superkondensatorer är ett lovande alternativoch våra resultat tillsammans med vidare utveckling harstor potential att stödja övergången till miljömässigt hållbarasuperkondensatorer och annan grön energiteknik.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2017. 157 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 267
Keyword
Electric Double-Layer Capacitor, Graphite, Cellulose Nanofibers, Large-Scale, Mass Balancing, Metal-Free
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-31539 (URN)978-91-88527-23-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-08, M102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 6 inskickat.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 6 submitted.

Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-04 Last updated: 2017-09-07Bibliographically approved

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