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End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantees for Wireless Sensor Networks
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. (SNS)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9372-3416
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks have been a key driver of innovation and societal progressover the last three decades. They allow for simplicity because they eliminate ca-bling complexity while increasing the flexibility of extending or adjusting networksto changing demands. Wireless sensor networks are a powerful means of fillingthe technological gap for ever-larger industrial sites of growing interconnection andbroader integration. Nonetheless, the management of wireless networks is difficultin situations wherein communication requires application-specific, network-widequality of service guarantees. A minimum end-to-end reliability for packet arrivalclose to 100% in combination with latency bounds in the millisecond range must befulfilled in many mission-critical applications.The problem addressed in this thesis is the demand for algorithmic support forend-to-end quality of service guarantees in mission-critical wireless sensor networks.Wireless sensors have traditionally been used to collect non-critical periodic read-ings; however, the intriguing advantages of wireless technologies in terms of theirflexibility and cost effectiveness justify the exploration of their potential for controland mission-critical applications, subject to the requirements of ultra-reliable com-munication, in harsh and dynamically changing environments such as manufactur-ing factories, oil rigs, and power plants.This thesis provides three main contributions in the scope of wireless sensor net-works. First, it presents a scalable algorithm that guarantees end-to-end reliabilitythrough scheduling. Second, it presents a cross-layer optimization/configurationframework that can be customized to meet multiple end-to-end quality of servicecriteria simultaneously. Third, it proposes an extension of the framework used toenable service differentiation and priority handling. Adaptive, scalable, and fast al-gorithms are proposed. The cross-layer framework is based on a genetic algorithmthat assesses the quality of service of the network as a whole and integrates the phys-ical layer, medium access control layer, network layer, and transport layer.Algorithm performance and scalability are verified through numerous simula-tions on hundreds of convergecast topologies by comparing the proposed algorithmswith other recently proposed algorithms for ensuring reliable packet delivery. Theresults show that the proposed SchedEx scheduling algorithm is both significantlymore scalable and better performing than are the competing slot-based schedulingalgorithms. The integrated solving of routing and scheduling using a genetic al-vvigorithm further improves on the original results by more than 30% in terms of la-tency. The proposed framework provides live graphical feedback about potentialbottlenecks and may be used for analysis and debugging as well as the planning ofgreen-field networks.SchedEx is found to be an adaptive, scalable, and fast algorithm that is capa-ble of ensuring the end-to-end reliability of packet arrival throughout the network.SchedEx-GA successfully identifies network configurations, thus integrating the rout-ing and scheduling decisions for networks with diverse traffic priority levels. Fur-ther, directions for future research are presented, including the extension of simula-tions to experimental work and the consideration of alternative network topologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2015. , 97 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 234
Keyword [en]
Wireless Sensor Networks, Reliability, Quality of Service, Genetic Algorithms
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26289Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-88025-46-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-26289DiVA: diva2:873199
Public defence
2015-12-11, L111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 4 (manuskript inskickat för granskning), delarbete 5 (manuskript inskickat för granskning)

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 4 (manuscript under review), paper 5 (manuscript under review)

Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. End-to-End Reliability-aware Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-End Reliability-aware Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 2, 758-767 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are gaining popularity as a flexible and economical alternative to field-bus installations for monitoring and control applications. For missioncritical applications, communication networks must provide endto- end reliability guarantees, posing substantial challenges for WSN. Reliability can be improved by redundancy, and is often addressed on the MAC layer by re-submission of lost packets, usually applying slotted scheduling. Recently, researchers have proposed a strategy to optimally improve the reliability of a given schedule by repeating the most rewarding slots in a schedule incrementally until a deadline. This Incrementer can be used with most scheduling algorithms but has scalability issues which narrows its usability to offline calculations of schedules, for networks that are rather static. In this paper, we introduce SchedEx, a generic heuristic scheduling algorithm extension which guarantees a user-defined end-to-end reliability. SchedEx produces competitive schedules to the existing approach, and it does that consistently more than an order of magnitude faster. The harsher the end-to-end reliability demand of the network, the better SchedEx performs compared to the Incrementer. We further show that SchedEx has a more evenly distributed improvement impact on the scheduling algorithms, whereas the Incrementer favors schedules created by certain scheduling algorithms.

Keyword
Mission-Critical, Industrial Wireless Sensor Net- works, Reliable Packet Delivery, TDMA
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24017 (URN)10.1109/TII.2014.2382335 (DOI)000373949100030 ()2-s2.0-84963878040 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Projects
ASIS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2014-12-23 Created: 2014-12-23 Last updated: 2017-08-15Bibliographically approved
2. Latency Improvement Strategies for Reliability-Aware Scheduling in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latency Improvement Strategies for Reliability-Aware Scheduling in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, 178368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose novel strategiesfor end-to-end reliability-aware scheduling in Industrial WirelessSensor Networks (IWSN). Because of stringent reliability requirements inindustrial applications where missed packets may have disastrous or lethalconsequences, all IWSN communication standards are based on TimeDivision Multiple Access (TDMA), allowing for deterministic channel access onthe MAC layer. We therefore extend an existing generic and scalablereliability-aware scheduling approach by name SchedEx. SchedEx has proven toquickly produce TDMA schedules that guarantee auser-defined end-to-end reliability level $\underline\rho$ for all multi-hopcommunication in a WSN. Moreover, SchedEx executes orders of magnitude fasterthan recent algorithms in the literature while producing schedules withcompetitive latencies.We generalize the original problem formulation from single-channel tomulti-channel scheduling and propose a scalable integration into the existingSchedEx approach.We further introduce a novel optimal bound that produces TDMAschedules with latencies around 20\% shorter than the original SchedExalgorithm. Combining the novel strategies with multiple sinks, multiplechannels, and the introduced optimal bound, we could through simulationsverify latency improvements by almost an order of magnitude, reducingthe TDMA super-frame execution times from tens of seconds to seconds only, whichallows for a utilization of SchedEx for many time-critical control applications.

Keyword
Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks, Reliable Packet Delivery, TDMA, Multi-channel Scheduling
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24928 (URN)10.1155/2015/178368 (DOI)000364677000001 ()2-s2.0-84947758859 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved
3. Challenges for the use of data aggregation in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges for the use of data aggregation in industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2015 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 138-144 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The provision of quality of service for Wireless Sensor Networks is more relevant than ever now where wireless solutions with their flexibility advantages are considered for the extension/substitution of wired networks for a multitude of industrial applications. Scheduling algorithms that give end-to-end guarantees for both reliability and latency exist, but according to recent investigations is the achieved quality of service insufficient for most control applications. Data aggregation is an effective tool to significantly improve on end-to-end contention and energy efficiency compared to single packet transmissions. In practice, though, it is not extensively used for process data processing on the MAC layer. In this paper, we outline the challenges for the use of data aggregation in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. We further extend SchedEx, a reliability-aware scheduling algorithm extension, for packet aggregation. Our simulations for scheduling algorithms from the literature show its great potential for industrial applications. Features for the inclusion of data aggregation into industrial standards such as WirelessHART are suggested, and remaining open issues for future work are presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keyword
quality of service, telecommunication network reliability, wireless sensor networks, MAC layer, SchedEx, data aggregation, end-to-end contention, energy efficiency, industrial wireless sensor networks, reliability-aware scheduling algorithm, Payloads, Relays, Reliability, Scheduling, Scheduling algorithms, Topology
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26292 (URN)10.1109/CoASE.2015.7294052 (DOI)000380453000021 ()2-s2.0-84952794497 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
11th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2015; Elite Park Avenue HotelGothenburg; Sweden; 24 August 2015 through 28 August 2015; Category numberCFP15ASE-ART; Code 116992
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
4. A Reliability-Aware Cross-layer Optimization Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Reliability-Aware Cross-layer Optimization Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the biggest obstacles for a broad deploymentof Wireless Sensor Networks for industrial applications is the dif-ficulty to ensure end-to-end reliability guarantees while providingas tight latency guarantees as possible. In response, we proposea novel centralized optimization framework for Wireless SensorNetworks that identifies TDMA schedules and routing combi-nations in an integrated manner. The framework is shown toguarantee end-to-end reliability for all events send in a schedulingframe while minimizing the delay of all packet transmissions. Itcan further be applied using alternative Quality of Service ob-jectives and constraints including energy efficiency and fairness.We consider network settings with multiple channels, multiplesinks, and stringent reliability constraints for data collectingflows. We compare the results to those achieved by the onlyscalable reliability-aware TDMA scheduling algorithm to ourknowledge, SchedEx, which conducts scheduling only. By makingrouting part of the problem and by introducing the conceptof source-aware routing, we achieve latency improvements forall topologies, with a notable average improvement of up to31percent.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26293 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2015-11-24Bibliographically approved
5. QoS-Aware Cross-layer Configuration for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoS-Aware Cross-layer Configuration for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 5, 1679-1691 p., 7485858Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In many applications of Industrial Sensor Networks, stringentreliability and maximum delay constraints paired with priority demands ona sensor-basis are present. These QoS requirements pose tough challenges forIndustrial Wireless Sensor Networks that are deployed to an ever largerextent due to their flexibility and extendibility.In this paper, we introduce an integrated cross-layer framework, SchedEx-GA, spanning MAC layer and networklayer. SchedEx-GA attempts to identify a network configuration that fulfills all application-specific process requirements over a topology including the sensorpublish rates, maximum acceptable delay, service differentiation, and eventtransport reliabilities. The network configuration comprisesthe decision for routing, as well as scheduling.

For many of the evaluatedtopologies it is not possible to find a valid configuration due to the physicalconditions of the environment. We therefore introduce a converging algorithm on top of the frameworkwhich configures a given topology by additional sink positioning in order tobuild a backbone with the gateway that guaranteesthe application specific constraints.The results show that, in order to guarantee a high end-to-end reliability of 99.999% for all flows in a network containing emergency, control loop, andmonitoring traffic, a backbone with multiple sinks is often required for thetested topologies. Additional features, such as multi-channel utilization andaggregation, though, can substantially reduce the demand for required sinks.In its present version, the framework is used for centralized control, butwith the potential to be extended for de-centralized control in future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Keyword
Quality if Service, Priority, Wireless Sensor Networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26294 (URN)10.1109/TII.2016.2576964 (DOI)000389219800005 ()2-s2.0-85012039893 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved

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