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3D-oriented fiber networks made by foam forming
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. (Complex Materials)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3977-1892
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. (Complex Materials)
2016 (English)In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 661-671Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In industrial applications, such as paper and nonwovens, cellulose fibers are used in the form of a network where the fibers are oriented more or less in the sheet-plane direction. However, in many biological systems, fibers are instead oriented in a three-dimensional (3D) space, creating a wide variety of functionalities. In this study we created a 3D-oriented fiber network on the laboratory scale and have identified some unique features of its structure and mechanical properties. The 3D fiber network sheets were prepared by using foam-forming as well as modifying consolidation and drying procedures. The fiber orientation and tensile/compression behavior were determined. The resulting sheets were extremely bulky (above 190 cm3/g) and had extremely low stiffness (or high softness) compared to the reference handsheets. Despite this high bulk, the sheets retained good structural integrity. We found that a 3D-oriented fiber network requires much less fiber-fiber contact to create a connected (“percolated”) network than a two-dimensionally oriented network. The compression behavior in the thickness direction was also unique, characterized by extreme compressibility because of its extreme bulk and a long initial increase in the compression load as well as high strain recovery after compression because of its fiber reorientation during compression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2016. Vol. 23, no 1, p. 661-671
Keyword [en]
3D fiber network; Foam forming; Percolation; Compression
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26269DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0811-zISI: 000368802700046Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84955739047OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-26269DiVA, id: diva2:872442
Note

Publ online Nov 2015

The final publication is available at Springer via

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0811-z

Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Foam-formed Fiber Networks: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Numerical Modeling: With a Note on the Orientation Behavior of Rod-like Particles in Newtonian Fluids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Foam-formed Fiber Networks: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Numerical Modeling: With a Note on the Orientation Behavior of Rod-like Particles in Newtonian Fluids
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fiber networks are ubiquitous and are seen in both industrial materials (paper and nonwovens) and biological materials (plant cells and animal tissues). Nature intricately manipulates these network structures by varying their density, aggregation, and fiber orientation to create a variety of functionalities.

In conventional papermaking, fibrous materials are dispersed in water to form a sheet of a highly oriented two-dimensional (2D) network. In such a structure, the in-plane mechanical and transport properties are very different from those in the out-of-plane direction. A three-dimensional (3D) network, however, may offer unique properties not seen in conventional paper products.

Foam, i.e., a dispersed system of gas and liquid, is widely used as the suspending medium in different industries. Recently, foam forming was studied extensively to develop the understanding of foam-fiber interactions in order to find potential applications of this technology in papermaking.

In this thesis, a method for producing low-density, 3D fiber networks by utilizing foam forming is investigated and the structures and mechanical properties of such networks are studied. Micro-computed tomography is used to capture the 3D structure of the network and subsequently to reproduce artificial networks. The finite element method is utilized to model the compression behavior of both the reproduced physical network and the artificial networks in order to understand how the geometry and constitutive elements of the foam-formed network affect its bulk mechanical properties. Additionally, a method was studied in order to quantify the orientation behavior of particles in a laminar Newtonian flow based on the key parameters of the flow which control the orientation.

The resulting foam-formed structures were extremely bulky. Yet despite this high bulk, the fiber networks retained good structural integrity. The compression behavior in the thickness direction was characterized by extreme compressibility and high strain recovery after compression. The results from the modeling showed that the finite-deformation mechanical response of the fiber network in compression was satisfactorily captured by the simulation. However, the artificial network shows higher stiffness than the simulated physical network and the experiment. This discrepancy in stiffness was attributed to macroscopic structural non-uniformities in the physical network, which result in increased local compliance. It was also found that the friction between the fibers, as well as the fiber curvature, had a negligible impact on the compression response of the fiber network, while defects (in the form of kinks) had an effect on the response in the last stages of compression. The study of the orientation behavior of particles at different flow velocities, particle sizes, and channel geometries suggests that it might be possible to utilize the flow shear rate as a means to quantify the orientation behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2018. p. 46
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 278
Keyword
3D fiber network structure, foam forming, numerical modeling, compression simulation, orientation, wall-bounded flow, CFD, Jeffery orbits, LS-DYNA
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33219 (URN)978-91-88527-44-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-28, O102, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 2 inskickat, delarbete 3 och 4 manuskript.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 2 submitted, paper 3 and 4 manuscripts.

Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved

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Alimadadi, MajidUesaka, Tetsu

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