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Three-dimensional Force and Kinematic Interactions in V1 Skating at High Speeds
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Salzburg Univ, Dept Sport Sci & Kinesiol, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. (NVC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6685-1540
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden. (NVC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2015 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 6, 1232-1242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To describe the detailed kinetics and kinematics associated with use of the V1 skating technique at high skiing speeds and to identify factors that predict performance. Methods: Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers performed an incremental roller-skiing speed test (V-peak) on a treadmill using the V1 skating technique. Pole and plantar forces and whole-body kinematics were monitored at four submaximal speeds. Results: The propulsive force of the "strong side'' pole was greater than that of the "weak side'' (P < 0.01), but no difference was observed for the legs. The poles generated approximately 44% of the total propulsion, being more effective than the legs in this respect (similar to 59% vs 11%, P < 0.001). Faster skiers exhibited more well-synchronized poling, exhibited more symmetric edging by and forces from the legs, and were more effective in transformation of resultant forces into propulsion. Cycle length was not correlated with either V-peak or the impulse of total propulsive forces. Conclusions: The present findings provide novel insights into the coordination, kinetics, and kinematics of the arm and leg motion by elite athletes while V1 skating at high speeds. The faster skiers exhibit more symmetric leg motion on the "strong'' and "weak'' sides, as well as more synchronized poling. With respect to methods, the pressure insoles and three-dimensional kinematics in combination with the leg push-off model described here can easily be applied to all skating techniques, aiding in the evaluation of skiing techniques and comparison of effectiveness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 47, no 6, 1232-1242 p.
Keyword [en]
3D KINEMATICS, FORCE COMPONENTS, KINETICS, PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION INSOLES, PROPULSIVE FORCE
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-25683DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000510ISI: 000354745500017PubMedID: 25207933Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84942804569OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-25683DiVA: diva2:849148
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2015-12-22Bibliographically approved

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Stöggl, ThomasHolmberg, Hans-Christer
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