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A Geant4 based framework for pixel detector simulation
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5619-409X
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. CERN, Genève 23, Switzerland.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8325-5177
Show others and affiliations
2014 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 12, C12018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The output from a hybrid pixel detector depends on the interaction of the radiation with the sensor material, the transport of the resulting charge in the sensor, the pulse processing in the readout circuit and processing of the resulting signal. In order to understand the full behaviour of the device and to predict the performance of future devices it is important to have a framework that can simulate the entire process in the detector system.Geant4 is a Monte Carlo based toolkit for simulation of particle interaction with matter which is developed and actively used for CERN experiments and detector development [1]. By extending the Monte Carlo code in Geant4 with a charge carrier transport model of the sensor material and basic amplifier functionality as well as read out logic, a simulation of the complete detector system is possible.The MEDIPIX is a state of the art hybrid pixel detector that allows bonding of a wide range of sensor materials [2,3]. Simulation models have been developed and tested for different chips from the MEDIPIX family. The simulation is defined using configuration files to set the geometry, sensor material properties, number of pixels, pixel pitch and chip properties. Source properties as well as filters and objects in the beam can be added for different experimental set-ups. The interaction of radiation with the sensor is taken into account in the transport of the charge carriers in the sensor material and a current induced in the pixel electrode that triggers an amplifier response. Simulation results have been verified with X-ray fluorescence and radioactive sources using MEDIPIX family chips. In this paper we present the developed simulation framework and first results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 9, no 12, C12018
Keyword [en]
Performance of high energy physics detectors, Simulation methods and programs, Software architectures (event data models, frameworks and databases)
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23708DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/12/C12018ISI: 000351342900002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84918823479Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-23708DiVA: diva2:770988
Conference
16th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monte Carlo and Charge Transport Simulation of Pixel Detector Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monte Carlo and Charge Transport Simulation of Pixel Detector Systems
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about simulation of semiconductor X-ray and particledetectors. The simulation of a novel coating for solid state neutrondetectors is discussed as well as the implementation of a simulationframework for hybrid pixel detectors.Today’s most common thermal neutron detectors are proportionalcounters, that use 3He gas in large tubes or multi wire arrays. Globalnuclear disarmament and the increase in use for homeland securityapplications has created a shortage of the gas which poses a problemfor neutron spallation sources that require higher resolution and largersensors. In this thesis a novel material and clean room compatible pro-cess for neutron conversion are discussed. Simulations and fabricationhave been executed and analysed in measurements. It has been proventhat such a device can be fabricated and detect thermal neutrons.Spectral imaging hybrid pixel detectors like the Medipix chipare the most advanced imaging systems currently available. Thesechips are highly sophisticated with several hundreds of transistors perpixel to enable features like multiple thresholds for noise free photoncounting measurements, spectral imaging as well as time of arrivalmeasurements. To analyse and understand the behaviour of differentsensor materials bonded to the chip and to improve development offuture generations of the chip simulations are necessary. Generally, allparts of the detector system are simulated independently. However, itis favourable to have a simulation framework that is able to combineMonte Carlo particle transport, charge transport in the sensor as wellas analogue and digital response of the pixel read-out electronics. Thisthesis aims to develop such a system that has been developed withGeant4 and analytical semiconductor and electronics models. Further-more, it has been verified with data from measurements with severalMedipix and Timepix sensors as well as TCAD simulations.Results show that such a framework is feasible even for imagingsimulations. It shows great promise to be able to be extended withfuture pixel detector designs and semiconductor materials as well asneutron converters to aim for next generation imaging devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2015. 95 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 215
Keyword
Monte Carlo Simulation, TCAD, pixel detectors, Medipix, Timepix, Finite Element Simulation
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24763 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-06-7 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2015-04-08, M102, Mittuniversitetet, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-31 Created: 2015-03-31 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved
2. Hybrid pixel detectors: Characterization and optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid pixel detectors: Characterization and optimization
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2015. 209 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 228
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26794 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-37-1 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2015-09-08, 13:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2016-12-23Bibliographically approved

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Schübel, ArminKrapohl, DavidFröjdh, ErikFröjdh, ChristerThungström, Göran
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