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Wood Fungi and Forest Fire
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. (Biologi)
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This thesis focuses on wood fungi, and the effect of forest fire on this organism group. In many ways it is a study on adaptation to forest fire, in concurrence with adaptation to dry open habitats. In Paper I we study increased heat resistance in  mycelia from species prevalent in fire prone environments. Fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to different temperatures. Species prevalent in fire affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Based on this results the competitiveness was tested after temperature stress (paper II), three fire associated species, were tested against three non fire associated species. All fire associated species had a clear advantage after heat treatment, conquering a larger volume of wood than its competitor. In paper III we studied the effect of heat shock on decomposition rate, 18 species was tested. Species were cultivated and monitored for CO2 accumulation for 8 weeks and then heat shocked. All species including non fire associated species seemed to up-regulate decomposition after heat shock, this response was more pronounced in fire associated species. To look at the possible effect of forest fire on population structure (Paper IV), we developed 29 SNP/INDELs for Phlebiopsis. gigantea. We amplified the marker containing fragments in 132 individuals of P. gigantea in 6 populations, 3 which were found in areas affected by forest fire and 3 in unaffected areas. We found no genetic structure in accordance to forest fire. However we detected geographic structure, which stands in contrast to earlier studies. This might be due to the method, using SNP´s and number of individuals in the study. Finally we collected cross-sections of decayed logs to evaluate the number of fungal species domains that are likely to be hit when drilling a saw-dust sample in a log. We used these estimates to simulate how many species that will be found by a certain number of samples. We found that in 99% of the

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2014. , 178 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 204
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23062ISBN: 978-91-87557-88-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-23062DiVA: diva2:749482
Public defence
2014-10-03, M111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 11:22 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-25 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2015-03-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Fungal Biology, ISSN 1878-6146, Vol. 116, no 10, 1025-1031 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Forest fire has for a long time been the major stand replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. For organisms to adopt to this phenomenon different strategies for protective measurements has evolved. This study focuses on the organism group of wood fungi, and one of several possibilities for adaptation to forest fire - increased heat resistance in the mycelia. 16 species of wood fungi where selected and sorted a priori according to their prevalence for fire affected substrate. These were isolated and re-inoculated on pine wood before testing. Experiments where done in a series where the mycelia was exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220°C for 5, 10, 15, 20, 15 min. A very clear difference was found, the group containing species with a prevalence for a fire affected substrate had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species with a more general ecology. This data suggests that increased heat resistance in mycelia could be a possible adaptation to forest fire. This in turn has major impacts on the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi. An increase in temperature could shift the population structure in a log, allowing minor non fruiting mycelia content to expand on the expense of earlier dominant colonizers. Furthermore this study has implications on how to control prescribed restoration burning events. When burning areas where the dead wood content is dominated by early decay stages, loss of species can be avoided by proper management.

Keyword
Adaptation; Basidiomycetes; Competition; Dead wood; Ecology; Forest fire; Mycelia; Resistance to heat; Restoration fires; Saprotrophic
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15883 (URN)10.1016/j.funbio.2012.07.005 (DOI)000311182700001 ()2-s2.0-84867427474 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-16 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
2. Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of heat on interspecific competition in saprotrophic wood fungi
2014 (English)In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, Vol. 11, 100-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some boreal wood fungi that are associated with forest fire or open dry habitats have an increased resistance to heat in comparison to species associated with a less specific distribution or species found in mesic forests. We hypothesize that extreme temperature-stress experienced during fires will favor species adapted to heat and, ultimately, the composition of species inhabiting logs in such habitats will change. Competitiveness after temperature stress was examined in three fire-associated species – Dichomitus squalens, Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Phlebiopsis gigantea – and three non fire-associated species – Ischnoderma benzoinum, Phellinus pini and Fomitopsis pinicola. There was a difference between the fire-associated species and the non fire-associated species with respect to competitive strength after heat stress. All fire-associated species had an advantage after heat treatment, colonizing a larger volume of wood than any non-fire-associated competitor. Our findings suggest that increased heat tolerance of mycelia can exert a competitive balance shift after forest fire. It shows that a system governed by forest fire will be dominance controlled under certain conditions. Furthermore, from a management perspective, during a prescribed burning, certain species already present in the ecosystem will be favored if the fire is not allowed to totally consume the substrates.

Keyword
Fungi, fire, dead wood, Basidiomycetes; Community interactions; Forest fire; Heat resistance; Mycelia; Wood fungi
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21408 (URN)10.1016/j.funeco.2014.05.003 (DOI)000342244000011 ()2-s2.0-84906738682 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2015-07-01Bibliographically approved
3. Increased decomposition, triggered by heat shock found in wood fungi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased decomposition, triggered by heat shock found in wood fungi
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wood fungi can be extremely heat resilient: several studies have shown that species can survive highly elevated temperatures relative to their growth optima. In this study we examine the effect of heat shock on subsequent decomposition rates. Sixteen species of wood fungi were tested over a period of 17 weeks. All strains were inoculated on to sterilized pine wood cylinders, placed in small bio chambers and tested twiice a week for CO2 accumulation. After 8 weeks all species were subjected to heat shock. We found that this triggered an increased decomposition rate in all species, this increase peaked 6 weeks after the shock. the peak was higher in wood fungi species that are associated with forest fires compared to specoes with no such association.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23059 (URN)
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
4. Strong clustering in a SNP study of Phlebiopsis gigantea in sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strong clustering in a SNP study of Phlebiopsis gigantea in sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The population structures of wood decaying basidomycetes depend on several factors; one is dispersal pattern of spores, another is age structure including lifespan and also environmental impacts like forest fires. Phlebiopsis gigantea has been shown to be in the group of basidomycetes that have a well developed tolerance to heat, is long-distance wind dispersed and whose fruit body show up early in succession on fallen logs. In a study of 132 individuals from 3 pairs of locations, 350 km apart, in middle to northern Sweden we used 26 SNP-markers in 6 loci to make a genetic clustering study using STRUCTURE (v. 2.3.4.). The hypothesis; first, clustering should follow the geographic sampling locations with more gene flow between geographically close locations, second; that genetic distance between different clusters should be low due to the long distance dispersal of spores, third; as markers are random we don’t expect to find a correlation between locations affected by forest fires and locations not affected by forest fires. In the study we found 5 clusters (Pr[K= 1]) with moderate to high Fst values (0,0697-03939). Clusters had a poor geographical correlation to sampled populations indicating a complicated population structure. Out of 132 individuals 119 had a private genotype showing a large genetic variation over the total area and a low level of clones in the field.         

National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23060 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
5. Testing the probability of finding major decomposing basidiomycetes in logs with T-RFLP - implications for field sampling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing the probability of finding major decomposing basidiomycetes in logs with T-RFLP - implications for field sampling
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this article we examine the limitations and potential of T-RFLP for the accurate detection of fungal species in dead wood. We collected cross-sections of decayed logs to evaluate the number of fungal species domains that are likely to be hit when drilling a sawdust sample from a log. We used these estimates to simulate the number of species that would be found using a certain number of samples. We found that in 99% of the simulations, 4 or fewer species would be contained in a sample. Based on these results we tested the probability of detecting two species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes at three different DNA concentration ratios: 1:1, 1:5 and 1:20. An additional experiment was done with 3-5 species. It was possible to detect all species at ratios higher than 1:20 but lower than 1:5; in this range all peaks were easily detected. We were able to detect all species in the mixtures of 3-5 species, with extracts from both pure cultures and wood.

National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23061 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-09-24 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved

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