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Integration of an interferometric IR absorber into an epoxy membrane based CO2 detector
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. (Detector and Photonics)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. (Detector and Photonics)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. (Detector and Photonics)
SenseAir AB, Delsbo, Sweden.
2014 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 5, p. Art. no. C05035-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements of carbon dioxide levels in the environment are commonly performedby using non-dispersive infrared technology (NDIR). Thermopile detectors are often used in NDIRsystems because of their non-cooling advantages. The infrared absorber has a major influence onthe detector responsivity. In this paper, the fabrication of a SU-8 epoxy membrane based Al/Bithermopile detector and the integration of an interferometric infrared absorber structure of wavelength around 4 µ m into the detector is reported. The membrane of thermopile detector has beenutilized as a dielectric medium in an interferometric absorption structure. By doing so, a reduction in both thermal conductance and capacitance is achieved. In the fabrication of the thermopile,metal evaporation and lift off process had been used for the deposition of serially interconnectedAl/Bi thermocouples. Serial resistance of fabricated thermopile was measured as 220 kΩ. Theresponse of fabricated thermopile detector was measured using a visible to infrared source of radiation flux 3.23 mW mm−2. The radiation incident on the detector was limited using a band passfilter of wavelength 4.26 µ m in front of the detector. A responsivity of 27.86 V mm2W−1at roomtemperature was achieved using this setup. The fabricated detector was compared to a referencedetector with a broad band absorber. From the comparison it was concluded that the integratedinterferometric absorber is functioning correctly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 9, no 5, p. Art. no. C05035-
Keywords [en]
Detector modelling and simulations I (interaction of radiation with matter, interaction of photons with matter, interaction of hadrons with matter, etc); Spectrometers
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21978DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C05035ISI: 000340036100035Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84903641311Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-21978DiVA, id: diva2:719910
Conference
15th INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RADIATION IMAGING DETECTORS 23–27 JUNE 2013,PARIS, FRANCE
Available from: 2014-05-27 Created: 2014-05-27 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design and Integration of Infrared Absorber Structures into Polymer Membranes based Thermal Detectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Integration of Infrared Absorber Structures into Polymer Membranes based Thermal Detectors
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2015. p. 90
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 118
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26176 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-20-3 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Presentation
2015-09-17, O111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-10-30 Last updated: 2017-03-02Bibliographically approved
2. Thermal detector with integrated absorber structure for mid-IR gas detection
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal detector with integrated absorber structure for mid-IR gas detection
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Measurement of the concentration of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), in the atmosphere has received significant attention in the last few decades. This work focusses on the development of high-performance thermopile detectors for use with the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) measurements of such gases. The performance of the thermopile detectors could effectively be increased by selecting membrane materials with a low thermal conductivity value and an efficient infrared (IR) absorbing material and by selecting the materials with high Seebeck coefficient values. Graphite black paint can be used as a radiation absorber, as it has high absorption (80—93%) for a wide spectral range (2.5 μm — 20 μm). By using spray paint or a paint brush, the application of the absorber is simple and fast. However, the control over the processing process suffers with these simple methods. The thermal capacitance of the detector will rapidly increase due to uneven distribution and unknown thickness of the absorber, although the response of the thermopile detector will be maximum due to high absorption; however, the response time (τ th )for the detector will be longer.In order to improve the performance, IR absorbers have been designed to utilise the membrane (SU-8 epoxy) of the detector as an active part of the IR absorber. This utilisation of the SU-8 epoxy membrane will result in a maximum detector sensitivity and a minimum increase in both the thermal capacitance and thermal conductance of the thermopile detector. Absorber structures, based on SU-8 epoxy, with a narrow absorption band at 4.26 µm and a wider multi-layered absorption band at 3-6 µm, were designed, simulated, and fabricated, and their integration into the membrane of thermopile detectors have been presented. The response of the thermopile detector could also be increased by using materials with high Seebeck coefficient [1] values such as semiconductor materials, as they have higher Seebeckvalues compared to the metals. In the thesis, molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) flakes were characterised, and Seebeck values were estimated through a measurement setup as a function of temperature difference (ΔT). The fabricated thermopile detectors were characterised, and the response time(τ th ) of a thermocouple with a multi-layered absorber structure has been estimated to be 21 ms. The detector has shown high responsivity value in the wavelength range of 3 µm – 4.5 µm, which is used for CO 2 and CH 4 detection. The thermopile detector was evaluated for CO 2 gas through a long-path-length NDIR platform. The results show that the evaluated thermopile could be used for the measurement of gas concentration down to levels of a few parts per million (ppm) by using the long-path-length NDIR platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2018. p. 81
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 280
Keywords
Thermal detectors, Thermopile detectors, Infrared absorbers, SU-8 epoxy, Interferometric and Multi-layered absorber, Seebeck coefficient, Molybdenum di-sulfide
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34616 (URN)978-91-88527-48-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-21, L111, Sundsvall, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Personal Email to Author

shakeel.llm@gmail.com

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 5 (inskickat), delarbete 7 (manuskript).

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 5 (submitted), paper 7 (manuscript).

Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2018-10-15Bibliographically approved

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Ashraf, ShakeelMattsson, ClaesThungström, Göran

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