miun.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Mechanical Pulp Based Nano-ligno-cellulose: Production, Characterisation and their Effect on Paper Properties
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Almost all research on biorefinery concepts are based on chemical pulping processes and ways of utilising lignin, hemicelluloses and extractives as well as a part of the remaining cellulose for production of nano materials in order to create more valuable products than today. Within the Forest as a Resource (FORE) research program at FSCN we are utilising the whole chain of unit processes from forestry to final products as paper and board, where the pulping process research focus on high yield process as TMP and CTMP. As these process solutions are preserving or only slightly changing the properties of the original wood polymers and extractives, the idea is to find high value adding products designed by nature.

From an economic perspective, the production of nanocellulose from a chemical pulp is quite expensive as the pulp has to be either enzymatically (e.g. mono-component endoglucanase) pre-treated or chemically oxidised using the TEMPO (2,2,6,6 - tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxil) - mediated oxidation method in order to make it possible to disrupt the fibres by means of homogenisation.

In high yield pulping processes such as in TMP and CTMP, the idea with this study was to investigate the possibility to use fractions of low quality materials from fines fractions for the production of nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC). The integration of a NLC unit process in a high yield pulping production line has a potential to become a future way to improve the quality level of traditional products such as paper and board grades. The intention of this research work was that, by using this concept, a knowledge base can be created so that it becomes possible to develop a low-cost production method for its implementation.

In order to study the potential of this concept, treatment of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) fines fractions were studied by means of homogenisation It seems possible to homogenise fine particles of thermo-mechanical pulp (1% w/v) to NLC. A correspond fines fraction from bleached kraft pulp (BKP) was tested as a reference at 0.5% w/v concentration.

The objective presented in this work was to develop a methodology for producing mechanical pulp based NLC from fines fractions and to utilise this material as strength additives in paper and board grades. Laboratory sheets of CTMP and BKP, with addition of their respective NLC, were made in a Rapid Köthen sheet former. It was found that handsheets of pulp fibres blended with NLC improved the z-strength and other important mechanical properties for similar sheet densities.

The characterisation of the particle size distribution of NLC is both important and challenging and the crill methodology developed at Innventia (former STFI) already during the 1980s was tested to see if it would be both fast and reliable enough. The crill measurement technique is based on the optical responses of a micro/nano particle suspension at two wavelengths of light; UV and IR. The crill value of TMP and CTMP based nano-ligno-cellulose were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill value of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2014. , 76 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 109
Keyword [en]
mechanical pulp, thermo-mechanical pulp, chemi-thermomechanical pulp, fractionation, fines, homogenisation, nanocellulose, nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC), handsheets, strength properties, crill
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21555ISBN: 978-91-87557-42-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-21555DiVA: diva2:703865
Presentation
2014-04-10, O111, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-10 Last updated: 2014-03-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An approach to produce nano-ligno-cellulose from mechanical pulp fine materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approach to produce nano-ligno-cellulose from mechanical pulp fine materials
2013 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 28, no 4, 472-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mechanical pulping, also called high-yield pulping processes, are pulping systems where a great deal of effort is taken with regards to the fractionation in screens and cleaners as well as to optimize process conditions to refine the rejected fractions. The fraction that is rejected for further treatment can vary from 10 to 50% depending on process strategy and final product which can be from printing paper, writing paper, paperboard middle layer and tissue. In practice, it is common that approximately 10% of the pulp fibres and also a large part of the fines fraction have properties that are unsatisfactory in relation to the final products. Part of the less useful fines fraction could instead be used to produce nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC) of high value either in the main product or used for completely different purposes.

In order to study the potential of this concept, treatment of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) fines fractions were studied by means of homogenization. It seems possible to homogenize fine particles of thermo-mechanical pulp (1% w/v) to NLC. A corresponding fines fraction from bleached kraft pulp (BKP) was tested as a reference at 0.5% w/v concentration. This fines (BKP) fraction was very difficult to homogenize at a higher concentration (1% w/v). An explanation for this could be that the BKP fines have much higher cellulose content and lower charge level compared to the fines fraction of the hemicellulose and lignin-rich TMP. Fibre length-weighteddistribution plays a vital role with respect to both pressure fluctuations and clogging during treatment in the homogenizing equipment.

 

Keyword
Mechanical Pulp, Fractionation, Fines, Fibre length-weighted distribution, Nano-ligno-cellulose
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20810 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2013-28-04-p472-479 (DOI)000328642400001 ()2-s2.0-84891873926 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2016-10-10Bibliographically approved
2. Crill: A novel technique to characterize nano-ligno-cellulose
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crill: A novel technique to characterize nano-ligno-cellulose
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 2, 190-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The CrillEye is a technique for qualitatively assessing loose slender and fibrillar particles created during pulping. It has also been demonstrated that the crill measurement technique can easily be used to measure the degree of fibrillation of mechanical pulp based nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC). The measurement technique is based on an optical response of a suspension at two wavelengths of light; UV and IR. The UV light contains information on both fibres and crill, while IR only contains information on fibres. The resolution on the CrillEye module is based on optical response of the pulp and on an analogue signal analysis making it concentration independent. Characterization of particle-size distribution of nano-ligno-cellulose is both important and challenging. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to study the crill values of TMP and CTMP based nano-ligno-celluloses as a function of homogenization time. Results showed that the crill value of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated fairly well with the homogenization time.

Keyword
Crill, Fractionation, Homogenization, Mechanical pulp fines, Nano-ligno-cellulose
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21573 (URN)000338336400001 ()2-s2.0-84901797617 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-12 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
3. Paper strength improvement by inclusion of nano-ligno-cellulose to Chemi-thermomechanical pulp
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paper strength improvement by inclusion of nano-ligno-cellulose to Chemi-thermomechanical pulp
2014 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 29, no 2, 309-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

So far, chemical pulp fibres have been utilized as conventional stock materials for nanocellulose production. The main aim of this work is to use stock materials from mechanical or chemi-thermomechanical pulping process to produce lignin containing nanofibres, which are referred to as nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC) in this study. The present study shows the influence on handsheets of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) fibres blended with NLC. For comparison reasons, nanocellulose (NC) from bleached kraft pulp (BKP) was produced in a similar approach as NLC. Both the NLC and the NC were blended with their respective pulp fibres and their corresponding handsheets properties were evaluated with respect to sheet density. It was found that the handsheets of pulp fibres blended with NLC/NC improved the mechanical properties of handsheets with only a slight effect in relation to the sheet density. Improvements in strength properties of handsheets such as z-strength, tensile index, tear index, burst index, E-modulus, strain at break, tensile stiffness, air resistance were observed.

Keyword
Ctmp, Fractionation, Handsheet, Mechanical strength properties, Nano-ligno-cellulose
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21574 (URN)000338336400016 ()2-s2.0-84901744901 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-12 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Osong's Lic. thesis(2716 kB)2113 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2716 kBChecksum SHA-512
cbdc5e6e0d305cc020419752ea96e506b93b61b6135191aa74dd246e0c404112d4bb8a23c97fc2b31578c524ce08df3f65f38de3817a16721f84a1824a49cd0c
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Osong, Sinke Henshaw
By organisation
Department of Chemical Engineering
Chemical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 2113 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 2988 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf