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Kombinatörer och livsstilsföretagare - även samhällsentreprenörer?
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. (SESPA)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0375-8576
2014 (Swedish)In: Samhällsentreprenörskap: samverkande för lokal utveckling / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs, Malin Gawell och Joakim Wincent, Sweden, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2014, 1, p. 127-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Nästan hälften av alla företagare i Sverige är kombinatörer. Det är främst personer som har en anställning som blir kombinatörer genom att de startar företag. Arbetsformen gör det möjligt att testa sin idé utan att förlora den trygghet det innebär med en fast inkomst varje månad. Men blir man kombinatör bara för att testa sin idé och gå mot eget företagande på heltid, eller finns det andra motiv till varför man väljer denna arbetsform, till exempel för att det är en livsstil? Har den lokala och regionala platsen någon betydelse? Dessa frågeställningar kommer bland annat detta kapitel att försöka besvara med hjälp av enkäter och intervjuer med personer inom den kreativa näringen. Den kreativa näringen är vald för att den dels representerar en näring som fått stor uppmärksamhet inom både forskning och näringsliv de senaste åren, framförallt efter Florida:s (2004) bok om den kreativa klassen. Näringen spås även bidra starkt till den ekonomiska tillväxten i framtiden (Howkins 2002, Florida et al. 2008). Den är också vald för att det är en näring som kanske attraherar fler kombinatörer då den bland annat representerar artister, konstnärer och musiker som kan ha svårt att överleva på sitt företag. Respondenterna i det här kapitlet är, har varit eller vill bli kombinatörer och är bosatta i Gävleborgs- och Jämtlands län. Personerna inom den kreativa näringen värnar om varandra och kämpar på, trots att det finns ett antal hinder på vägen. Intresset och passionen de har för sitt företag samt sin region övervinner enligt dem allt, vilket gör dem till en samhällsaktör att räkna med. Dessa personer startar företag för att de i många fall vill utveckla sin hobby men också för att de vill bo kvar på orten och bidra till ortens överlevnad.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sweden, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2014, 1. p. 127-148
Series
Social Science Reports from Mid Sweden University ; 2014:5
Keywords [sv]
Kombinatörer, livsstilsföretagare, samhällsentreprenörer
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21355ISBN: 978-91-87557-33-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-21355DiVA, id: diva2:699488
Projects
SESPAAvailable from: 2014-02-27 Created: 2014-02-18 Last updated: 2015-02-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Passionate Combining Entrepreneurs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Passionate Combining Entrepreneurs
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurs are portrayed as salient drivers of regional development and for a number of years nascent entrepreneurs have been studied in a large number of countries as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project and the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics. Scholars have devoted much effort to investigating factors that determine how individuals engage in entrepreneurial activities, with most of the discussion limited to business start-ups. However, since this type of project does not follow identical nascent entrepreneurs over time, limited knowledge exists about their development and whether they stay in this nascent phase for a long time. In practice, it is common for entrepreneurs to run a business and at the same time work in wage work, so-called combining entrepreneurs. In Sweden, almost half of all business owners combine wage work with a business. However, not all combining entrepreneurs will eventually decide to leave the wage work and invest fully in the business. Consequently, much research has focused on the first step of entering entrepreneurship full time, but less has focused on the second step, the transition from the combining phase to full-time self-employment. The aim of this thesis is therefore to contribute to the theory of entrepreneurship by gaining a deeper understanding of combining entrepreneurs and their motives and intentions.

 

In the context of combining entrepreneurs, the theory of identity, resources and choice overload has been used to examine how entrepreneurs’ age (when starting the business), entrepreneurial tenure (the length of engagement in the side-business), hours spent (weekly involvement in the side-business), involvement in entrepreneurial teams (leading the business with one or more partners) and involvement in networks (business networks) influence their passion for engaging in entrepreneurship while sustaining wage work. Different categories of combining entrepreneurs and their intentions have also been examined.

 

A survey was administered to 1457 entrepreneurs within the creative sector in two counties in Sweden (Gävleborgs County and Jämtlands County). Since there were no separate mailing lists to only combining entrepreneurs, the survey was sent to all entrepreneurs within the chosen industry and counties. The total response rate was 33.5 percent and of them 57.6 percent combined, yielding 262 combining entrepreneurs who answered the questionnaire. The survey was then followed up with eight focus group interviews and two single interviews to validate the answers from the questionnaire.

 

The results indicate three types of combining entrepreneurs: nascent – with the intention to leave the combining phase for a transition into full-time self-employment, lifestyle – with the intention to stay in the combining phase, and occasional – with the intention to leave the combining phase for full-time wage work and close down the business. Transitioning fully to self-employment increases with the individual’s age. Also, a positive interactive effect exists with involvement in entrepreneurial networks. The results also indicate that the ability to work with something one is passionate about is the top motive for combining wage work with a side-business. Passion is also more likely to be the main motive behind the combining form among individuals who are older at business start-up, but passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the combining form among individuals who spend more time on the business. The longer the individual has had the side-business, the less likely passion is the main motive behind the combining form, and passion is less likely to be the main motive among those who are part of an entrepreneurial team.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2015. p. 273
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 214
Keywords
Combining entrepreneurs, hybrid entrepreneurs, self-employment, nascent entrepreneurs, lifestyle entrepreneurs, occasional entrepreneurs, passion, entrepreneurial tenure, entrepreneurial teams, choice, logistic regression
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-24440 (URN)978-91-88025-02-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-27, F229, Östersund, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Avhandlingen baseras på fem delarbeten, tre var opublicerade vid tidpunkten för disputationen, två länkas här.

Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved

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Nordström, Carin

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