miun.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Comparison of the g3 and g4 skating techniques in cross-country skiing
(Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
Center for Elite Sports Research, Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
2013 (English)In: Proceeding for the the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, 94- p.Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: The five predominant skating techniques employed in cross-country skiing can be classified from gear 1 to 5, where the skier’s speed and incline of the track determine the gear chosen. The third (G3) and fourth gears (G4) both involve symmetrical double poling, but G3 includes two poling actions per cycle (i.e., poling together with each leg push-off) and G4 only one (i.e., poling together with the leg push-off on the strong side and a forward arm swing in combination with the leg push-off on the weak side). Our purpose was to directly compare these two techniques, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been done.

METHODS: Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers (age 24 ± 4 yrs, body mass 74 ± 7 kg, body height 180 ± 5 cm, VO2peak 70.6 ± 4.2 ml·min-1·kg-1) performed 4 minutes of submaximal roller skiing using the G3 skating technique at 14 km h-1 on a 5% incline and 4 minutes of submaximal roller skiing using the G4 skating technique at 20 km h-1 on a 2% incline on two consecutive days. Based on previous testing and training, these inclines were considered most appropriate for each specific technique, and the selected speeds achieved equal exercise intensities (oxygen uptake: 51.4 ± 2.5 and 51.5 ± 4.6 ml·min-1·kg-1, and blood lactate: 2.7 ± 1.1 and 2.5 ± 1.5 mmol·L-1 for G3 and G4, respectively). In addition to physiological responses, cycle characteristics, the resultant ski forces and other ski kinetics were measured.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Work rate was 22% higher with G3 (203 ± 20 versus 167 ± 17 W, P<0.001), resulting in an absolute difference in gross efficiency of 2.4% (15.3 ± 0.8 versus 12.9 ± 1.3%, P<0.001), primarily an effect of incline. Cycle time was longer (2.04 ± 0.15 versus 1.73 ± 0.11 sec) and thus the cycle rate lower (0.50 ± 0.04 versus 0.58 ± 0.05 Hz) with G3. With G3, approximately 60% of the cycle time was spend with the ski on the ground and 40% in the ski swing phase without any significant differences between both skis. In G4, significant differences between the strong and weak side were found with a relative ground contact time of approximately 66% for the strong side and 59% for the weak side (P<0.001). Differences between the strong and weak side in G4 were also found in the resultant ski forces (with 7% higher peak forces on the weak side), the center of pressure on the skis, the speed of the skis (with a 15% lower speed of the weak side ski at ski lift-off) and the orientation angle to the forward direction (with a wider angle of the weak side ski during the entire ground contact phase). All of these differences could be explained by the effect of poling on the strong side and the poling recovery phase with a forward arm swing on the weak side. In the case of G3, there were no such differences between the two skis.

CONCLUSION: This study revealed distinct differences between the G3 and G4 skating techniques, such that the former can be regarded as symmetrical and the latter as asymmetrical. It was found that poling influences the leg work considerably. Furthermore, with G4 significant differences between the two skis were detected, a novel finding not reported previously.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. 94- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20924ISBN: 978-3-200-03417-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-20924DiVA: diva2:683032
Conference
International Congress on Science and Skiing
Projects
Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre
Available from: 2014-01-01 Created: 2014-01-01 Last updated: 2014-01-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

https://www.icss2013.at/uploads/media/ICSS2013_BOA_09122013_web.pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Holmberg, Hans-Christer
By organisation
Department of Health Sciences
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Total: 155 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf