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INTEGRATIVE BIOMECHANICS AND PHYSIOLOGY IN C-C SKIING
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2013 (English)In: Proceedings for the 6th International Congress on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Josef Kröll, Stefan Josef Lindinger, Jurgen Pfusterschmied, Thomas Stöggl, 2013, 7-7 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Because they possess well-developed and unique physical capacities, cross-country (c-c) skiers have been of special interest for research in exercise science [1,2]. Early on, much of this research aimed to improve our understanding of the physiological characteristics of the athletes and the energy demands made on them in connection with various modes of skiing. As the sport has evolved, technical aspects have received more and more attention and combining physiological and biomechanical approaches have provided new insights. 

C-c skiing involves several different techniques, a complexity that presents considerable technical, as well as cognitive challenges during a race. In response to changes in velocity, the inclination of the slope, and snow conditions, the skier must often choose between techniques that differ with respect to kinematics, kinetics, and the distribution of the workload between the muscles of the upper and lower body. Recent investigations on the physiology associated with the mechanical demands made by these techniques has revealed much about the responses of the arms and legs to the competing requirements placed by different types of exercise. Furthermore, elite skiers demonstrate unique combinations of well-developed aerobic and anaerobic capacities. Moreover, both their upper and lower extremities are capable of generating high forces and power and the muscles there contain rich capillary beds and abundant mitochondria, factors that exert an appreciable influence on the performance of endurance sports.

To date, most research on c-c skiing has been performed in the laboratory and more studies in the field/on snow and/or during competition are desirable [3]. Such evaluations would provide insights into the factors that determine performance in connection with the various racing disciplines, as well as into why and when skiers use the different techniques. They should also clarify further the significance of pacing and the differences between roller-skiing and skiing on snow. Fortunately, recent technological advances and innovations, with lighter equipment and higher accuracy, allow the recording of velocity and position with enhanced precision, providing biomechanical measurements in real time and more rapid feedback to the athlete.

Clearly, integration of biomechanical and physiological approaches and application of modern technology have tremendous potential to reveal new information concerning the factors the determine performance in c-c skiing, thereby helping to improve this performance.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.  Calbet JA, Jensen-Urstad M, van Hall G, Holmberg HC, Rosdahl H, Saltin B. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology. 2004. 558(Pt 1):319-31.
  2. 2.  Holmberg H-C, Rosdahl H, Svedenhag J. Lung function, arterial saturation and oxygen uptake in elite cross country skiers: influence of exercise mode. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2007. 17(4):437-44.
  3. 3.  Sandbakk O, Holmberg H-C. A Reappraisal of Success Factors for Olympic Cross-Country Skiing. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2013.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. 7-7 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20923ISBN: 978-3-200-03417-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-20923DiVA: diva2:683031
Conference
6th International Congress on Science and Skiing
Available from: 2014-01-01 Created: 2014-01-01 Last updated: 2014-01-02Bibliographically approved

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