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An approach to produce nano-ligno-cellulose from mechanical pulp fine materials
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
2013 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 28, no 4, 472-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mechanical pulping, also called high-yield pulping processes, are pulping systems where a great deal of effort is taken with regards to the fractionation in screens and cleaners as well as to optimize process conditions to refine the rejected fractions. The fraction that is rejected for further treatment can vary from 10 to 50% depending on process strategy and final product which can be from printing paper, writing paper, paperboard middle layer and tissue. In practice, it is common that approximately 10% of the pulp fibres and also a large part of the fines fraction have properties that are unsatisfactory in relation to the final products. Part of the less useful fines fraction could instead be used to produce nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC) of high value either in the main product or used for completely different purposes.

In order to study the potential of this concept, treatment of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) fines fractions were studied by means of homogenization. It seems possible to homogenize fine particles of thermo-mechanical pulp (1% w/v) to NLC. A corresponding fines fraction from bleached kraft pulp (BKP) was tested as a reference at 0.5% w/v concentration. This fines (BKP) fraction was very difficult to homogenize at a higher concentration (1% w/v). An explanation for this could be that the BKP fines have much higher cellulose content and lower charge level compared to the fines fraction of the hemicellulose and lignin-rich TMP. Fibre length-weighteddistribution plays a vital role with respect to both pressure fluctuations and clogging during treatment in the homogenizing equipment.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 28, no 4, 472-479 p.
Keyword [en]
Mechanical Pulp, Fractionation, Fines, Fibre length-weighted distribution, Nano-ligno-cellulose
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20810DOI: 10.3183/NPPRJ-2013-28-04-p472-479ISI: 000328642400001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84891873926OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-20810DiVA: diva2:681118
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2016-10-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanical Pulp Based Nano-ligno-cellulose: Production, Characterisation and their Effect on Paper Properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Pulp Based Nano-ligno-cellulose: Production, Characterisation and their Effect on Paper Properties
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Almost all research on biorefinery concepts are based on chemical pulping processes and ways of utilising lignin, hemicelluloses and extractives as well as a part of the remaining cellulose for production of nano materials in order to create more valuable products than today. Within the Forest as a Resource (FORE) research program at FSCN we are utilising the whole chain of unit processes from forestry to final products as paper and board, where the pulping process research focus on high yield process as TMP and CTMP. As these process solutions are preserving or only slightly changing the properties of the original wood polymers and extractives, the idea is to find high value adding products designed by nature.

From an economic perspective, the production of nanocellulose from a chemical pulp is quite expensive as the pulp has to be either enzymatically (e.g. mono-component endoglucanase) pre-treated or chemically oxidised using the TEMPO (2,2,6,6 - tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxil) - mediated oxidation method in order to make it possible to disrupt the fibres by means of homogenisation.

In high yield pulping processes such as in TMP and CTMP, the idea with this study was to investigate the possibility to use fractions of low quality materials from fines fractions for the production of nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC). The integration of a NLC unit process in a high yield pulping production line has a potential to become a future way to improve the quality level of traditional products such as paper and board grades. The intention of this research work was that, by using this concept, a knowledge base can be created so that it becomes possible to develop a low-cost production method for its implementation.

In order to study the potential of this concept, treatment of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) fines fractions were studied by means of homogenisation It seems possible to homogenise fine particles of thermo-mechanical pulp (1% w/v) to NLC. A correspond fines fraction from bleached kraft pulp (BKP) was tested as a reference at 0.5% w/v concentration.

The objective presented in this work was to develop a methodology for producing mechanical pulp based NLC from fines fractions and to utilise this material as strength additives in paper and board grades. Laboratory sheets of CTMP and BKP, with addition of their respective NLC, were made in a Rapid Köthen sheet former. It was found that handsheets of pulp fibres blended with NLC improved the z-strength and other important mechanical properties for similar sheet densities.

The characterisation of the particle size distribution of NLC is both important and challenging and the crill methodology developed at Innventia (former STFI) already during the 1980s was tested to see if it would be both fast and reliable enough. The crill measurement technique is based on the optical responses of a micro/nano particle suspension at two wavelengths of light; UV and IR. The crill value of TMP and CTMP based nano-ligno-cellulose were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill value of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 76 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 109
Keyword
mechanical pulp, thermo-mechanical pulp, chemi-thermomechanical pulp, fractionation, fines, homogenisation, nanocellulose, nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC), handsheets, strength properties, crill
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21555 (URN)978-91-87557-42-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-04-10, O111, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-12 Created: 2014-03-10 Last updated: 2014-03-12Bibliographically approved
2. Mechanical Pulp-Based Nanocellulose: Processing and applications relating to paper and paperboard, composite films, and foams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Pulp-Based Nanocellulose: Processing and applications relating to paper and paperboard, composite films, and foams
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with processing of nanocellulose originating from pulps, with focus on mechanical pulp fibres and fines fractions. The nanocellulose materials produced within this research project were tested for different purposes ranging from strength additives in paper and paperboard products, via composite films to foam materials. TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp & Paper Industry) has recently suggested a standard terminology and nomenclature for nanocellulose materials (see paper I). In spite of that we have decided to use the terms nano-ligno-cellulose (NLC), microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanocellulose (NC) in this thesis . It is well-known that mainly chemical pulps are used as starting material in nanocellulose production. However, chemical pulps as bleached sulphite and bleached kraft are quite expensive. One more cost-effective alternative can be to use fibres or fines fractions from thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) and chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP).

 

In paper II-IV, fractionation has been used to obtain fines fractions that can easily be mechanically treated using homogenisation. The idea with this study was to investigate the possibility to use fractions of low quality materials from fines fractions for the production of nanocellulose. The integration of a nanocellulose unit process in a high-yield pulping production line has a potential to become a future way to improve the quality level of traditional products such as paper and paperboard grades.

 

Paper III describes how to utilise the crill measurement technique as a tool for qualitative estimation of the amount of micro- and nano-material produced in a certain process. The crill values of TMP- and CTMP-based nanocelluloses were measured as a function of the homogenisation time. Results showed that the crill values of both TMP-NLC and CTMP-NLC correlated with the homogenisation time. In Paper V pretreating methods, hydrogen peroxide and TEMPO are evaluated. Crill measurement showed that hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (1% and 4%) and mechanical treatment time did not improve fibrillation efficiency as much as expected. However, for TEMPO-oxidised nanocelluloses, the crill value significantly increased with both the TEMPO chemical treatment and mechanical treatment time. In paper V-VII TEMPO-mediated oxidation systems (TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO) are applied to these fibres (CTMP and Sulphite pulp) in order to swell them so that it becomes easy to disrupt the fibres into nanofibres with mechanical treatment.

 

The demand for paperboard and other packaging materials are steadily increasing. Paper strength properties are crucial when the paperboard is to withstand high load. A solution that are investigated in papers IV and VI, is to use MFC as an alternative paper strength additive in papermaking. However, if one wish to target extremely higher strength improvement results, particularly for packaging paperboards, then it would be fair to use MFC or cationic starch (CS). In paper VI CS or TEMPO-based MFC was used to improve the strength properties of CTMP-based paperboard products. Results here indicate significant strength improvement with the use of different levels of CS (i.e., 20 and 10 kg t–1) and 5% MFC. The strengthening impact of 5% MFC was approximately equal to that of 10 kg t–1 of CS.

 

In paper VII, NFC and nanographite (NG) was used when producing composite films with enhanced sheet-resistance and mechanical properties. The films produced being quite stable, flexible, and bendable. Realising this concept of NFC-NG composite film would create new possibilities for technological advancement in the area of high-yield pulp technology.  Finally, in paper VIII, a new processing method for nanocellulose is introduced  where an organic acid (i.e., formic acid) is used. This eco-friendly approach has shown to be successful, a nanocellulose with a uniform size distribution has been produced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2016. 93 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 245
Keyword
mechanical pulp, thermo-mechanical pulp, chemi-thermomechanical pulp, fractionation, fines, homogenisation, nanocellulose, nano-ligno-cellulose, microfibrillated cellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose, paper, strength properties, crill, TEMPO, nanographite (NG), composite films
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29076 (URN)978-91-88025-64-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-22, O102, Holmgatan 10, SE-851 70, Sundsvall, 10:56 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Vid tidpunkten för disputationen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 5 och 7 inskickade, delarbete 6 och 8 manuskript.

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 5 and 7 submitted, paper 6 and 8 manuscripts.

Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2017-02-28Bibliographically approved

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