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The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique
CeRiSM (Research Center Sport Mountain and Health), Rovereto, Italy .
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
CeRiSM (Research Center Sport Mountain and Health), Rovereto, Italy .
CeRiSM (Research Center Sport Mountain and Health), Rovereto, Italy .
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 6, 1512-1519 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSCEFF) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSCEFF was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V-max). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of Vmax). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSCEFF was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSCEFF (from 0.9 +/- 0.3 to 1.3 +/- 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 +/- 0.4 to 1.5 +/- 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 +/- 33 to 290 +/- 36 N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSCEFF was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 23, no 6, 1512-1519 p.
Keyword [en]
Effectiveness, Elbow joint, EMG, Performance, Pre-activation, Stretch shortening cycle
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20665DOI: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.08.013ISI: 000326872800037Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84887259284OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-20665DiVA: diva2:678662
Available from: 2013-12-12 Created: 2013-12-11 Last updated: 2013-12-12Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, Hans-Christer
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