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Scrutinizing Bit- and Symbol-Errors of IEEE 802.15.4 Communication in Industrial Environments
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 63, no 7, 1783-1794 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The knowledge of error nature in wireless channels is an essential constituent of efficient communication protocol design. To this end, this paper is the first comprehensive bit- and symbol-level analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 transmission errors in industrial environments. The intention with this paper is to extract the error properties relevant for future improvements of wireless communication reliability and coexistence of radio systems in these harsh conditions. An extensive set of bit-error traces was collected in a variety of scenarios and industrial environments, showing that error behavior is highly dependent on the cause of packet corruption. It is shown that errors inflicted by multipath fading and attenuation exhibit different properties than those imposed by IEEE 802.11 interference. The statistical behavior of these two patterns is concurrently investigated in terms of differences in bit-error distribution, error burst length, channel memory length, and the scale of packet corruption. With these conclusions at hand, abiding to the computational constraints of embedded sensors and the statistical properties of bit-errors, a Reed-Solomon $(15,k)$ block code is chosen to investigate the implications of bit-error nature on practical aspects of channel coding and interleaving. This paper is concluded by a number of findings of high practical relevance, concerning the optimal type, depth, and meaningfulness of interleaving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 63, no 7, 1783-1794 p.
Keyword [en]
Error patterns, forward error correction (FEC), IEEE 802.15.4, industrial wireless sensor network (WSN), interleaving
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20489DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2013.2293235ISI: 000337111700014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84902375469Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-20489DiVA: diva2:676507
Projects
COINS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Published online 02 January 2014

Available from: 2013-12-06 Created: 2013-12-06 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Error mitigation in industrial wireless sensor networks: Corrupted packet forensics and recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Error mitigation in industrial wireless sensor networks: Corrupted packet forensics and recovery
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are gradually penetrating the industrial automation domain. This process is, however, inhibited by a number of challenges that need to be considered and addressed before WSN can serve the most demanding industrial applications. In the context of process automation, existing technology can only serve the three least critical application classes related to non-critical monitoring of slowly-changing physical variables. The main issue in that respect is the insufficient communication timeliness and reliability, caused by the influence of harsh radio environment and the infeasibility of applying advanced communication techniques, due to the poor computational power of low-cost specialized hardware. The goal of this work is to improve wireless communication reliability in industrial environments, where the proposed solutions are generally applicable to other WSN domains as well as radio environments. This research is based on the notion that corrupt packets contain valuable channel state information that can be leveraged to improve communication robustness. The research methodology used in this work is rather unconventional, compared to existing research, but also highly intuitive, bearing in mind that counteracting a phenomenon requires a thorough knowledge of its properties. In order to rectify the aforementioned challenges, this work makes the following three contributions. The first contribution is a comprehensive analysis of communication errors recorded in practically relevant scenarios in a number of industrial environments. The related literature is seemingly rich, but essentially poor, due to inadequate measurement objectives, environments, and scenarios. The main research outcome of this measurement campaign is a set of practically relevant conclusions, which can be used for the design of coding, interleaving and packet recovery schemes. The second contribution is the design of two packet recovery schemes, based on the knowledge about error patterns obtained in the industrial measurement campaign. The first scheme is a proposal for redefinition of the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer, where digital errors are counteracted at the earliest stage in the receiver chain. The second scheme exploits the determinism in packet structure inherent to industrial communication. Both schemes significantly improve the correctability of corrupted packets received. The third contribution is a channel diagnostics algorithm that determines whether a packet was corrupt by multipath fading and attenuation or by wireless local area network interference. The algorithm is derived from the error traces collected in three industrial environments and tested at a fourth, previously unused, industrial site. The results of live tests verify the ability of the proposed algorithm to promptly reestablish communication after a sudden deterioration of channel quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet, 2016. 158 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 239
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-28759 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-88025-54-8 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2016-03-02, Sundsvall, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2017-06-29Bibliographically approved

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