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The physiological and biomechanical contributions of poling to roller ski skating
Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway .
Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway .
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (NVC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3814-6246
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 8, 1979-1987 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Poling is considered to make a significant contribution to cross-country skiing with the skating technique. To better understand this contribution, the current investigation compared roller ski skating on a treadmill with the so-called G3 skating technique with (G3-P) and without poling (G3-NP). Seven male elite skiers performed 5-min submaximal tests at 8, 12, and 15 km h(-1), as well as an incremental test to exhaustion with both techniques on a 5 % incline. Ventilatory variables were assessed by open-circuit indirect calorimetry and three-dimensional kinematics analyzed using the Qualisys Pro Reflex system. G3-P was associated with approximately 15 % higher peak velocity and 10 % higher peak oxygen uptake than G3-NP in the incremental test (both P < 0.01). All ventilatory variables, as well as heart rate and blood lactate concentration were lower with G3-P as compared to G3-NP at 12 and 15 km h(-1) (all P < 0.01). Gross efficiency (i.e., the ratio of work rate to metabolic rate) at 12 km h(-1) was higher in G3-P (14.9 %) than G3-NP (13.5 %) (P < 0.01). Moreover, with G3-P cycle time and length were both 30 % longer, with correspondingly reduced cycle rates (all P < 0.01). In addition, the ski gliding and swing phases were longer and the angle between the skis smaller with G3-P (both P < 0.01), whereas the push-off time was independent of technique and velocity. Taken together, these results indicate that poling makes an important contribution to propulsion and velocity during ski skating, specifically by enhancing peak oxygen uptake, skiing efficiency and associated biomechanical variables.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 113, no 8, 1979-1987 p.
Keyword [en]
Blood lactate concentration, Center of mass movement, Cross-country skiing, Cycle length, Cycle rate, Oxygen uptake, Ski angle, Work economy
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19934DOI: 10.1007/s00421-013-2629-4ISI: 000321959200007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84880842834OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-19934DiVA: diva2:654791
Available from: 2013-10-08 Created: 2013-09-25 Last updated: 2013-12-04Bibliographically approved

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