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Low Complexity Background Subtraction for Wireless Vision Sensor Node
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1923-3843
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6484-9260
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
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2013 (English)In: Proceedings - 16th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design, DSD 2013, 2013, 681-688 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless vision sensor nodes consist of limited resources such as energy, memory, wireless bandwidth and processing. Thus it becomes necessary to investigate lightweight vision tasks. To highlight the foreground objects, many machine vision applications depend on the background subtraction technique. Traditional background subtraction approaches employ recursive and non-recursive techniques and store the whole image in memory. This raises issues like complexity on hardware platform, energy requirements and latency. This work presents a low complexity background subtraction technique for a hardware implemented VSN. The proposed technique utilizes existing image scaling techniques for scaling down the image. The downscaled image is stored in memory of microcontroller which is already there for transmission. For subtraction operation, the background pixels are generated in real time through up scaling. The performance, and memory requirements of the system is compared for four image scaling techniques including nearest neighbor, averaging, bilinear, and bicubic. The results show that a system with lightweight scaling techniques, i.e., nearest neighbor and averaging, up to a scaling factor of 8, missed on average less than one object as compared to a system which uses a full original background image. The proposed approach will reduce the cost, design/implementation complexity and the memory requirement by a factor of up to 64.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. 681-688 p.
Keyword [en]
wireless vision sensor node, background subtraction, Smart camera, low complexity.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-19204DOI: 10.1109/DSD.2013.77Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84890108886Local ID: STCISBN: 978-076955074-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-19204DiVA: diva2:627936
Conference
16th Euromicro Conference On Digital System Design; 4-6 Sep 2013; Santander, Spain
Available from: 2013-06-12 Created: 2013-06-12 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy Efficient and Programmable Architecture for Wireless Vision Sensor Node
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient and Programmable Architecture for Wireless Vision Sensor Node
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless Vision Sensor Networks (WVSNs) is an emerging field which has attracted a number of potential applications because of smaller per node cost, ease of deployment, scalability and low power stand alone solutions. WVSNs consist of a number of wireless Vision Sensor Nodes (VSNs). VSN has limited resources such as embedded processing platform, power supply, wireless radio and memory.  In the presence of these limited resources, a VSN is expected to perform complex vision tasks for a long duration of time without battery replacement/recharging. Currently, reduction of processing and communication energy consumptions have been major challenges for battery operated VSNs. Another challenge is to propose generic solutions for a VSN so as to make these solutions suitable for a number of applications.

To meet these challenges, this thesis focuses on energy efficient and programmable VSN architecture for machine vision systems which can classify objects based on binary data. In order to facilitate generic solutions, a taxonomy has been developed together with a complexity model which can be used for systems’ classification and comparison without the need for actual implementation. The proposed VSN architecture is based on tasks partitioning between a VSN and a server as well as tasks partitioning locally on the node between software and hardware platforms. In relation to tasks partitioning, the effect on processing, communication energy consumptions, design complexity and lifetime has been investigated.

The investigation shows that the strategy, in which front end tasks up to segmentation, accompanied by a bi-level coding, are implemented on Field Programmable Platform (FPGA) with small sleep power, offers a generalized low complexity and energy efficient VSN architecture. The implementation of data intensive front end tasks on hardware reconfigurable platform reduces processing energy. However, there is a scope for reducing communication energy, related to output data. This thesis also explores data reduction techniques including image coding, region of interest coding and change coding which reduces output data significantly.

For proof of concept, VSN architecture together with tasks partitioning, bi-level video coding, duty cycling and low complexity background subtraction technique has been implemented on real hardware and functionality has been verified for four applications including particle detection system, remote meter reading, bird detection and people counting. The results based on measured energy values shows that, depending on the application, the energy consumption can be reduced by a factor of approximately 1.5 up to 376 as compared to currently published VSNs. The lifetime based on measured energy values showed that for a sample period of 5 minutes, VSN can achieve 3.2 years lifetime with a battery of 37.44 kJ energy. In addition to this, proposed VSN offers generic architecture with smaller design complexity on hardware reconfigurable platform and offers easy adaptation for a number of applications as compared to published systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2013. 115 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 167
Keyword
Wireless Vision Sensor Node, Smart camera, Wireless Vision Sensor Networks, Architecture, Video coding.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-20179 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87557-12-5 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2013-10-22, M108, holmgatan 10,SE 85170, sundsvall, 10:03 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-11-11 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved

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