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Fibre-Optic Displacement and Temperature Sensing Using Coupling Based Intensity Modulation and Polarisation Modulation Techniques
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Optical fibre sensors are employed in the measurements of a number of different physical properties or for event detection in safety and security systems. In those environments which suffer from electromagnetic disturbance, in harsh environments where electronics cannot survive and in applications in favour of distributed detection, fibre-optic sensors have found natural areas of use. In some cases they have replaced conventional electronic sensors due to better performance and long-term reliability, but in others they have had less success mainly due to the higher costs which are often involved in fibre-optic sensor systems.

Intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors normally require only low-cost monitoring systems principally based on light emitting diodes and photodiodes. The sensor principle itself is very elemental when based on coupling between fibres, and coupling based intensity modulated sensors have been utilised over a long period of time, mainly within displacement and vibration sensing. For distributed sensing based on intensity modulation, optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) systems with customised sensor cables have been used in the detection of heat, water leakage and hydrocarbon fluid spills.

In this thesis, new concepts for intensity modulated fibre-optic sensors based on coupling between fibres are presented, analysed, simulated and experimentally verified. From a low-cost and standard component perspective, alternative designs are proposed and analysed using modulation function simulations and measurements, in order to find an improved performance. Further, the development and installation of a temperature sensor system for industrial process monitoring is presented, involving aspects with regards to design, calibration, multiplexing and fibre network installation. The OTDR is applied as an efficient technique for multiplexing several coupling based sensors, and sensor network installation with blown fibre in microducts is proposed as a flexible and cost-efficient alternative to traditional cabling.

As a solution to alignment issues in coupling based sensors, a new displacement sensor configuration based on a fibre to a multicore fibre coupling and an image sensor readout system is proposed. With this concept a high-performance sensor setup with relaxed alignment demands and a large measurement range is realised. The sensor system performance is analysed theoretically with complete system simulations, and an experimental setup is made based on standard fibre and image acquisition components. Simulations of possible error contributions show that the experimental performance limitation is mainly related to differences between the modelled and the real coupled power distribution. An improved power model is suggested and evaluated experimentally, showing that the experimental performance can be improved down towards the theoretical limit of 1 μm.

The potential of using filled side-hole fibres and polarisation analysis for point and distributed detection of temperature limits is investigated as a complement to existing fibre-optic heat detection systems. The behaviour and change in birefringence at the liquid/solid phase transition temperature for the filler substance is shown and experimentally determined for side-hole fibres filled with water solutions and a metal alloy, and the results are supported by simulations. A point sensor for on/off temperature detection based on this principle is suggested. Further the principles of distributed detection by measurements of the change in beat length are demonstrated using polarisation OTDR (POTDR) techniques. It is shown that high-resolution techniques are required for the fibres studied, and side-hole fibres designed with lower birefringence are suggested for future studies in relation to the distributed application.

Abstract [sv]

Fiberoptiska sensorer används för mätning av ett antal olika fysikaliska parametrar eller för händelsedetektering i larm- och säkerhetssystem. I miljöer med elektromagnetiska störningar, i andra besvärliga miljöer där elektronik inte fungerar samt i tillämpningar där distribuerade sensorer är att föredra, har fiberoptiska lösningar funnit naturliga applikationer. I vissa fall har de ersatt konventionella elektroniska sensorer på grund av bättre prestanda och tillförlitlighet, medan de i andra sammanhang har haft mindre framgång huvudsakligen på grund av den i många fall högre kostnaden för fiberoptiska sensorsystem.

Intensitetsmodulerade fiberoptiska sensorer kräver normalt endast billiga utläsningssystem huvudsakligen baserade på lysdioder och fotodioder. Principen för sådana sensorer baserade på koppling mellan fibrer är mycket enkel, och denna typ av sensorer har haft tillämpningar under en lång tid, främst inom mätning av positionsförändring och vibrationer. För distribuerade intensitetsmodulerade sensorer har system baserade på optisk tidsdomän-reflektometer (OTDR) och skräddarsydda sensorkablar funnit tillämpningar i detektion av värme/brand, vattenläckage och kolvätebaserade vätskor.

I denna avhandling presenteras, simuleras, testas och utvärderas praktiskt några nya koncept för kopplingsbaserade intensitetsmodulerade fiberoptiska sensorer. Från ett lågkostnads- och standardkomponentperspektiv föreslås och analyseras alternativa lösningar för förbättrad prestanda. Utveckling och installation av en temperatursensor för en industriell tillämpning, innehållande aspekter på sensormultiplexering och nätverksbyggande, behandlas. OTDR-teknik används som en effektiv metod för multiplexering av flera kopplingsbaserade sensorer, och installation av sensornätverk genom användning av blåsfiberteknik och mikrodukter föreslås som ett flexibelt och kostnadseffektivt alternativ till traditionell kabelinstallation.

Som en lösning på förekommande upplinjeringsproblem för kopplingsbaserade sensorer, föreslås en ny sensorkonfiguration baserad på koppling mellan en fiber och en multikärnefiber/fiberarray och med ett bildsensorsystem för detektering. Med detta koncept kan ett högpresterande, upplinjeringsfritt sensorsystem med ett stort mätområde åstadkommas. Sensorsystemets prestanda har analyserats teoretiskt med kompletta systemsimuleringar, och en experimentell uppställning baserad på standardfiber och en kamera av standardtyp har gjorts. Simuleringar av möjliga felbidrag visar att systemets experimentella prestanda främst begränsas av skillnader mellan den modellerade och den verkliga optiska effektfördelningen. En förbättrad modell för effektfördelningen föreslås och utvärderas experimentellt. Det visas att prestanda är möjlig att förbättra ner mot den teoretiska gräns på 1 μm som erhållits vid systemsimuleringar.

Möjligheterna att använda fyllda hålfibrer och polarisationskänslig mätning för detektering av temperaturgränser studeras i syfte att komplettera befintliga fiberoptiska värmedetektorsystem. Förändringen i fiberns dubbelbrytning vid övergångstemperaturen mellan vätske- och fast fas för ämnet i hålen visas och bestäms experimentellt för hålfibrer fyllda med vattenlösningar respektive en metallegering, och resultaten understöds också av simuleringar. En punktsensor för temperaturdetektering baserad på denna princip föreslås. Vidare visas principerna för distribuerad detektering genom registrering av förändringen i dubbelbrytning med polarisations-OTDR (POTDR). Det visas att OTDR-teknik med hög spatial upplösning behövs för övervakning av de studerade fibrerna, och hålfibrer utformade med lägre dubbelbrytning föreslås för framtida studier av tillämpningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013. , 183 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 156
Keyword [en]
optical fibre sensor, displacement measurement, temperature measurement, fibre coupling, intensity modulation, birefringence, polarisation, OTDR, side-hole fibre
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18964Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87103-95-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-18964DiVA: diva2:622083
Public defence
2013-06-12, Mittuniversitetet, sal O111, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-22 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modulation function study of coupling based intensity modulated fiber-optic sensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modulation function study of coupling based intensity modulated fiber-optic sensors
2006 (English)In: Technical Digest: SOFM 2006: A NIST Symposium for Photonic and Fiber Measurements, Washington, DC: NIST , 2006, 6-9 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The modulation function for fiber-optic sensors based on coupling between fiber ends is studied for different fiber types and fiber configurations, including multiple fiber passes. Sensitivity aspects are evaluated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that multiple passes in reality do not result in a significant sensitivity increase due to coupling losses related to fiber alignment and reflection loss.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: NIST, 2006
Series
NIST Special Publication, 1055
Keyword
Fiber-optics, sensor, intensity modulation, coupling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-5855 (URN)3768 (Local ID)3768 (Archive number)3768 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-16 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. Fiber-Optic Temperature Monitoring in Pulp Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fiber-Optic Temperature Monitoring in Pulp Production
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Transactions of the IWCS: Vol. 1, Eatontown, NJ: International Wire & Cable Symposium , 2008, 7-16 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A fiber-optic temperature sensor system for monitoring of the cooking process in pulp production has been developed. The sensor system is based on intensity modulation in mechanical fiber connections caused by the temperature dependent deflection of a bimetal strip. The sensor construction includes a fiber positioning device which eliminates the poor coupling efficiency otherwise experienced with coupling based sensors. An OTDR-based control unit monitors the changes in optical power at the sensor points, and the sensor network is realized with blown fiber. The total system is thus a very cost-effective solution. In this paper the development, testing, installation and operation of the sensor system is reported on, showing the system to be suitable for cooking process temperature monitoring.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eatontown, NJ: International Wire & Cable Symposium, 2008
Series
Transactions of the IWCS, ISSN 1941-4242 ; Vol. 1
Keyword
optical fiber, temperature, sensor, monitoring, pulp, paper, industrial
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11767 (URN)4205 (Local ID)4205 (Archive number)4205 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-11-13 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
3. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Performance of a Fiber-Optic Position Sensor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monte Carlo Simulation of the Performance of a Fiber-Optic Position Sensor
2006 (English)In: 18th International Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, Washington, DC: Optical Society of America , 2006, TuE48- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A numerical model for evaluation of a position sensor based on a single- to multicore fiber coupling and a real-time processing CMOS camera chip is presented, allowing design of sub-µm resolution, high dynamic range sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 2006
Keyword
Fiber-optics, position, sensor, image analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-3882 (URN)2-s2.0-84899130780 (Scopus ID)4204 (Local ID)1-55752-817-9 (ISBN)4204 (Archive number)4204 (OAI)
Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
4. Experimental Study of an Intensity Modulated Fiber-Optic Position Sensor with a Novel Readout System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Study of an Intensity Modulated Fiber-Optic Position Sensor with a Novel Readout System
2008 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 8, no 7, 1105-1113 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor, based on a fiber to bundle coupling and a readout system using a CMOS image camera together with fast routines for position extraction and calibration, is experimentally demonstrated. Further a simulation of the complete sensor system setup is made, and possible sources of error are analyzed experimentally. Our analysis indicates the theoretical limit of the system and identifies the causes of system errors. The results are encouraging for further development of the system setup.

Keyword
Image sensors, Intensity modulation, Optical fiber transducers, Optical position measurement.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-4485 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2008.926522 (DOI)000258526600010 ()5524 (Local ID)5524 (Archive number)5524 (OAI)
Note
VR-EcologyAvailable from: 2008-11-30 Created: 2008-11-13 Last updated: 2016-10-05Bibliographically approved
5. Robustness analysis of an intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor with an image sensor readout system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robustness analysis of an intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor with an image sensor readout system
2013 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 52, no 16, 3876-3883 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor, based on a fiber to bundle coupling and a readout system using a CMOS image camera together with fast routines for position extraction and calibration, is presented and analyzed. The proposed system eliminates alignment issues otherwise associated with coupling based fiber-optic sensors, still keeping the sensing point free from detector electronics. In this study the robustness of the system is characterized through simulations of the system performance, and the outcome is compared with experimental results. It is shown that knowledge of the shape of the coupled power distribution is the single most important factor for high performance of the system. Further it is experimentally shown that the position extraction error can be improved down to the theoretical limit by employing a modulation function model well fitted to the real coupled power distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2013
Keyword
fibre-optic sensors, position, displacement, image sensor, coupling, intensity modulation
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18957 (URN)10.1364/AO.52.003876 (DOI)000319807000032 ()2-s2.0-84878866430 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
6. Temperature characteristics of the birefringence properties of filled side-hole fibers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature characteristics of the birefringence properties of filled side-hole fibers
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 52, no 21, 5208-5215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The temperature characteristics of the birefringence of side-hole fibers filled with liquids or metal are investigated, aiming at providing a basis for on/off temperature sensing. Short pieces of fiber are filled and the change in birefringence is registered using measurements in reflective mode of the transmitted power through a linear polarizer at 1550 nm. The rapid change in the birefringence behavior of the fiber at the temperature of the phase transition of the filler substance is shown, and from the measurement data the phase transition temperatures can be determined as well as an estimation of the birefringence change with temperature. The experimental results are supported by numerical simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2013
Keyword
fibre-optics sensors, birefringence, polarisation, side-hole fibre, temperature
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18959 (URN)10.1364/AO.52.005208 (DOI)000322011600022 ()2-s2.0-84880820437 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved

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