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Local optical variations in paper: measurements and analysis
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2012. , 22 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 90
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18130ISBN: 978-91-87103-37-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-18130DiVA: diva2:582784
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2013-01-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Dependence between paper properties and spectral optical response of uncoated paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dependence between paper properties and spectral optical response of uncoated paper
2012 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 27, no 2, 440-444 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a method to describe, with good accuracy, the relation between variations in paper properties and variations of the spectral optical response of an uncoated paper. The dependence between density, filler content, grammage, and the spectral optical response is characterized by a multivariate model. The model is based on large-scale measurements data on a set of paper samples that have been produced with different values of grammage, density and filler content, representing the variations within a normal 80 g/m2 uncoated paper. From the optical measurements the light scattering (s) and light absorption (k) coefficients have been estimated according to the Kubelka-Munk theory.The results from this study will give valuable input to optical modeling activities, where the optical variations are predicted from measured small-scale variations in underlying paper properties.The variations in the paper properties can be used to model the light scattering coefficient, s, but there were too small variations in the light absorption coefficient, k, to find any significant dependence to the paper properties for the samples studied in this work. Furthermore, linear models give sufficient accuracy in the intervals studied. Additional findings from this study are the different effects of wet-pressing and calendering on the light scattering coefficient. 

Keyword
Filler content, Grammage, Light scattering, Optical, Paper properties, PLS, Spectral, Uncoated, Variations
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16977 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2012-27-02-p440-444 (DOI)000315696000037 ()2-s2.0-84865214846 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Local variations in optical properties of paper
Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-09-05 Last updated: 2013-04-03Bibliographically approved
2. Non-destructive high resolution measurements of spatial filler content distribution in paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-destructive high resolution measurements of spatial filler content distribution in paper
2013 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 28, no 1, 131-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a non-destructive method is presented that enables the measurement of filler content in paper with high spatial resolution. The method uses an X-ray fluorescence setup that enables high resolution measurements of calcium content in the paper, together with a beta radiography measurement method, to assess the local filler content in the paper. An image registration method is used to combine the two measurement maps, and a calibration polynomial is applied to the point-wise values in order to calculate the local filler content. The measurement methods show good accuracy. The grammage and the calcium content can be measured at a spatial resolution of 0.1 mm × 0.1 mm but the resolution for the filler content map was in this work chosen to 1 mm × 1 mm in order to minimize image registration errors. The method is illustrated using two paper samples, a laboratory paper and a commercial 80 g/m2 copy paper. From the methods used in this work, a difference is shown between the two paper samples in how the filler content distribution is related to the paper formation. With the help of image registration, point-wise measurements of filler content from both sides of the samples can be compared. The method can be used together with other high resolution measurements in order to analyze the simultaneous interrelation between different paper properties. The high resolution measurements of filler content will be particularly valuable for the analysis of the underlying causes to optical variations in paper and print.

Keyword
Filler content; Grammage; High resolution; Image registration; Paper properties; Point-wise; Spatial; Variations
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18128 (URN)10.3183/NPPRJ-2013-28-01-p131-136 (DOI)000321291500014 ()2-s2.0-84877255003 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2013-11-22Bibliographically approved
3. Prediction of optical variations in paper from high resolution measurements of paper properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of optical variations in paper from high resolution measurements of paper properties
2013 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 28, no 4, 596-601 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method to predict optical variations from high resolution measurementsof paper properties is evaluated in this work. The method combines thepoint-wise values of high resolution maps of filler content and grammagewith an empirical model derived in an earlier study to predict thespatial optical variations in paper.The method has been applied on two paper samples, a laboratory paper anda commercial 80 g/m(2) copy paper. The optical variations have beenpredicted at a scale of 1 mm(2). Validation has been made by using ahigh resolution spectrophotometric setup to measure the spatialreflectance variations in the paper. The results show that for thesamples used, the influence of filler content variations and densityvariations on the optical variations is small compared to influence ofthe grammage variations.

Keyword
Paper properties, Variations, Filler content, Spatial, Grammage, Uncoated, Image registration, High resolution, Point-wise
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-18129 (URN)000328642400015 ()2-s2.0-84891850741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2014-02-03Bibliographically approved

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