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SAS-TDMA: A Source Aware Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7278-3620
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. ABB Corp Res, Vasterås, Sweden.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9372-3416
2013 (English)In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 19, no 6, 1155-1170 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scheduling algorithms play an importantrole for TDMA-based wireless sensor networks. ExistingTDMA scheduling algorithms address a multitude of objectives.However, their adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wirelesssensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactorymanner. This is a key issue considering the challenges withinindustrial applications for wireless sensor networks, given thetime-constraints and harsh environments.In response to those challenges, we present SAS-TDMA, asource-aware scheduling algorithm. It is a cross-layer solutionwhich adapts itself to network dynamics. It realizes a tradeoffbetween scheduling length and its configurational overheadincurred by rapid responses to routes changes. We implementeda TDMA stack instead of the default CSMA stack and introduceda cross-layer for scheduling in TOSSIM, the TinyOS simulator.Numerical results show that SAS-TDMA improves the qualityof service for the entire network. It achieves significant improvementsfor realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks whencompared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim tominimize latency for real-time communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
US: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013. Vol. 19, no 6, 1155-1170 p.
Keyword [en]
Real-time communication, TDMA scheduling algorithms, wireless sensor networks, cross-layer protocol
National Category
Communication Systems Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17632DOI: 10.1007/s11276-012-0524-2ISI: 000321974700009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84880319804Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-17632DiVA: diva2:575568
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2012-12-11 Created: 2012-12-10 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Protocol Framework for Adaptive Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Protocol Framework for Adaptive Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has been regarded as an emerging technology that introduces a paradigm shift in a wide range of applications such as industrial automation, smart grid, home automation and so on. The automation industry has significant contributions to economic revenues, job opportunities and world-class research. The low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has brought new opportunity and challenges for industrial automation. The solutions of such wireless technology offer benefits in relation to lower cost and more flexible deployments/maintenances than the wired solutions, and new applications that are not possible with wired communication. However, these wireless solutions have been introducing new challenges. Wireless links are inherently unreliable, especially in industrial harsh environment, and wireless interference makes the problem even worse. Low-power consumption is required and real-time communication is generally crucial in industrial automation applications.

This research work addresses that industrial wireless sensor and actuator network (IWSAN) should even be designed to provide service differentiation for wireless medium access and adapt to link dynamics for scheduling algorithms on top of real-time services. Specifically, exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic in industrial automation applications could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Therefore, guaranteeing the timely delivery of the IWSAN critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g. non-critical monitoring traffic) is a significant topic. In addition, the state-of-the-art researches address a multitude of objectives for scheduling algorithms in IWSAN. However, the adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wireless sensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactory manner. This is a key issue considering the challenges within industrial applications, given the time-constraints and harsh environments.

In response to those challenges, a protocol framework for adaptive real-time communication in IWSAN is proposed. It mainly consists of a priority-based medium access protocol (MAC) and its extension for routing critical traffic, a hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic, and adaptive scheduling algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, the priority-based MAC solution is the first priority-enhanced MAC protocol compatible with industrial standards for IWSAN. The proposed solutions have been implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a test-bed of Telosb motes and the TOSSIM network simulator. The experimental results indicate that the proposed priority-based solutions are able to efficiently handle different traffic categories and achieve a significant improvement in the delivery latency. The hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic increases the throughput and reduces the delay compared to the current industrial standards. Numerical results show that the adaptive scheduling algorithms improve the quality of service for the entire network. They achieve significant improvements for realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks when compared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim to minimize latency for real-time communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Kopieringen Mittuniversitetet, 2014. 199 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 178
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22110 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87557-31-6 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2014-03-06, L111, Sundsvall, 13:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-12 Created: 2014-06-06 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved

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