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A Different Approach of Determining the Responsivity of n+p Detectors Using Scanning Electron Microscopy
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
2012 (English)In: Journal of semiconductors, ISSN 1674-4926, Vol. 33, no 7, 074002- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores an alternative to the standard method of studying the responsivities (the input—output gain) and other behaviours of detectors at low electron energy. The research does not aim to compare the results of differently doped n+p detectors; its purpose is to provide an alternative characterization method (using scanning electron microscopy) to those used in previous studies on the responsivity of n+p doped detectors as a function of the electron radiation energy and other interface parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 33, no 7, 074002- p.
Keyword [en]
Condensed matter: electrical, magnetic and optical, Electronics and devices, Semiconductors, Surfaces, interfaces and thin films, Optics, quantum optics and lasers
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17237DOI: 10.1088/1674-4926/33/7/074002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84864227940Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-17237DiVA: diva2:562570
Available from: 2012-10-25 Created: 2012-10-25 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Simulation, Measurement and Analysis of the Response of Electron- and Position Sensitive Detector
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation, Measurement and Analysis of the Response of Electron- and Position Sensitive Detector
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Different methods exist in relation to probing and investigating thephysical and structural composition of materials especially detectors whoseusage have become an integral part of radiation detection. The use of thescanning electron microscopy is just one of such exploratory methods. Thistechnique uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a varietyof signals at the surface of the device under investigationThis thesis presents the results derived from signals from electron beamsampleinteractions, revealing information about the different cleanroomfabricated electron detectors used. This information includes the detector’sexternal morphology and texture, surface recombination, fixed oxide chargeand the behavioral characteristic in the form of its position detection accuracyand linearity.An electron detector with a high ionization factor and which has a 10nmSilicon Oxide passivating layer was fabricated. Results from using the scanningelectron microscopy showed that its maximum responsivity wasapproximately 0.25 A/W from a possible 0.27 A/W. In conjunction withsimulations, results also showed the significance of the effect of the minoritycarrier's surface recombination velocity on the responsivity of the detectors.In addition, measurements were conducted to ascertain the performancevariance of these electron detectors with respect to their surfacerecombination velocity and fixed oxide charge when the doping profile isaltered.By incorporating special features on a fabricated duo-lateral positionsensitive detector (PSD), a position sensing resolution of the PSD using theelectron microscopic method was also evaluated. The evaluation showed avery high linearity over two-dimensions for 77% of the PSD’s active area.The results in this thesis offer a significant improvement in electrondetectors for applications such as gas chromatography detection of traceamounts of chemical compounds in a sample as well as applications involvingposition sensitive detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2012. 65 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 91
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17239 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87103-38-4 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-25 Created: 2012-10-25 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of interface states & radiation damage effects in duo-lateral PSDs: Using SEM microscopy and UV beam profiling techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of interface states & radiation damage effects in duo-lateral PSDs: Using SEM microscopy and UV beam profiling techniques
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There has been an increase in the use of duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors inpractically every radiation and beam detection application. These devices unlike other light detection system utilize the effect of the lateral division of the generated photocurrent to measure the position of the integral focus of an incoming lightsignal. The performance of a PSD is impaired or strengthened by a number of events caused by parameters such as interface states and recombination introduced during the fabrication of the detector and/or its absorption of ionizing particles. This thesis show the results from the successful implementation of alternative characterization methods of these effects and parameters using scanning electronmicroscopy and UV beam profiling techniques on duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors (LPSDs). To help create the groundwork for the research content of this thesis, different technical reviews of previous studies on interface states, surface recombination velocity and radiation damage due to continuous absorption of ionizing irradiation on detectors are investigated. The thesis also examines published theoretical and measurement techniques used to characterize these surface/interface phenomena. The PSDs used in this research were developed using silicon technology and the various methodologies put into the fabrication of the detectors (n+p and p+n structures) were fashioned after the simulated models. The various steps associated with the clean room fabrication and the prior simulation steps are highlighted in the content of the thesis. Also discussed are the measurement techniques used incharacterizing the fixed oxide charge, surface recombination and the position deviation error of the LPSDs in a high vacuum environment of a scanning electron microscope SEM chamber. Using this method, the effects of interface states and surface recombination velocity on the responsivity of differently doped LPSDs were investigated. By lithographically patterning grid‐like structures used as scaleon n+p doped LPSD and using sweeping electrons from the SEM microscope, a very high linearity over the two‐dimensions of the LPSD total active area was observed. An improved responsivity for low energetic electrons was also achievedby the introduced n+p structure. The lithographically patterned grids helped eliminate further external measurement errors and uncertainties from the use of other typical movable measurement devices such as actuators and two dimensional adjusters which would normally be difficult to install in a remote vacuum chamber. In a similar vein, field plate and field rings were patterned around an array ofthe PSDs used as pixel detector(s). By studying the interpixel resistance and breakdown characteristics, the most effective structural arrangement of the field plate and field rings used to curb induced inversion channel between the n+ doped regions of the pixel‐detector is observed. By using UV beam profiling after the irradiation of UV (193 nm or 253 nm) beam on n+p and p+n doped PSDs, the degree of radiation damage was also investigated. The results obtained help to illustrate how prolonged UV radiation can impact on the linearity and the position deviation/error of UV detectors. The results in this thesis are most relevant in spectroscopic and microscopic applications where low energy electrons and medium UV (MUV) radiation are used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 88 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 195
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22221 (URN)STC (Local ID)978-91-87557-71-2 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Public defence
2014-06-17, 10:30 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-19 Last updated: 2017-03-06Bibliographically approved

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Esebamen, Omeime XerviarThungström, GöranNilsson, Hans-Erik
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