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Modelling and optimization of sky surveillance visual sensor network
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A Visual Sensor Network (VSN) is a distributed system of a largenumber of camera sensor nodes. The main components of a camera sensornode are image sensor, embedded processor, wireless transceiver and energysupply. The major difference between a VSN and an ordinary sensor networkis that a VSN generates two dimensional data in the form of an image, whichcan be exploited in many useful applications. Some of the potentialapplication examples of VSNs include environment monitoring, surveillance,structural monitoring, traffic monitoring, and industrial automation.However, the VSNs also raise new challenges. They generate large amount ofdata which require higher processing powers, large bandwidth requirementsand more energy resources but the main constraint is that the VSN nodes arelimited in these resources.This research focuses on the development of a VSN model to track thelarge birds such as Golden Eagle in the sky. The model explores a number ofcamera sensors along with optics such as lens of suitable focal length whichensures a minimum required resolution of a bird, flying at the highestaltitude. The combination of a camera sensor and a lens formulate amonitoring node. The camera node model is used to optimize the placementof the nodes for full coverage of a given area above a required lower altitude.The model also presents the solution to minimize the cost (number of sensornodes) to fully cover a given area between the two required extremes, higherand lower altitudes, in terms of camera sensor, lens focal length, camera nodeplacement and actual number of nodes for sky surveillance.The area covered by a VSN can be increased by increasing the highermonitoring altitude and/or decreasing the lower monitoring altitude.However, it also increases the cost of the VSN. The desirable objective is toincrease the covered area but decrease the cost. This objective is achieved byusing optimization techniques to design a heterogeneous VSN. The core ideais to divide a given monitoring range of altitudes into a number of sub-rangesof altitudes. The sub-ranges of monitoring altitudes are covered by individualsub VSNs, the VSN1 covers the lower sub-range of altitudes, the VSN2 coversthe next higher sub-range of altitudes and so on, such that a minimum cost isused to monitor a given area.To verify the concepts, developed to design the VSN model, and theoptimization techniques to decrease the VSN cost, the measurements areperformed with actual cameras and optics. The laptop machines are used withthe camera nodes as data storage and analysis platforms. The area coverage ismeasured at the desired lower altitude limits of homogeneous as well asheterogeneous VSNs and verified for 100% coverage. Similarly, the minimumresolution is measured at the desired higher altitude limits of homogeneous aswell as heterogeneous VSNs to ensure that the models are able to track thebird at these highest altitudes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2012.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 86
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17123Local ID: STCISBN: 978-91-87103-25-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-17123DiVA: diva2:558156
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Model and placement optimization of a sky surveillance visual sensor network
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2011 (English)In: Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, BWCCA 2011, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, 357-362 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Visual Sensor Networks (VSNs) are networks which generate two dimensional data. The major difference between VSN and ordinary sensor network is the large amount of data. In VSN, a large number of camera nodes form a distributed system which can be deployed in many potential applications. In this paper we present a model of the physical parameters of a visual sensor network to track large birds, such as Golden Eagle, in the sky. The developed model is used to optimize the placement of the camera nodes in the VSN. A camera node is modeled as a function of its field of view, which is derived by the combination of the lens focal length and camera sensor. From the field of view and resolution of the sensor, a model for full coverage between two altitude limits has been developed. We show that the model can be used to minimize the number of sensor nodes for any given camera sensor, by exploring the focal lengths that both give full coverage and meet the minimum object size requirement. For the case of large bird surveillance we achieve 100% coverage for relevant altitudes using 20 camera nodes per km2 for the investigated camera sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2011
Keyword
sensor networks, coverage, camera placement, surveillance, deployment optimization
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15663 (URN)10.1109/BWCCA.2011.56 (DOI)2-s2.0-84855849512 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-1-4577-1455-9 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
6th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, BWCCA-2011;Barcelona, Catalonia;26 October 2011through28 October 2011;Category numberE4532;Code88069
Available from: 2012-01-05 Created: 2012-01-05 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network
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2012 (English)In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Belgium: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, Art. no. 84370U- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Visual Sensor Network (VSN) is a network of spatially distributed cameras. The primary difference between VSN and other type of sensor network is the nature and volume of information. A VSN generally consists of cameras, communication, storage and central computer, where image data from multiple cameras is processed and fused. In this paper, we use optimization techniques to reduce the cost as derived by a model of a VSN to track large birds, such as Golden Eagle, in the sky. The core idea is to divide a given monitoring range of altitudes into a number of sub-ranges of altitudes. The sub-ranges of altitudes are monitored by individual VSNs, VSN1 monitors lower range, VSN2 monitors next higher and so on, such that a minimum cost is used to monitor a given area. The VSNs may use similar or different types of cameras but different optical components, thus, forming a heterogeneous network.  We have calculated the cost required to cover a given area by considering an altitudes range as single element and also by dividing it into sub-ranges. To cover a given area with given altitudes range, with a single VSN requires 694 camera nodes in comparison to dividing this range into sub-ranges of altitudes, which requires only 96 nodes, which is 86% reduction in the cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Belgium: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 8437
Keyword
camera sensor networks, coverage, camera placement, surveillance, deployment optimization
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-15669 (URN)10.1117/12.924344 (DOI)000305693900024 ()2-s2.0-84861946894 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)978-0-8194-9129-9 (ISBN)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Conference
Real-Time Image and Video Processing 2012;Brussels;19 April 2012through19 April 2012;Code90041
Available from: 2012-01-05 Created: 2012-01-05 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
3. Model, placement optimization and verification of a sky surveillance visual sensor network
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing (IJSSC), ISSN 2044-4893, E-ISSN 2044-4907, Vol. 3, no 3, 125-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A visual sensor network (VSN) is a distributed system of a large number of camera nodes, which generates two dimensional data. This paper presents a model of a VSN to track large birds, such as golden eagle, in the sky. The model optimises the placement of camera nodes in VSN. A camera node is modelled as a function of lens focal length and camera sensor. The VSN provides full coverage between two altitude limits. The model can be used to minimise the number of sensor nodes for any given camera sensor, by exploring the focal lengths that fulfils both the full coverage and minimum object size requirement. For the case of large bird surveillance, 100% coverage is achieved for relevant altitudes using 20 camera nodes per km² for the investigated camera sensors. A real VSN is designed and measurements of VSN parameters are performed. The results obtained verify the VSN model.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17118 (URN)10.1504/IJSSC.2013.056380 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2017-05-04Bibliographically approved
4. Modeling and Verification of a Heterogeneous Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Verification of a Heterogeneous Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Art. id. 490489- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A visual sensor network (VSN) is a distributed system of a large number of camera nodes and has useful applications in many areas. The primary difference between a VSN and an ordinary scalar sensor network is the nature and volume of the information. In contrast to scalar sensor networks, a VSN generates two-dimensional data in the form of images. In this paper, we design a heterogeneous VSN to reduce the implementation cost required for the surveillance of a given area between two altitude limits. The VSN is designed by combining three sub-VSNs, which results in a heterogeneous VSN. Measurements are performed to verify full coverage and minimum achieved object image resolution at the lower and higher altitudes, respectively, for each sub-VSN. Verification of the sub-VSNs also verifies the full coverage of the heterogeneous VSN, between the given altitudes limits. Results show that the heterogeneous VSN is very effective to decrease the implementation cost required for the coverage of a given area. More than 70% decrease in cost is achieved by using a heterogeneous VSN to cover a given area, in comparison to homogeneous VSN. © 2013 Naeem Ahmad et al.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17121 (URN)10.1155/2013/490489 (DOI)000324191600001 ()2-s2.0-84884237155 (Scopus ID)STC (Local ID)STC (Archive number)STC (OAI)
Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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