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How Bullying Involvement is Associated with the Distribution of Parental Background and With Subjective Health Complaints Among Swedish Boys and Girls
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Studies of children´s and adolescents´ health and welfare)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5134-4338
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. (Studies of children´s and adolescents´health and welfare)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2148-8044
2013 (English)In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 3, 775-783 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyze how bullying involvement is associated with the distribution of parental background and with subjective health complaints (SHC) among Swedish boys and girls. Data were collected from the World Health Organization, Health Behavior in School-aged Children (WHO/HBSC) survey, measurement years 1997/1998, 2001/2002 and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 boys (50.6 %) and girls (49.4 %) in grades five, seven and nine participated in the study. The adolescents were categorized in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.1 %), mixed (10.5 %) and foreign(9.7 %). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC in the categories of bullying involvement. The frequencies of bullying involvement once or more were: none involved (74.8 %), victims (10.6 %), bullies (10.3 %) and bully/victims (4.4 %). Six out of ten involved in bullying were boys. Boys of foreign background were more involved as bullies compared to boys of mixed or Swedish background. Girls of foreign background were more involved in all three categories of bullying than girls of mixed or Swedish background. Increased risk of SHC was estimated among all adolescents involved in bullying, with highest OR in the category of bully/victims, OR 3.95 (CI 3.13–4.97) for the boys and OR 4.51 (CI 4.51–6.40) for the girls. The multivariate models were stable even after adjustment for socio-demographics. There are some associations between bullying involvement and parental background. Regardless of parental background, family affluence, family structure and gender, all adolescents involved in bullying are at increased risk of SHC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 111, no 3, 775-783 p.
Keyword [en]
Bullying involvement, FAS, Gender, HBSC, Parental background, SHC
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16933DOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0033-9ISI: 000316876900008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84875504474OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16933DiVA: diva2:548570
Available from: 2012-08-31 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2013-05-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Health and Social Determinants Among Boys and Girls in Sweden: Focusing on Parental Background
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health and Social Determinants Among Boys and Girls in Sweden: Focusing on Parental Background
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Hälsa och sociala bestämningsfaktorer bland flickor och pojkar i Sverige : med fokus på föräldrahärkomst
Abstract [en]

The majority of Swedish boys and girls have good psychosomatic health. Despite that the risk of mental health problems such as nervousness, feeling low and sleeping difficulties has increased steadily in recent decades. Moreover, previous surveys on health and well-being indicate that boys and girls of foreign extraction in Sweden are at increased risk of ill health compared to boys and girls of Swedish background.

 

The main aim of this thesis was to analyse health and social determinants among boys and girls of foreign extraction in Sweden. The factors explored in papers I–IV include parental background, family affluence and gender and their associations with subjective health complaints, psychosomatic problems or health risk behaviours. Other included risk factors for ill health were involvement in bullying, low participation and discrimination at school. This thesis takes an intersectional perspective, with ambitions to be able to emphasize the interplay between different power relations (i.e. gender, social class and parental background).

 

Two sets of cross-sectional data were used. Three papers were based on the Swedish part of the World Health Organization’s Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The sample consisted of 11,972 children (boys n = 6054; girls n = 5918) in grades five, seven and nine from the measurement years 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. The response rate varied between 85 and 90%. About one fifth of the included children were of foreign extraction. For the fourth paper regional data from Northern Sweden were used. Boys (n = 729) and girls (n = 798) in grades six to nine answered a questionnaire in 2011 and the response rate was 80%. About 14% of the included children were of foreign extraction. Statistical methods used were chi-square test, correlation analyses, logistic regression analyses, cluster analyses and test of mediating factor.

 

The results showed that girls of foreign background were at increased risk of subjective health complaints (SHC) and boys of mixed background were at increased risk of psychosomatic problems (PSP). Increased risk of allocation to the cluster profile of multiple risk behaviour was shown in boys and girls of mixed background, in girls of foreign background and in girls of low family affluence. Increased risk of allocation to the cluster profile of inadequate tooth brushing was shown in boys and girls of foreign background and in girls of low family affluence. General risk factors for increased risk of ill health for boys and girls in Sweden were: any form of bullying involvement, low family affluence, low participation and discrimination at school, of which the latter also was a mediating factor for ill health. Living with a single parent was a risk factor for ill health among girls.

 

The results can function as a basis for developing health promotion programmes at schools that focus on social consequences of foreign extraction, family affluence, participation as well as health risk behaviours and gender.

Abstract [sv]

Majoriteten av flickorna och pojkarna i Sverige har en god psykosomatisk hälsa. Trots det har risken för psykiska hälsosymptom såsom nervositet, att känna sig nere och sömnsvårigheter ökat successivt de senaste årtiondena. Dessutom indikerar tidigare forskning angående hälsa och välmående att flickor och pojkar med utländsk härkomst har ökad risk för ohälsa jämfört med flickor och pojkar med svensk härkomst.

 

Denna avhandlings huvudsyfte var att analysera hälsa och sociala bestämningsfaktorer bland flickor och pojkar i Sverige, med fokus på föräldrabakgrund. Artiklarnas (I–IV) syften inkluderar föräldrahärkomst, familjens materiella tillgångar och genus samt dess samband med subjektiva hälsobesvär, psykosomatiska problem eller hälsoriskbeteenden. Andra riskfaktorer för ohälsa som inkluderades var inblandning i mobbning, lågt deltagande och förekomst av diskriminering på skolan. Denna avhandling beaktar ett intersektionellt perspektiv med ambitionen att kunna tydliggöra samspelet mellan olika maktordningar (dvs. genus, social klass och föräldrabakgrund).

 

Två dataset från tvärsnittsstudier har använts. I de tre första artiklarna användes World Health Organization – Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children, som i Sverige heter Svenska skolbarns hälsovanor. Studiepopulationen bestod av 11 972 barn (flickor n = 5918; pojkar n = 6054) i årskurserna fem, sju och nio undersöknings år 1997/98, 2001/02 och 2005/06. Svarsfrekvensen var mellan 85 och 90 %. Ungefär en femtedel av barnen som deltog hade utländsk härkomst. I den fjärde artikeln användes regional data från norra Sverige. Flickor (n = 798) och pojkar (n = 729) i årskurserna sex till nio deltog i studien år 2011, svarsfrekvensen var 80 %. Omkring 14 % av barnen hade utländsk härkomst. De statistiska metoder som användes var sambandstest (chi-två), test av linjära samband så kallade korrelationsanalyser, logistisk regressionsanalys, klusteranalys och test av medierande faktor.

 

Resultaten visade att flickor med utländsk bakgrund hade ökad risk för subjektiva hälsobesvär (SHC) och pojkar av mixbakgrund hade ökad risk för psykosomatiska problem (PSP). Ökad risk för att hamna i klusterprofilen multipelt hälsoriskbeteende hade flickor och pojkar med mixbakgrund, flickor med utländsk bakgrund samt flickor i familjer med låg nivå av materiella tillgångar. Ökad risk för att hamna i klusterprofilen bristande tandborstning hade flickor och pojkar med utländsk bakgrund och flickor i familjer med låg nivå av materiella tillgångar. Generella riskfaktorer för ohälsa bland flickor och pojkar i Sverige var: alla former av inblandning i mobbning, låg nivå av materiella tillgångar i familjen, lågt deltagande och förekomst av diskriminering på skolan, vilken den senare även var en medierande faktor för ohälsa. Att leva med en ensamstående förälder var en riskfaktor för ohälsa bland flickor.

 

Avhandlingens resultat kan ligga till grund för utformande av hälsofrämjande interventioner inom elevhälsan, till exempel interventioner som fokuserar på sociala konsekvenser av utländsk härkomst, familjens materiella tillgångar, deltagande och diskriminering samt hälsoriskbeteenden och genus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Kopieringen Mittuniversitetet, 2012. 70 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 135
Keyword
bullying involvement, discrimination, foreign extraction, gender, WHO-HBSC, intersectional perspective, health risk behaviour, parental background, PSP, SHC, SCOS, socio-demography, mobbning, diskrimination, utländsk härkomst, genus, WHO-HBSC, intersektionalitetsperspektiv, hälsoriskbeteende, föräldrabakgrund, PSP, SHC, SCOS, sociodemografi
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17247 (URN)978-91-87103-39-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-23, M 108 Lubbesalen, Holmgatan 10, Campus Åkroken, Sundsvall, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2012-11-30Bibliographically approved

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