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Large variations in specific final energy use in Swedish apartment buildings: Causes and solutions
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
2012 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, Vol. 49, 276-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines possible causes for variations in specific final energy use in new apartment buildings. The analysis is based on case studies of 22 new apartment buildings that were constructed as part of the ’Stockholm program for environmentally adapted buildings’. The buildings in the study were chosen because they share similar construction characteristics and similar energy systems but display unexpected large variations in specific energy use. Three causes were found to contribute to variations in monitored specific final energy use in the studied apartment buildings: (1) the time interval between the completion of construction work and the actual energy measurements, (2) the shape factor of the building and (3) the relative size of the common area. In addition, the buildings that participated in the Stockholm program failed to achieve the requirements for the specific final energy use, to a large extent, because of expectations based on the simulated values. The simulated specific final energy use predicted by the energy simulations were on average 19% lower than the monitored values, giving the impression that the buildings would fulfill the program’s energy requirements. The reasons for the low simulated values were determined to be large uncertainties in the input data. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 49, 276-285 p.
Keyword [en]
Common area; Energy simulation; Shape factor; Specific final energy use
National Category
Construction Management Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16717DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.02.015ISI: 000305875500030Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84861823253OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16717DiVA: diva2:546056
Available from: 2012-08-22 Created: 2012-08-17 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 46 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 105
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-21933 (URN)978-91-87557-10-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-05-05, Q 221, Akademigatan 1, Östersund, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2014-05-13 Last updated: 2014-07-25Bibliographically approved
2. Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Mittuniversitetet, 2016. 62 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 238
National Category
Energy Systems Architectural Engineering Building Technologies Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27175 (URN)978-91-88025-52-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-23, G1352, Östersund, 11:04 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2016-03-23Bibliographically approved

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