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Effect of Paper Properties on Electrical Conductivity and Pattern Definition for Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Ink
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. (DPC)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2340-2363
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. (DPC)
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of LOPE-C 2012, 2012, 115-119 p.Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work, electrical conductivity and print pattern definition isstudied for silver nanoparticle ink, printed on ten commerciallyavailable paper substrates. Interrelations and correlations betweenelectrical conductivity, print pattern definition and a set ofmeasured paper properties are analyzed with a multivariatestatistical method. The papers are characterized in terms ofabsorption rate, porosity, apparent surface energy, surfaceroughness and surface material content. The statistical analysisshows that electrical conductivity and print pattern definition arecorrelated. Conductivity and print definition are correlatedpositively with absorption rate and negatively with surfaceroughness. A model based on projection to latent structures (PLS) isbuilt from the measurement data, showing adequate values of modelfit and predictive ability. This suggests that the chosen propertiesand methods for surface characterization are relevant in estimatingoverall performance of inkjet-printed conductors on paper.Additionally, a qualitative examination of the nanoparticle layercharacteristic is conducted with SEM cross section microscopy.Some of the properties and mechanisms of importance to theconductivity of the printed conductors are highlighted, of whichsome are crucial for achieving conductivity. Physical characteristicsof a suitable paper surface should ideally include large absorptioncapability for the ink carrier, but most importantly, a characteristicpore size and surface roughness amplitude that are both smallcompared to the dry ink layer thickness. If these criteria are met,paper media can be a low cost, comparably high performancealternative for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. 115-119 p.
Keyword [en]
Inkjet, Nanoparticles, Sintering, printed electronics, paper, conductive inks, functional printing
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16589ISBN: 978-3-00-038122-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16589DiVA: diva2:537896
Conference
Large-area, Organic and Printed Electronics Convention (LOPE-C) 2012
Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-27 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A new manufacturing paradigm may lower the cost and environmental impact of existing products, as well as enable completely new products. Large scale, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics and other functionality has great potential. However, a commercial breakthrough depends on a lower consumption of materials and energy compared with competing alternatives, and that sufficiently high performance and reliability of the products can be maintained. The substrate constitutes a large part of the product, and therefore its cost and environmental sustainability are important. Electrically conducting thin films are required in many functional devices and applications. In demanding applications, metal films offer the highest conductivity.

 

In this thesis, paper substrates of various type and construction were characterized, and the characteristics were related to the performance of inkjet-printed metal patterns. Fast absorption of the ink carrier was beneficial for well-defined pattern geometry, as well as high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency, was detrimental to the pattern definition and conductivity. Porosity was another important factor, where the characteristic pore size was much more important than the total pore volume. Apparent surface energy was important for non-absorbing substrates, but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate. Applying thin polymer–based coatings on flexible non-porous films to provide a mechanism for ink solvent removal, improved the pattern definition significantly. Inkjet-printing of a ZnO-dispersion on uncoated paper provided a thin spot-coating, allowing conductivity of silver nanoparticle films. Conductive nanoparticle films could not form directly on the uncoated paper.

 

The resulting performance of printed metal patterns was highly dependent on a well adapted sintering methodology. Several sintering methods were examined in this thesis, including conventional oven sintering, electrical sintering, microwave sintering, chemical sintering and intense pulsed light sintering. Specially designed coated papers with modified chemical and physical properties, were utilized for chemical low-temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle inks. For intense pulsed light sintering and material conversion of patterns, custom equipment was designed and built. Using the equipment, inkjet-printed copper oxide patterns were processed into highly conducting copper patterns. Custom-designed papers with mesoporous coatings and porous precoatings improved the reliablility and performance of the reduction and sintering process.

 

 

 

 

The thesis aims to clarify how ink-substrate interactions and sintering methodology affect the performance and reliability of inkjet-printed nanoparticle patterns on flexible substrates. This improves the selection, adaptation, design and manufacturing of suitable substrates for inkjet-printed high conductivity patterns, such as circuit boards or RFID antennas.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 72 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 210
Keyword
inkjet printing, silver nanoparticles, paper, flexible substrates, sintering, printed electronics, IPL sintering, flash sintering, copper films, coatings, thin films, AgNP, conductive films, metal films
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Engineering Nano Technology Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23420 (URN)978-91-87557-98-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-18, Mediacenter, Digital Printing Center, Järnvägsgatan 3, Örnsköldsvik, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2015-03-13Bibliographically approved

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