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Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. (DPC)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2340-2363
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design. (DPC)
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3790-0729
2012 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, 731-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 259, 731-739 p.
Keyword [en]
printed electronics, inkjet printing, paper substrates, flexible substrates, nanoparticles, conductive inks
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16448DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.07.112ISI: 000310436900110Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84866051319Local ID: STCOAI: oai:DiVA.org:miun-16448DiVA: diva2:533770
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2016-10-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Coated Surfaces for Inkjet-Printed Conductors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coated Surfaces for Inkjet-Printed Conductors
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, a number of commercially available paper substrates of various types are characterized and their characteristics related to the performance of inkjet-printed conductors using silver nanoparticle ink. The evaluated performance variables are electrical conductivity as well as the minimum achievable conductor width and the edge raggedness. It is shown that quick absorption of the ink carrier is beneficial for achieving well defined conductor geometry and high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency is detrimental to print definition and conductivity. Porosity is another important factor, where the characteristic pore size is much more important than the total pore volume. A nearly ideal porous coating has large total pore volume but small characteristic pore size, preferably smaller than individual nanoparticles in the ink. Apparent surface energy is important for non-absorbing substrates but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate.Additionally, a concept for improving the geometric definition of inkjet-printed conductors on nonporous films has been demonstrated. By coating the films with polymer–based coatings to provide a means of ink solvent removal, minimum conductor width were reduced a factor 2 or more.Intimately connected to the end performance of printed conductors is a well adapted sintering methodology. A comparative evaluation of a number of selective sintering methods has been performed on paper substrates with different heat tolerance. Pulsed high-power white light was found to be a good compromise between conductivity performance, reliability and production adaptability.The purpose of the work conducted in this thesis is to increase the knowledge base in how surface characteristics of papers and flexible films affect performance of printed nanoparticle structures. This would improve selection, adaption of, or manufacturing of such substrates to suit printed high conductivity patterns such as printed antennas for packaging.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling har ett antal kommersiellt tillgängliga papper av olika typ karaktäriserats och deras egenskaper relaterats till prestandan på inkjet-tryckta elektriska ledare tryckta med silvernanopartikelbläck. De undersökta prestandavariablerna är elektrisk ledningsförmåga samt ledarnas minimala linjebredd och kantjämnhet. Det visas att en snabb absorption av bläckets lösningsmedel är gynnsam för både väldefinierad ledningsgeometri och elektrisk ledningsförmåga. Ytråhet med topografiska variationer med tillräckligt stor amplitud och spatiell frekvens korrelerar negativt med tryckdefinition och ledningsförmåga. Porositet är ytterligare en viktig faktor, där karaktäristisk porstorlek är avsevärt viktigare än total porvolym. Nära ideala egenskaper hos en porös bestrykning synes vara en mycket hög total porvolym men med små individuella porer, med fördel mindre än de minsta metallpartiklarna i bläcket. Ytenergi är mycket betydelsefull för icke-absorberande substrat men tappar nästan all sin betydelse för bestrykningar med snabb absorption.Ett koncept för att förbättra den geometriska definitionen på inkjet-tryckta ledare på icke-porösa flexibla filmer har visats. Genom att bestryka filmerna med vissa polymerbaserade material och därmed införa en mekanism för separering av lösningsmedel och partiklar så reducerades ledarnas minimibredd med en faktor 2 eller mer.Intimt förknippad med den slutliga elektriska prestandan på tryckta ledare är också en väl anpassad sintringsmetodik. En jämförande utvärdering av ett flertal selektiva sintringmetoder har genomförts på papper med olika värmetålighet. Pulsat vitt ljus med hög effekt bedömdes som en bra kompromiss mellan elektriska prestanda, tillförlitlighet och anpassningsbarhet för produktionsmiljö.Nyttan med arbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling är att öka kunskapsbasen för hur pappers och flexibla filmers ytegenskaper påverkar prestandan på inkjet-tryckta nanopartikelstrukturer. Detta möjliggör bättre urval, anpassning av, eller tillverkning av sådana substrat för att passa tryckta mönster med hög konduktivitet; som till exempel tryckta antenner på förpackningar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2012. ix, 28 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University licentiate thesis, ISSN 1652-8948 ; 84
Keyword
Inkjet, Nanoparticles, Paper, Flexible substrates, Sintering, Printed Electronics, Functional Printing
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-16449 (URN)978-91-87103-22-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2012-06-07, Mediacenter, Järnvägsgatan 3, Örnsköldsvik, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-06-14 Created: 2012-06-14 Last updated: 2012-10-31Bibliographically approved
2. Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A new manufacturing paradigm may lower the cost and environmental impact of existing products, as well as enable completely new products. Large scale, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics and other functionality has great potential. However, a commercial breakthrough depends on a lower consumption of materials and energy compared with competing alternatives, and that sufficiently high performance and reliability of the products can be maintained. The substrate constitutes a large part of the product, and therefore its cost and environmental sustainability are important. Electrically conducting thin films are required in many functional devices and applications. In demanding applications, metal films offer the highest conductivity.

 

In this thesis, paper substrates of various type and construction were characterized, and the characteristics were related to the performance of inkjet-printed metal patterns. Fast absorption of the ink carrier was beneficial for well-defined pattern geometry, as well as high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency, was detrimental to the pattern definition and conductivity. Porosity was another important factor, where the characteristic pore size was much more important than the total pore volume. Apparent surface energy was important for non-absorbing substrates, but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate. Applying thin polymer–based coatings on flexible non-porous films to provide a mechanism for ink solvent removal, improved the pattern definition significantly. Inkjet-printing of a ZnO-dispersion on uncoated paper provided a thin spot-coating, allowing conductivity of silver nanoparticle films. Conductive nanoparticle films could not form directly on the uncoated paper.

 

The resulting performance of printed metal patterns was highly dependent on a well adapted sintering methodology. Several sintering methods were examined in this thesis, including conventional oven sintering, electrical sintering, microwave sintering, chemical sintering and intense pulsed light sintering. Specially designed coated papers with modified chemical and physical properties, were utilized for chemical low-temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle inks. For intense pulsed light sintering and material conversion of patterns, custom equipment was designed and built. Using the equipment, inkjet-printed copper oxide patterns were processed into highly conducting copper patterns. Custom-designed papers with mesoporous coatings and porous precoatings improved the reliablility and performance of the reduction and sintering process.

 

 

 

 

The thesis aims to clarify how ink-substrate interactions and sintering methodology affect the performance and reliability of inkjet-printed nanoparticle patterns on flexible substrates. This improves the selection, adaptation, design and manufacturing of suitable substrates for inkjet-printed high conductivity patterns, such as circuit boards or RFID antennas.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2014. 72 p.
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 210
Keyword
inkjet printing, silver nanoparticles, paper, flexible substrates, sintering, printed electronics, IPL sintering, flash sintering, copper films, coatings, thin films, AgNP, conductive films, metal films
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Engineering Nano Technology Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-23420 (URN)978-91-87557-98-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-18, Mediacenter, Digital Printing Center, Järnvägsgatan 3, Örnsköldsvik, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-14 Created: 2014-11-13 Last updated: 2015-03-13Bibliographically approved

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